ujjain

ujjain ka prasiddh mahaakaaleshvar mandir

ujjain Bhaarat ke madhya pradesh raajya ka ek pramukh shahar hai jo kshipra nadi ke kinaare basa hai. yeh ek atyant praacheen shahar hai. yeh vikramaaditya ke raajya ki rajdhani thi. ise kaalidaas ki nagari ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. yahaaain har 12 varsh par sinhasth Kumbh mela lagta hai. Bhagwan Shiv ke 12 jyotirlingon mein ek mahaakaal is nagari mein sthit hai. ujjain madhya pradesh ke sabse bade shahar indaur se 55 ki॰mee॰ par hai. ujjain ke praachin naam avantika, ujjayani, kanakashranga aadi hai. ujjain mandiro ki nagari hai. yaha kai teetha‍ sthal hai. iski janasankhya lagbhag 5.25 lakh hai.

anukram

itihaas

raajanaitik itihaas ujjain ka kaafi lamba raha hai. ujjain ke gadh kshetr se huyi khudaai mein aadyaitihaasik (protohistoric) evam praarambhik lohayugeen saamagri prachur maatra mein praapt hui hai. puraanon va mahaabhaarat mein ullekh aata hai ki vrushni-veer Krishna va balaraam yahaaain guru saandeepani ke aashram mein vidyaapraapt karne hetu aaye the. Krishna ki ek patni mitravrunda ujjain ki hi Rajkumari thi. uske do bhaai vind evam anuvind mahaabhaarat yuddh mein kauravon ki aur se yuddh karte hue veer gati ko praapt hue the. isa ki chhathi sadi mein ujjain mein ek atyant prataapi raaja hue jinka naam chand pradyot tha. Bhaarat ke anya shaasak usase bhaya khaate the. usaki duhita vaasavadatta evam vatsanaresh udayan ki pranaya gaatha itihaas prasidd haiv pradyot vansh ke uparaant ujjain magadh saamraajya ka ang ban gaya.

mahaakavi kaalidaas ujjayini ke itihaas prasidhd samraat vikramaaditya ke darbaar ke navaratnon mein se ek the. inko ujjayini atyant priya thi. iseeliye kaalidaas ne ujjayini ka atyant hi sundar varnan kiya hai. samraat vikramaaditya hi mahaakavi kaalidaas ke vaastavik aashrayadaata ke roop mein prakhyaat hai.

mahaakavi kaalidaas ki maalava ke prati gahari aastha thi. ujjayini mein hi unhonne atyadhik pravaas-kaal vyateet kiya aur yaheenpar kaalidaas ne ujjayini ke praacheen evam gauravashaali vaibhav ko dekha. vaibhavashaali attaalikaaon, udayan, vaasavadatta ki pranaya gaatha, Bhagwan mahaakaal sandhyaakaaleen aarti tatha nrutya karti gaureeganaaon ke saat hi kshipra nadi ka pauraanik mahatva aadi sebhali bhaanti parichit hone ka avsar bhi praapt kiya hua jaan padata hai.

'meghadoot' mein mahaakavi kaalidaas ne ujjayii ka sundar varnan karte hue kaha hai ki jab svargeeya jeevon ko apne punyaksheen hone ki sthiti mein pruthvi par aana patrada. tab unhonne vichaar kiya ki ham apne saath svarg ka ek khand (tukatrada) bhi le chale. vahi svargakhand ujjayini hai. aage mahaakavi ne likha hai ki ujjayini Bhaarat ka vah pradesh hai jahaan ke vrudhdajanaitihaas prasidhd aadhipti raaja udayan ki pranaya gaatha kehne mein poorn daksh hai.

kaalidaas ke 'meghadoot' mein ujjayini ka vaibhav aaj bhale hi vilpt ho gaya ho parantu aaj bhi vishv mein ujjayini ka dhaarmik-pauraanik evam aitihaasik mahatva ke saat hi jyotiksh kshetr ka mahatva bhi prasidhdahai. ujjayini Bhaarat ki saat puraan prasidhd nagariyon mein pramukh sthaan rakhati hai. ujjayini mein prati baarah varshon mein sinhasth mahaaparv ka aayojan hota hai. is avsar par desh-videsh se karotradon shradhdaalu bhaktajan, saadhu-sant, mahaatma mahaamandaleshvar evam akhaatrada pramukh ujjayini mein kalpavaas kar moksh praapti ki mangal kaamna karte hain.

