upabhaasha vigyaan

upabhaasha vigyaan ya boli vigyaan (Dialectology) bhaashaavijnyaaan ki ek hai shaakha jo boliyon ko bhaugolik vitran aur vyaakaran ki drushti se apne adhyayan ka lakshya banaati hai. bhaugolik vitran par vichaar karte hue saamaajik vargon, jaateeya staron, vyaavasaayik vaividhyon aur dhaarmik, saanskrutik visheshataaon ka bhi dhyaan rakha jaata hai.

in sab ke atirikt boli vigyaan ka ek lakshya aur bhi hai jise koshavijnyaaan (lexicology) ka ang maana jaata hai. ismein vibhinn boliyon ke shabdon ko dhvanyaatmak pratilekhan (Phonetic Transcription) mein sangruheet kar unki sanketaseema (Referent Range) spasht ki jaati hai.

bhaasha aur boli

bhaasha aur boli ke beech ki bhedakarekha "paraspar bodhagamyata" ke anusaar nirdhaarit ki jaati hai. is bodhagamyata ke chaar star hote hain -

(1) poorn bodhagamyata, (2) apoorn bodhagamyata, (3) aanshik bodhagamyata, (4) shoonya bodhagamyata

bodhagamyata ke inheen staron ke aadhaar par vyaktiboli, upaboli, boli tatha bhaasha ki pruthak kotiyaaain vargeekrut hoti hain. poorn bodhagamyata ek boli kshetr ke rahanevaale vyaktiyon ki praaya: samaan vaakpravrutti ka sanket deti hai.

varnanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ki aadhuniktam maanyata yeh hai ki pratyek vyakti ki vaakpravrutti poornataya samaan naheen hoti. kintu yeh asamaanata itni sthool naheen hoti ki ve ek doosare ki baat na samajh sakein. is prakaar vyaktigat vaakpravruttiyon ka samanvit roop vyaktiboli hai aur vyaktiboliyon ka samanvit roop upaboli tatha upaboliyon ka samanvit roop boli hai. isi prakaar boliyon ki samanvit ikaai bhaasha hai. uparyukt dhaarana se yeh spasht hai ki vyakti boli aur bhaasha ke beech bodhagamyata ke hi vividh star sakriya hote hain. bhaasha ke adhyayan mein adhiktar upaboli ke star tak vichaar kiya jaata hai kintu boli ke sandarbh mein vyaktiboliyon ka bhi mahatva hota hai. bhaasheeya star par vyaktiboli evam upaboli ka ek yugm hota hai aur boli tatha bhaasha ka doosra. jis prakaar boli aur bhaasha ya bhaashaaon ke seemaavarti kshetron mein roopavaishishtya hote hue bhi ek doosare ko samajhna saral hota hai, usi prakaar ya usase bhi adhik bodhagamyata boli ya upaboli ki seemaaon par hoti hai. seemaavarti kshetron mein pai jaanevaali aisi bodhagamyata ke kaaran hi bhaasha aur boli ya boli ya upaboli ke beech koi spasht vibhaajak rekha naheen kheenchi ja sakti.

ek bhaasheeya kshetr mein sthaaneeya bhedon ke adhyayan ko bloomafeeld ne boli bhoogol ka naam dete hue use tulanaatmak vidha ki upalabdhiyon ka poorak bhi kaha hai. boliyon ke adhyayan ko boli etalas ke roop mein prastut karna sarvaadhik prachalit hai. boli kshetr ke ye etalas maanachitron ke aise sankalan hain jinpar bhaasheeya roopavaishishtyon ko sthaaneeya vitran ke aadhaar par samaroop rekhaaon (Isoglosses) ke maadhyam se pradarshit kiya jaata hai. vistrut roopavaishishtyon ko in maanachitron par pradarshit naheen kiya ja sakta. keval bhedak roop hi pradarshit kiye jaate hain. iseeliye kitne hi log boli vyaakaran, boliyon ka seemaanirdhaaran, koshasankalan aur tulanaatmak, aitihaasik nishkarshon ko hi boli vigyaan ka saadhya maanate hain. etalason ko bhaasha bhoogol se sambaddh maankar use boli vigyaan se pruthak kar dete hain.

samaroop rekhaaon dvaara vibhkt kshetr teen hote hain :

(1) avashesh kshetr (Relic Area) aise kshetr jahaaain ke rahanevaale aarthik drushti se aviksit hote hain aur jahaaain ki bhaugolik sthiti aisi ho ki aasaani se pahuainch paana kathin ho, un kshetron mein praacheenatam roop mil sakte hain. doosare log in sthaanon ke roopon ko praaya: heya maanate hain.

(2) aakarshan kshetr (Focal Area) - in kshetron mein aarthik ya audyogik drushti se koi mahatvapoorn kendra hota hai. yahi kendra nae roopon ki udbhaavana ka srot hota hai. isliye samaroop rekhaaon ka jhukaav bhi keindraabhimukh hota hai.

(3) sankraman kshetr - aise kshetron mein roopon ka ekavidh prayog naheen milta. samaroop rekhaaeain ek doosare ko kaatati hui jaati hain ya unke beech ka antar adhik hota hai.

aakarshan kshetron ke baare mein yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki inke roop is kshetr mein bahut pehle se prachalit rahe honge aur unhonne apne pratidvandvi shabdon ko vyavahaar ki sthiti se nikaalkar poore kshetr par apna adhikaar jama liya hoga. avashesh kshetr ke roop sab se puraane maane jaate hain aur sankraman kshetravaale roop is baat ka sanket dete hain ki kisi vyavahaaragat puraane roop ke oopar kisi nae roop ko praathamikta mil rahi hai.

itihaas

boliyon ke aise adhyayan ka sootrapaat 19veen shati ke pehle charan mein shmelar se hua tha. 1873 mein skeet ne "english daayalektaulauji society" ki sthaapana ki aur etalas banaane ka bhi prayaas kiya. 1876 mein George beinkar ne 40 vaakyon ki prashnaavali ko poore jarman raajya ki 40,000 se bhi adhik sthaaneeya boliyon mein roopaantarit karaaya. 1896 se 1908 ke beech edamand edamaut ke sahayog se gilero ne France ka mahatvapoorn etalas prastut kiya. isi prakaar svaaviya aur Italy ke bhi etalas prakaashit hue. 1939-43 ke beech hans kuraith ke nirdeshan mein amareeka aur kainaada ke bhaasheeya etalas ki pehli kisht new England ke etalas ke roop mein prakaashit hui. idhar roos, cheen aur Japan mein bhi is tarah ke prayaas ho rahe hain. Bhaarat mein is shati ke pehle charan mein kiya gaya griyrsan ka bhaasha sarvekshan apni tarah ka akela prayaas hai.

inhein bhi dekhein