upabhaasha

upabhaasha (angreji: dialect, daayaalaikta​) kisi bhaasha ke aise vishesh roop ko bolte hain jise us bhaasha ke bolne vaale logon mein ek bhinn samudaaya prayog karta ho. aksar 'upabhaasha' kisi bhaasha ke kshetreeya prakaaron ko kaha jaata hai, masalan chhatteesagadhi, harayaanavi, maaravaadi, brajaboli aur khadeeboli hindi ki kuchh kshetreeya upabhaashaaeain hain.[1] lekin kabhi-kabhi kisi saamajik varg dvaara prayog hone waali bhaasha ki kism ko bhi 'upabhaasha' kah diya jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi upabhaasha ko boli bhi kehte hain, haalaanki yeh shabd maanak bhaashaaon ke liye bhi istemaal hota hai.[2]

anukram

upabhaasha pehchaan

koi upabhaasha apne vyaakaran, shabdaavali, lahaje aur uchchaaran se jaani jaati hai. udaaharan ke liye maanak hindi aur roohelakhand ki khadeeboli mein shabdon aur vyaakaran ka antar dikhta hai:

  • maanak hindi - chidiyon ko tang mat kar. daana chhaaainv mein daal dena. vah shaam ko naheen aaeaingi.
  • khadeeboli - chidiyon ku dik mati kare. daana chhaaain mein dhar deejeeyo. vo shaam ku na aane ki hain.

isi tarah saadhaaran punjabi bhaasha aur punjabi ki hindako upabhaasha mein antar dekhe ja sakte hain:[3]

  • hindi vaakya - hamaari maaain kahaaain hain? vah kisi kaam ke liye baahar gayi hain.
  • saadhaaran punjabi - saaddi maaain kitthe ai? O kisi kamm la​aai ba'r ga​aae ne.
  • hindako punjabi - assaaain di maaain kitthe A? O kisi kamme aaste baaar gayi deen.

maanak bhaasha aur upabhaasha ka antar

bhaashaavijnyaaan ka ek kathan hai ki 'fauj aur nausena waali upabhaasha ko bhaasha kehte hain' (a language is a dialect with an army and navy), yaani agar kisi upabhaasha ko bolne vaale apna raajya ya saamraajya banaane mein safal ho jaaeain to use ek 'maanak bhaasha' ka darja de dete hain aur us se sambandhit anya boliyon ko us maanak bhaasha ki upabhaasha kehne lagte hain.[4] isi prakriya se maanak hindi ek bhaasha maani jaati hai jabki brajabhaasha ek upabhaasha kahalaati hai. aksar kisi boli ko upabhaasha tab bulaaya jaata hai jab:

  • use bolne vaalon ka koi apna alag svashaasit raajya, praant ya desh na ho
  • usaka likhaai mein kam prayog ho aur usamein saahitya upalabdh na ho
  • saamaaj mein use bolne se pratishtha kam ho
  • usamein maanakeekaran kam ho aur use bolne vaale shabdon ke kai roop prayog karein

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study, Manisha Kulshreshtha, Ramkumar Mathur, pp. 16, Springer, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4614-1138-3, ... some popular dialects of Hindi, namely, Khariboli, Bundeli, Kannauji, and Haryanvi among the western Hindi belt, Chattisgarhi from eastern Hindi dialectal group, Marwari from Rajasthani group, and Bhojpuri from Bihari group ...
  2. Upendranath Ashk: A Critical Biography, Daisy Rockwell, pp. 78, Katha, 2004, ISBN 978-81-89020-02-6, ... Those languages, such as Braj Bhasha and Awadhi, do not actually qualify to be defined as bolis in their literary form, but the double meaning of Boli as both 'dialect' and 'spoken language,' makes it possible to blur distinctions ...
  3. The Phonology of the Verbal Phrase in Hindko, Elahi Bakhsh Akhtar Awan, Idara Farogh-e-Hindko, 1994
  4. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Ronald Wardhaugh, pp. 28, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4051-8668-1, ... A language has more power than any of its dialects. It is the powerful dialect but it has become so because of non-linguistic factors. 'A language is a dialect with an army and a navy' is a well-known observation ...