umar

umar ibn al-khattaab
satya aur asatya mein frk karne wala (al-faarook); ameerul moomineen [1]
raashidoon khaleefa mein se ek khaleefa
shaasanakaal 23 August 634 CE – 3 November 644 CE
poorvaadhikaari Abu bakar
uttaraadhikaari usamaan bin affaan
jeevanasaathi
  • jainab bint majoon
  • kuraiba bint abi umayya al makhjoomi
  • umm hakeem bint al-haaris ibn hishaam
  • umm kulsum bint Ali[2][3]
  • aatika bint jaid ibn amr ibn nufail
santaane
  • abdulla ibn umar
  • abdurrahamaan ibn umar
  • ubaidulla ibn umar
  • jaid ibn umar
  • aasim ibn umar
  • iyaad ibn umar
  • hafsa bint umar
  • faatima bint umar
  • jainab bint umar
poora naam
umar ibn al-khattaab arabi: عaaمaaر بaaن اaaلaaخaaطaaاaaب
pita khattaab ibn nufail
maata hantama binte hishaam
janm c. 583 CE
makka, arebiya dveepakalp
mrutyu 3 November 644 CE (26 Dhul-Hijjah 23 AH)[4]
madeena, arebiya, raashidoon saamraajya
kabr masjid A nabavi, madeena

hajarat umar ibn al-khttaab (arabi mein عaaمaaر بaaن اaaلaaخaaطaaّaaاaaب), E. (586–590 – 644) muhammad saahab ke pramukh chaar sahaaba (saathiyon) mein se the. vah hajrat abu bakr ke baad musalmaanon ke doosare khaleefa chune gaye. muhammad saahab ne Faruk naam ki upaadhi di thi. jiska arth satya aur asatya mein fark karne wala. muhammad saahab ke anuyaaiyon mein inka rutaba hajrat Abu bakr ke baad aata hai. umar khulafa-A-raasheedeen mein doosare khleefa chune gaye. umar khulafa-A-raasheedeen mein sabse safal khleefa saabit hue. musalmaan inko Faruk-A-aazam tatha ameerul mumineen bhi kehte hain. yuropeeya lekhakon ne inke baare mein kai kitaabein likhi hain tatha umar mahaan (Umar The Great) ki upaadhi di hai. prasiddh lekhak Michael H. heart ne apni prasiddh pustak di handred The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, (sau duniya ke sabse prabhaavit karne vaale log) mein hajrat umar ko shaamil kiya hai.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

hajrat umar ka janm makka mein hua tha. ye kuraish khaanadaan se the. ajnyaaanata ke dinon mein hi likhna padhna seekh liya tha, jo ki us jmaane mein arab log likhna padhna bekaar ka kaam samajhte the. inka kd bahut ooncha, raubadaar chehara aur gatheela shareer tha. umar makka ke mashahoor pahalavaanon mein se ek the, jinka poore makka mein bada dabadaba tha. umar saalaana pahalavaani ke mukaabalon mein hissa lete the. aarambh mein hajrat umar islaam ke kattar shatru the. aur muhammad saahab ko jaan se maarana chaahate the. umar shuroo mein but parasti karte the.

islaam kbool karna

umar makka mein ek samrudgh parivaar se the, bahut bahaadur tatha diler vyakit the. umar musalmaanon ko pasand naheen karte the, na hi muhammad saahab ke mission ko. parantu paigambar muhammd saahab ek shaam kaabe ke paas jaakar Allah se duaa kiya ki Allah umar ko ya amr Abu jahal donon mein se jo tujhako priya ho hidaayat de. yeh duaa umar ke hak mein kbool hui. umar ek baar paigambar ke katl ke iraade se nikle the, raaste mein naim naam ka ek shakhs mila jisne umar ko bataaya ki unki bahan tatha unke pati islaam la chuke hain. umar gusse mein aakar bahan ke ghar chal diye. vah donon ghar par kuraaan padh rahe the. umar unase kuraaan maangane lage magar unahonne mana kar diya. umar krodhit hokar un donon ko maarane lage.

magar unki bahan ne kaha ham mar jaaenge lekin islaam naheen chhodeinge. bahan ke chehare se khoon tapakata dekhkar umar ko sharm aayi tatha glati ka ehsaas hua. kaha ki main kuraaan padhna chaahata hooain, isko apamaanit naheen karoonga vaayada kiya. jab umar ne kuraaan padha do bole yakeenan ye ishvar ki vaani hai kisi manushya ki rachana naheen ho sakti. ek chamatkaar ki tarah se umar kuraaan ke satya ko grahan kar liya tatha muhammad saahab se milne gaye. muhammad saahab ko bahut prasannata hui jab umar islaam mein daakhil ho gaye. musalmaanon khushi ki lahar daud gayi umar ke islaam laane par. umar ne elaan kiya ki ab sab milke namaaj kaabe mein padheinge jo ki pehle koi kalpana bhi naheen kar sakta tha. umar islaam ke shatroo the parantu ab vah islaam ke sarankshak ban gaye. umar ko islaam mein dekhkar muhammad saahab ke shatroovon mein koharaam mach gaya. ab islaam ko umar naam ki ek tej talavaar mil gayi thi jisse saara makka tharraata tha.

madeene ki hijrat (pravaas)

makka vaalon ne kamzor musalmaanon par sitm tej kar diye jisko dekhkar muhammad saahab ne Allah se duaa ki to Allah ne madeene jaane ka hukm diya. saare musalmaan chhupakar madeene ki taraf hijrat yaani pravaas karne lage. magar umar bade diler the apni talavaar li dhanush baan liya, kaaba ke paas pahuainch kar tavaaf kiya, do rakaat naamaaj padhi fir kaha "jo apni maaain ko apne par rulaana chaahata hai, apne bachchon ko anaath tatha apni patni ko vidhva banaana chaahata hai is jagah mile." kisi ka saahas naheen hua ki umar ko roke. umar ne eailaan karke hijrat ki.

madeene ki jindagi

hajrat umar ki talavaar

madeena islaam ka ek naya kendra ban chuka tha. san hijri isalaami kelandar ka nirmaan kiya jo islaam ka panchaang kahalaata hai. 624 E mein musalmaanon ko badr ki jang ladna pada jismein hajrat umar ne bhi aham kirdaar nibhaaya. badr ki jang mein musalmaanon ki fatah hui tatha makka ke musharikon ki haar hui. badr ki jang ke ek saal baad makka vaale ekajut ho kar madeene pe hamla karne aa gaye, jang uhud naamak pahaadi ke paas hui.

jang ke shuroo mein muslim sena bhaari padi lekin kuchh kaaranon vash muslimon ki haar hui. kuchh logon ne afavaah uda di ki muhammad saahab shaheed kar diye gaye to bahut se muslim ghabara gaye, umar ne bhi talavaar feink di tatha kehne lage ab jeena bekaar hai. kuchh derabaar pata chala ki ye ek afavaah hai to dubaara khade hue. iske baad khandak ki jang mein saath-saath rahe. umar ne muslim sena ka netratv kiya ant mein makka bhi fatah ho gaya. iske baad bhi kai jangon ka saamana karna pada, umar ne un sabhi jango mein netratav kiya.

muhammd saahab ki vafaat (mrutyu)

8 June san 632 ko muhammad saahab duniya ko alvida kah gaye. umar tatha kuchh log ye vishvaas hi na rakhate the ki muhammad saahab ki mutyu bhi ho sakti hai. ye khabar sunakar umar apne hosh kho baithe, apni talavaar nikaal li tatha jor-jor se kehne lage ki jisne kaha ki nabi ki maut ho gayi hai mai usaka sar tan se juda kar doonga. is naajuk mauke par tabhi hajrat Abu bakr ne musalmaanon ko ek khutaba arthaat bhaashan diya jo bahut mashahoor hai:

"jo bhi koi muhammd ki ibaadat karta tha vo jaan le ki vah hamaare beech naheen rahe, tatha jo Allah ki ibaadat karta hai ye jaan le ki Allah jinda hai kabhi marne wala naheen"

fir kuraaan ki aayat padh kar sunaai:

muhammad naheen hai sivaaya ek rasool ke, unase pehle bhi kai rasool aaye. agar unki mutyu ho jaaye ya shaheed ho jaaen to tum ehadiyon ke bal palat jaaoge?

hajrat abu bakr se sunakar tamaam log gash khaakar gir gaye, umar bhi apne ghutanon ke bal gir gaye tatha is bahut badein du:kh ko sveekaar kar liya.

ek khleefa ke roop mein niyukti

jab hajrat abu bakr ko laga ki unka vakt najdeek hai to unhonne agale khaleefa ke liye hajrat umar ko chuna. umar unki asaadhaaran ichha shakti, buddhi, raajaneetik chaalabaaji, nishpakshata, nyaaya aur gareebon aur vanchiton logon ke liye dekhbhaal ke liye achhi tarah se jaane jaate the. hajrat abu bakr ko poori tarah se umar ki shakti aur unako safal hone ki kshamata ke baare mein pata tha. umar ka uttaraadhikaar is prakaar ke roop mein doosaron ke kisi bhi roop mein pareshaani naheen tha. hajrat abu bakr ne apni mrutyu ke pehle hi hajrat usamaan ko apni vaseeyat likhvaai ki umar unke uttaraadhikaari honge. August, san 634 E mein hajrat abu bakr ki mrutyoo ho gayi. umar ab khleefa ho gaye tatha ek naye daur ki shuruvaat hui.

sandarbh

  1. ibn Sa'ad, 3/ 281
  2. Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Mir'at ul-Oqool. 21. pa॰ 199.
  3. Al-Tusi, Nasir Al-Din. Al-Mabsoot. 4. pa॰ 272.
  4. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Ahmad ibn Ali. Lisan Ul-Mizan: *Umar bin al-Khattab al-Adiyy.

baahari kadiyaan