udyog

ek audyogik kshetr ka drushya

kisi vishesh kshetr mein bhaari maatra mein saamaan ka nirmaan/utpaadan ya vruhad roop se seva pradaan karne ke maanaveeya karm ko udyog (industry) kehte hain. udyogon ke kaaran gunavatta vaale utpaad saste daamon par praapt hote hai jisse logon ka rahan-sahan ke star mein sudhaar hota hai aur jeevan suvidhaajanak hota chala jaata hai.

audyogik kraanti ke parinaamasvaroop Europe evam uttari America mein naye-naye udyog-dhandhe aarambh hue. iske baad aadhunik audyogeekaran ne pair pasaarana arambh kiya. is kaal mein nayi-nayi takaneekein evam urja ke naye saadhanon ke aagaman ne udyogon ko jabardast badhaava diya.

udyogon ke do aham pahaloo hain:

1) bhaari maatra mein utpaadan (maus prodaksan) udyogon mein maanak design ke utpaad bhaari maatra mein utpann kiye jaate hain. iske liye svat:-chaalit masheenein evam assembly-line aadi ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

2) kaarya ka vibhaajan (divijn of lebar) udyogon mein design, utpaadan, maarkating, prabandhan aadi kaarya alag-alag logon ya samoohon dvaara kiye jaate hain jabki paramparaagat kaareegar dvaara nirmaan mein ek hi vyakti sab kuchh karta tha/hai. itna hi naheen, ek hi kaam (jaise utpaadan) ko chhote-chhote anek kaaryon mein baant diya jaata hai.

anukram

vargeekaran

audyogik aarthik kriyaakalaapon ko mukhyat: chaar vargon mein baanta ja sakta hai:

  • praathamik kshetr (primary sector)

ismein mukhyat: kachche maal ke nishkarshan (extraction) se sambandhit kriyaakalaap aate hain. jaise - khanan (maaining), krushi aadi

  • dvitiyk kshetr (sekendari sector)

ismein tel-shoshak kaarkhaane, nirmaan (mainyufaikcharing) se jude udyog aadi aate hain

  • trutiyk kshetr (tarshiyri sector)

ismein sevaayein jaise kaanoon, bank, svaasthya evam utpaadon ke vitran se sambandhit udyog aate hain.

  • chaturthak kshetr

yeh apekshaakrut naveen kshetr hai. ismein gyaan aadhaarit udyog aate hain. jaise anusandhaan, dijaaian evam vikaas (R&D); computer prograaman, jaivarasaayan aadi aate hain.

inke atirikt ek paanchava kshetr ka astitv bhi maana jaata hai jo bina laabh ke kaarya karne ka kshetr hai.

Colin Clark ka sector model (1950)

udyogon ke prakaar

  • kuteer udyog
  • sarkaari kshetr ke udyog
  • pablik trast udyog
  • ekal svaamitv vaalein udyog
  • futalooj udyog
  • paryatan udyog
  • film udyog
  • laghu udyog

vartamaan samay ke pramukh udyog hain-

  • khanan udyog / bhaari udyog
  • dhaatu udyog
  • loha evam ispaat udyog
  • haardaveyar udyog
  • machinery udyog
  • vaahan udyog
  • aaitomobaail risaayakaleeng ughog www.autorelife. com.
  • vaayu evam antariksh udyog
  • jalayaan nirmaan udyog
  • vidyut udyog
  • kaaryaalaya machine udyog
  • radio evam television upakaran udyog
  • prakaashiki, ghadi udyog
  • raasaayanik udyog
  • petrolium udyog
  • urvarak udyog
  • cement udyog
  • kaach udyog
  • plastic udyog
  • kaagaj udyog
  • dava udyog
  • pun: chakran udyog, kachara udyog
  • audyogik kaashth udyog
  • upabhokta saamaan/halke udyog
  • khaadya udyog
  • tambaakoo udyog
  • vastr udyog
  • furniture udyog
  • khlauna udyog
  • print udyog
  • computer udyog

udyogon ke aadhaar

  • kheti par aadhaarit
  • pashuon par aadhaarit
  • vano par aadhaarit
  • takaneek par aadhaarit

udyogon ke liye aavashyak suvidhaaen

  • majadoor
  • uchit jalavaayu
  • poojeen
  • shakti ke saadhan
  • baajaar ki niktata
  • kachchemaal ki niktata
  • parivhan
  • sarkaari sahaayata

vishv ke pramukh audyogik kshetr

  • Chicago
  • nyuinglend
  • hempashaayar
  • lankaashaayar
  • kujne bask
  • kelirfoniya- holeevud
  • keintuki

Bhaarat

udyog sthaapana ki siddhaant

  • vebar ka siddhaant (aaisodaapen)
  • growth pol ka siddhaant
  • Clark ka sector model
sakal ghareloo utpaad (Gross domestic product/GDP) hara - krushi, laal - udyog, neela - seva kshetr

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain