udyaan vigyaan

fool hi fool

udyaan vigyaan ya audyaaniki (angreji:Horticulture (haartiklchar)) mein fal, sabji tatha fool, sabhi ka ugaana sammilit hai. in paadapon ke ugaane ki kala ke antargat bahut si kriyaaeain aa jaati hain.

anukram

audyaaniki se sambandhit kriyaaeain

Man wearing protective equipment and spraying pesticides

prajanan

udyaanavijnyaaan mein sabse mahatva ka kaarya hai adhik se adhik sankhya mein manachaahi jaatiyon ke paadap ugaana. ugaane ki do vidhiyaaain hain-laingik (seksual) aur alaingik (aseksual).

laingik prajanan

beej dvaara fool tatha tarakaari ka utpaadan sabse saadhaaran vidhi hai. yeh laingik utpaadan ka udaaharan hai. falon ke pedon mein is vidhi se ugaae paudhon mein apne pita ki tulana mein bahudha kuchh na kuchh parivartan dekhne mein aata hai. isliye paadapon ki naveen samunnat jaatiyon ka utpaadan (kuchh gaun vidhiyon ko chhodkar) laingik vidhi dvaara hi sambhav hai.

paadapon ke ankurit hone par nimnalikhit ka prabhaav padta hai : beej, paani, upalabdh aakseejan, taap aur beej ki aayu tatha paripkvata.

ankuran ke sahaayak - adhikaansh beej uchit reeti se bone par badi saralata se ankurit hote hain, kintu kuchh aisi jaati ke beej hote hain jo bahut samay mein ugate hain. prayogon mein dekha gaya hai ki enajaaimon ke gholon mein beejon ko kai ghanton bhigon rakhane par adhik pratishat beej ankurit hote hain. kabhi-kabhi beej ke oopar ke kathor asthivt chhilkon ko naram karne tatha unke tvakhedan ke liye raasaayanik padaarthon (ksheen aml ya kshaar) ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. jhadbari (blackberry) ya raispaberi aadi ke beejon ke liye sirka bahut laabh pahuainchaata hai. salfyoorik aml, 50 pratishat athva saandr, kabhi-kabhi amarood ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. do teen se lekar bees minute tak beej aml mein bhigo diya jaata hai. sveet pi ke beej ko, jo sheegra naheen jamata, ardhasaandr salfyoorik aml mein 30 minute tak rakh sakte hain. yeh upachaar beej ke oopar ke kathor chhilke ko naram karne ke liye ya fatne mein sayahaayata pahuainchaane ke liye kiya jaata he. parantu pratyek dasha mein upachaar ke baad beej ko paani se bhali bhauti dho daalna aavashyak hai. jin beejon ke chhilke itne kathor hote hain ki saadhaaran reetiyon ka unapar koi prabhaav naheen padta unke liye yaantrik sahaayata leni chaahiye. bahudha retane, mutarane ya chhed karne ka bhi prayog (jaise baijanteeukaina mein) kiya jaata hai. boe jaane par beej santoshaprad reeti se ugein, is uddeshya ki poorti ke liye yeh jaanana aavashyak hai ki kis beej ko kis samay bona chaahiye. kuchh beejon ke ugane mein bahut samay ki aavashyakta hoti hai ya ve vishesh ritu mein ugate hain aur isse pehle ki ve ugana praarambh karein, log bahudha unhein nikmma samajh baithate hain. isse bachane ke liye hi baat naheen, apitu thoda-thoda karke kiston mein beej bona chaahiye.

alaingik ya vaanaspatik prajanan

paudha bechanevaali (narvareevaalon) tatha falon ki kheti karanevaalon ke liye vaanaspatik vidhiyon se prajanan bahut upayogi siddh hota hai, mukhya roop se isliye ki in vidhiyon se vruksh sada vaanchhit koti ke hi upalabdh hote hain. in vidhiyon ko teen vargon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai.

kartan

paadap ke hi kisi bhaag se, jese jad, gaaainth (rijom), kand, pattiyon ya tane se, aainkhue ke saath ya bina aainkhue ke hi, nae paadap ugaana kartan (cutting) lagaana kahalaata hai. ropane par in khandon mein se hi jadein nikal aati hain aur nae paadap utpann ho jaate hain. adhik se adhik paadapon ko ugaane ki praaya: yahi sabse sasti, sheegra aur saral vidhi hai. tahani ke kartan lagaane ko maali log "khainti gaadna" kehte hain. kuchh log ise "kalam lagaana" bhi kehte hain, parantu kalam shabd ka prayog usi sambandh mein uchit hai jismein ek paadap ka ang doosare ki jad par chadhaaya jaata hai.