pramaanik itihaas

ujjayini ki aitihaasikta ka pramaan E.sana600 varsh poorv milta hai. tatkaaleen samay mein Bhaarat mein jo solah janapad the unamein avanti janapad bhi ek tha. avanti uttar evam dakshin in do bhaagon mein vibhkt hokar uttari bhaag ki rajdhani ujjain thi tatha dakshin bhaag ki rajdhani mahishmati thi. us samay chandrapradyot naamak samraat sinhaasanaarootradh the. pradyot ke vanshajon ka ujjain par isa ki teesari shataabdi tak prabhutv tha.

maurya saamraajya

maurya samraat chandragupt maurya yahaaain aae the . unke putr ashok yahaaain ke raajyapaal rahe the . unki ek bhaarya vedisa devi se unhein Mahendra aur sanghamitra jaisi santaan praapt hui jisne kaalaantar mein Sri Lanka mein bauddh dharm ka prachaar kiya tha. maurya saamraajya ke abhudaya hone par magadh samraat bindusaar ke putr ashok ujjayini ke samay niyukt hue. bindusaar ki mrutyoparaant ashok ne ujjayini ke shaasan ki baagdor apne haathon mein samhaali aur ujjayini ka sarvaangeen vikaas kiyaan samraat ashokake pashchaat ujjayini ne deergh kaal tak anek samraaton ka utaar chadhaav dekha.

maurya saamraajya ka patan

maurya saamraajya ke patan ke baad ujjain shakon aur saatavaahanon ki pratispardha ka kendra ban gaya. shakon ke pehle aakraman ko ujjain ke veer vikramaaditya ke netrutv mein yahaaain ki janta ne pratham sadi isa poorv vifal kar diya tha. kaalaantar mein videshi pashchimi shakon ne ujjain hast gat kar liya. chastaan va rudradaman is vansh ke prataapi va lok priya mahaakshatrap siddh hue.

gupt saamraajya

chauthi shataabdi E. mein gupton aur aulikron ne maalava se in shakon ki satta samaapt kar di. shakon aur gupton ke kaal mein is kshetr ka adviteeya aarthik evam audyogik vikaas hua. chhathi se dasveen sadi tak ujjain kalachuriyon, maitrakon, uttaragupton (Later Guptas) pushyabhootiyon, chaalukyon, raashtrakooton va pratihaaron ki raajanaitik va saineek spardha ka drushya dekhta raha.

saataveen shataabdi mein ujjain kannauj ke harshavardhan saamraajya mein vileen ho gaya. us kaal mein ujjain ka sarvaangeen vikaas bhi hota raha. san 648 E. mein harsh vardhan ki mrutyu ke pashchaat navi shataabdi tak ujjain paramaaron ke aadhiptya mein aaya jo gayaarahaveen shataabdi tak kaayam raha is kaal mein ujjain ki unnati hoti rahi. iske pashchaat ujjain chauhaan aur tomar raajapooton ke adhikaaron me aa gaya.

san 1000 se 1300 E. tak maalava paramaar-shakti dvaara shaasit raha. kaafi samay tak unki rajdhani ujjain rahi. is kaal mein seeyak dviteeya, munjadev, bhojadev, udayaaditya, naravarman jaise mahaan shaasakon ne saahitya, kala evam sanskruti ki abhootapoorv seva ki.

Delhi saltanat

Delhi ke das evam khilji sultaanon ke aakraman ke kaaran paramaar vansh ka patan ho gaya. san 1235 E. mein Delhi ka shamashuddeen iltamish vidisha vijay karke ujjain ki aur aaya yahaan us kroor shaasak ne ne ujjain ko na keval buri tarah loota apitu unke praacheen mandiron evam pavitra dhaarmik sthaanon ka vaibhav bhi nasht kiya. san 1406 mein maalava Delhi saltanat se mukt ho gaya aur usaki rajdhani maandoo se dhori, khilji va Afghan sulataan svatantr raajya karte rahe. mugl samraat Akbar ne jab maalava par kiya to ujjain ko praanteeya mukhyaalaya banaaya gaya. mugl baadshah Akbar, jahaaaingeer, shaahajahaaain va aurangajeb yahaaain aaye the.

maraathon ka adhikaar

san 1737 E. mein ujjain sindhiya vansh ke adhikaar mein aaya unka san 1880 E. tak ek chhatr raajya raha jismein ujjain ka sarvaangeen vikaas hota raha. sindhiya vansh ki rajdhani ujjain bani. raanoji sindhiya ne mahaakaaleshvar mandir ka jeernodhdaar karaaya. is vansh ke sansthaapak raanoji shinde ke mantri raamachandr shenavi ne vartamaan mahaakaal mandir ka nirmaan karavaaya. san 1810 mein sindhiya rajdhani gvaaliyr le jaai gayi kintu ujjain ka sanskrutik vikaas jaari raha. 1948 mein gvaaliyr raajya ka naveen madhya Bhaarat mein vilay ho gaya.

ujjayini mein aaj bhi anek dhaarmik pauraanik evam aitihaasik sthaan hain jinmein Bhagwan mahaakaaleshvar mandir, gopaal mandir, chaubees khanbha devi, chausath yoginiyaan, nagar kot ki raani, harasidhdimaan, gatradhakaalika, kaal bhairav, vikraant bhairav, mangalanaath, sidhdavat, boharo ka roja, bina neenv ki masjid, gaj lakshmi mandir, bruhaspati mandir, navagruh mandir, bhookhi maata, bhartruhari gufa, peeramachhandar naath samaadhi, kaaliya deh pailes, kothi mahal, ghantaaghar, jantar mantar mahal, chintaaman ganesh aadi pramukh hain.

aaj ka ujjain

ujjain ki vedhashaala

vartamaan ujjain nagar vindhyaparvatamaala ke sameep aur pavitra tatha aitihaasik kshipra nadi ke kinaare samudra tal se 1678 feet ki oonchaai par 23digree.50' uttar deshaansh aur 75digri .50' poorvi akshaansh par sthit hai. nagar ka taapamaan aur vaataavaran samasheetoshn hai. yahaan ki bhoomi upajaaoo hai. kaalajayi kavi kaalidaas aur mahaan rachanaakaar baanabhatt ne nagar ki khoobsoorti ko jaadui niroopati kiya hai. kaalidaas ne likha hai ki duniya ke saare ratn ujjain mein hain aur samudron ke paas sirf unka jal bacha hai. ujjain nagar aur anchal ki pramukh boli meethi maalavi boli hai. hindi bhi prayog mein hai.

ujjain itihaas ke anek parivrtanon ka saakshi hai. kshipra ke antar mein is paaramparik nagar ke utthaan-patan ki niraali aur suspasht anubhootiyaan ankit hai. kshipra ke ghaaton par jahaan praakrutik saundarya ki chhata bikhri padi hai, asankhya log aae aur gaye. rangon bhara kaartik mela ho ya jan-sankul sinhasth ya din ke nahaan, sab kuchh nagar ko teen aur se ghere kshipra ka aakarshan hai.

ujjain ke dakshin-poorvi sire se nagar mein pravesh kar kshipra ne yahaan ke har sthaan seapana antarang sambandh sthaapit kiya hai. yahaan triveni par navagruh mandir hai aur kuchh hi ganana mein vyast hai. paas ki sadak aapko chintaamani ganesh pahuncha degi. dhaara mutrad gayi to kya hua? ye jaane pahachaane kshipra ke ghaat hai, jo subah-subah mahaakaal aur harasidhdi mandiron ki chhaaya ka svaagat karte hai.

kshipra jab poor aati hai to gopaal mandir ki dehali chhoo leti hai. durgaadaas ki chhatri ke thode hi aage nadi ki dhaara nagar ke praacheen parisar ke aas-paas ghoom jaati hai. bhartruhari gufa, peer machhindar aur gadhakaalika ka kshetr paar kar nadi mangalanaath pahunchati hai. mangalanaath ka yeh mandir saandeepani aashram aur nikat hi Ram-janaardan mandir ke sundar drushyon ko nihaarata rahata hai. sidhdavat aur kaal bhairav ki or mutradakar kshipra kaaliyaadeh mahal ko gherate hui chupachaap ujjain se aage apni yaatra par badh jaati hai.

kavi hon ya sant, bhakt hon ya saadhu, paryatak hon ya kalaakaar, pag-pag par mandiron se bharpoor kshipra ke manoram tat sabhi ke liye samaan bhaav se preranaam ke aadhaar hai.

ujjayini nagari

aaj jo nagar ujjain naam se jaana jaata hai vah ateet mein avantika, ujjayini, vishaala, pratiklpa, kumudavati, svarnashrunga, amaraavati aadi anek naamon se abhihit raha. maanav sabhyata ke praarambh se yeh Bhaarat ke ek mahaan teerth-sthal ke roop mein viksit hua. punya salila kshipra ke daahine tat par base is nagar ko Bhaarat ki mokshadaayak saptapuriyon mein ek maana gaya hai.

paryatan

mahaakaaleshvar mandir

ujjain ke mahaakaaleshvar ki maanyata Bhaarat ke pramukh baarah jyotirlingon mein hai. mahaakaaleshvar mandir ka maahaatmya vibhinn puraanon mein vistrut roop se varnit hai. mahaakavi tulaseedaas se lekar sanskrut saahitya ke anek prasidhd kaviyon ne is mandir ka varnan kiya hai. lok maanas mein mahaakaal ki parampara anaadi hai. ujjain Bhaarat ki kaalaganana ka kendra bindu tha aur mahaakaal ujjain ke adhipti aadi Dave maane jaate hain.

itihaas ke pratyek yug mein-shung, kushaan, saat vaahan, gupt, parihaar tatha apekshaakrut aadhunik maraatha kaal mein is mandir ka nirantar jeernodhdaar hota raha hai. vartamaan mandir ka punarnirmaan raanoji sindhiya ke kaal mein maalava ke soobedaar raamachandr Baba shenavi dvaara karaaya gaya tha. vartamaan mein bhi jeernodhdaar evam suvidha vistaar ka kaarya hota raha hai. mahaakaaleshvar ki pratima dakshinmukhi hai. taantrik parampara mein prasidhd dakshin mukhi pooja ka mahatva baarah jyotirlingon mein keval mahaakaaleshvar ko hi praapt hai. onkaareshvar mein mandir ki oopari peeth par mahaakaal moorti keetarah is tarah mandir mein bhi onkaareshvar Shiv ki pratishtha hai. teesare khand mein naagachandreshvar ki pratima ke darshan keval naagapanchami ko hote hai. vikramaaditya aur bhoj ki mahaakaal pooja ke liye shaasakeeya sanadein mahaakaal mandir ko praapt hoti rahi hai. vartamaan mein yeh mandir mahaakaal mandir samiti ke tatvaavadhaan mein sanrakshit hai.

shri bade ganesh mandir

shri mahaakaaleshvar mandir ke nikat harasidhdi maarg par bade ganesh ki bhavya aur kalaapoorn moorti pratishthit hai. is moorti ka nirmaan pad mavibhooshan pan॰ sooryanaaraayan vyaas ke pita vikhyaat vidvaan sv. pan॰ Narayan ji vyaas ne kiya tha. mandir parisar mein saptadhaatu ki panchamukhi hanumaan pratima ke saath-saath navagrah mandir tatha Krishna yashoda aadi ki pratimaaen bhi viraajit hain.

mangalanaath mandir

puraanon ke anusaar ujjain nagari ko mangal ki janani kaha jaata hai. aise vyakti jinki kundali mein mangal bhaari rahata hai, ve apne anisht grahon ki shaanti ke liye yahaaain pooja-paath karavaane aate hain. yooain to desh mein mangal Bhagwan ke kai mandir hain, lekin ujjain inka janmasthaan hone ke kaaran yahaaain ki pooja ko khaas mahatva diya jaata hai. kaha jaata hai ki yeh mandir sadiyon puraana hai. sindhiya raajagharaane mein iska punarnirmaan karavaaya gaya tha. ujjain shahar ko Bhagwan mahaakaal ki nagari kaha jaata hai, isliye yahaaain mangalanaath Bhagwan ki shivroopi pratima ka poojan kiya jaata hai. har mangalvaar ke din is mandir mein shraddhaaluon ka taaainta laga rahata hai.

harasidhdi

ujjain nagar ke praacheen aur mahatvapoorn dhaarmik sthalon mein harasidhdi devi ka mandir pramukh hai. chintaaman ganesh mandir se thodi door aur roodrasaagar taalaab ke kinaare sthit is mandir mein samraat vikramaaditya dvaara harasidhdi devi ki pooja ki jaati thi. harasidhdi devi vaishnav sanpradaaya ki aaraadhya rahi. shivpuraan ke anusaar daksh yagya ke baad sati ki kohani yahaan giri thi.

kshipra ghaat

ujjain nagar ke dhaarmik svaroop mein kshipra nadi ke ghaaton ka pramukh sthaan hai. nadi ke daahine kinaare, jahaaain nagar sthit hai, par bane ye ghaat sthaanaarthiyon ke liye seedheebadhd hain. ghaaton par vibhinn devi-devataaon ke naye-puraane mandir bhi hai. kshipra ke in ghaaton ka gaurav sinhasth ke dauraan dekhte hi banta hai, jab laakhon-karodon shradhdaalu yahaan snaan karte hain.


gopaal mandir

gopaal mandir ujjain nagar ka doosra sabse bada mandir hai. yeh mandir nagar ke madhya vyastatam kshetr mein sthit hai. mandir ka nirmaan mahaaraaja daulataraav sindhiya ki mahaaraani baayaja baai ne san 1833 ke aaspaas karaaya tha. mandir mein Krishna (gopaal) pratima hai. mandir ke chaandi ke dwaar yahaan ka ek anya aakarshan hain.

gadhakaalika devi

gadhakaalika devi ka yeh mandir aaj ke ujjain nagar mein praacheen avantika nagari kshetr mein hai. kaalayaji kavi kaalidaas gadhakaalika devi ke upaasak the. is praacheen mandir ka samraat harshavardhan dvaara jeernodhdaar karaane ka ullaikh milta hai. gadh kaalika ke mandir mein maaain kaalika ke darshan ke liye roj hajaaron bhakton ki bheed jutati hai. taantrikon ki devi kaalika ke is chamatkaarik mandir ki praacheenata ke vishay mein koi naheen jaanta, fir bhi maana jaata hai ki iski sthaapana mahaabhaaratakaal mein hui thi, lekin moorti satayug ke kaal ki hai. baad mein is praacheen mandir ka jeernoddhaar samraat harshavardhan dvaara kiye jaane ka ullekh milta hai. stetakaal mein gvaaliyr ke mahaaraaja ne iska punarnirmaan karaaya.

bhartruhari gufa

bhartruhari ki gufa gyaarahaveen sadi ke ek mandir ka avashesh hai, jiska uttaravarti dor mein jeernodhdaar hota raha.

kaal bhairav

kaal bhairav mandir aaj ke ujjain nagar mein sthit praacheen avantika nagari ke kshetr mein sthit hai. yeh sthal Shiv ke upaasakon ke kaapaalik sampradaaya se sambandhit hai. mandir ke andar kaal bhairav ki vishaal pratima hai. kaha jaata hai ki is mandir ka nirmaan praacheen kaal mein raaja bhadrasen ne karaaya tha. puraanon mein varnit asht bhairav mein kaal bhairav ka sthal hai.

sinhasth kumbh

sinhasth ujjain ka mahaan snaan parv hai. baarah varshon ke antaraal se yeh parv tab manaaya jaata hai jab bruhaspati Singh raashi par sthit rahata hai. pavitra kshipra nadi mein punya snaan ki vidhiyaan chaitr maas ki poornima se praarambh hoti hain aur poore maas mein vaishaakh poornima ke antim snaan tak bhinn-bhinn tithiyon mein sampann hoti hai. ujjain ke mahaaparv ke liye paaramparik roop se das yog mahatvapoorn maane gaye hain.

desh bhar mein chaar sthaanon par kumbh ka aayojan kiya jaata hai. prayaag, Nasik, hariddhaar aur ujjain mein lagne vaale kumbh melon ke ujjain mein aayojit aastha ke is parv ko sinhasth ke naam se pukaara jaata hai. ujjain mein mesh raashi mein soorya aur Singh raashi mein guroo ke aane par yahaaain Mahakumbh mele ka aayojan kiya jaata hai, jise sihsth ke naam se deshbhar mein pukaara jaata hai. sinhasth aayojan ki ek praacheen parampara hai. iske aayojan ke sambandh mein anek kathaaeain prachalit hai.

amrut boonde chhalakane ke samay jin raashiyon mein soorya, chandr, guroo ki sthiti ke vishisht yog ke avsar rahate hain, vahaan Kumbh parv ka in raashiyon mein gruhon ke sanyog par aayojan hota hai. is amrut kalash ki raksha mein soorya, guroo aur chandrama ke vishesh prayatn rahe. isi kaaran inheen gruhon ki un vishisht sthitiyon mein Kumbh parv manaane ki parampara hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

inhein bhi dekhein