daaba (leyarej) mein nae paadap tabhi jad feinkate hain jab ve apne mool vruksh se sambaddh rahate hain. is vidhi dvaara paadap prajanan ke teen prakaar hain : (1) sheersh daab (tip leyaring)-is prakaar mein kisi tahari ka sheersh swayam neeche ki or jhuk jaata hai aur bhoomi tak pahuainchane par usamein se jadein nikal aati hain. iske sabse sundar udaaharan respaberi aur loganaberi hain. (2) saral daab-iske liye tahani ko jhukaakar usapar aavashyakataanusaar mitti daal dete hain. is prakaar se anek jaati ke paadap badi saralata se ugaae ja sakte hain. kabhi-kabhi daalon ko bina bhoomi tak jhukaae hi unapar kisi jagah ek aadh ser mitti chheep di jaati hai aur use taat aadi se lapetakar rassi se baaaindh diya jaata hai. isko "gutti baaaindhana" kehte hain. mitti ko prati din seencha jaata hai. (3) mishr daab (kanpaaund leyaring) mein paadap ki pradhaan daali ko jhukaakar kai sthaanon par mitti daal dete hain, beech-beech mein thoda-thoda bhaag khula chhod dete hain. angoor ki tarah ki lataaon ke prajanan ke liye log isi dhang ko praaya: apnaate hain.

uparopan (graiftej)

ismein chadh kalam (graifting), bhed kalam (inaaching) aur chashma (bading) teenon sammilit hain. maali log chadh kalam aur bhet kalam donon ko saata kehte hain. in logon mein chashma ke liye chashma shabd faarasi chashm se nika hai, jiska arth aaainkh hai. in teenon reetiyon mein ek paudhe ka koi ang doosare paudhe ki jad par ugata hai. pehle ko uparopika (saayan) kehte hain; doosare ko mool vrunt (root stock). uparopan mein prayukt donon paudhon ko svasth hona chaahiye. kalam ki vidhi keval aise paadapon ke liye upayukt hoti hai jinmein oopari chhilkevaali part aur bheetari kaath ke beech ek spasht edhaastar (kainbiam leyar) hota hai, kyonki yeh vidhi uparopika aur mool vrunt ke edhaastaron ke abhinn hai. kalam lagaane ka kaarya vaise to kisi maheene mein kiya ja sakta hai, fir bhi yadi ritu anukool ho aur saath hi anya aavashyak paristhitiyaaain bhi anukool hon, to adhik safalta milne ki sambhaavana rahati hai. yeh aavashyak hai ki judnevaale ang chipkakar baithein. uparopika ka edhaastar mool vrunt ke edhaastar ko poorn roop se sparsh kare. vasant ritu ke praarambh mein yeh star adhiktam sakriya ho jaata hai, is ritu mein uske aainkhue badhne lagte hain aur kishlaya (nae patte) prasfutit hote hain. jin deshon mein garmi ke baad paavas (monsoon) se paani barasata hai vahaaain garmi ki shushk ritu ke baad barasaat aate hi kriyaasheelata ka dviteeya kaal aata hai. in donon rituon mein kshat sarvaadhik sheegra poorata hai tatha mool vrunt evam uparopika ka sanyog sarvaadhik nishchit hota hai. patajhad vaale paadapon mein kalam us samay lagaai jaati hai jab ve suptaavastha mein hote hai.

kalam lagaane ki vidhiyaaain

1. shirobandhan, 2. shir tatha jihvaabandhan; 3. paivand; 4. aaingootheenuma chashma; 5. uparopika bandhan; 6. kaathi kalam; 7. saadhaaran chashma.

1. shirobandhan (splaais ya hvip graifting) : yeh kalam lagaane ki sabse saral vidhi hai. is vidhi mein uparopika tatha moolavrunt ke liye ek hi vyaas ke tane chune jaate hain (praaya: 1/4inch se 1/2inch tak ke). fir donon ko ek hi prakaar se tirchha kaat diya jaata hai. kataan ki lanbaai lagbhag 1.5 inch rahati hai. fir donon ko drudhta se baaaindhakar oopar se mom chadha diya jaata hai. baaaindhane ke liye maali log kele ke ped ke tane se chhilke se 1/8 inch chaudi patti cheerakar kaam mein laate hain, parantu kachche (bina bate) soot se bhi kaam chal sakta hai.

chhaintaai (prooning)

iske antargat lata tatha tahaniyon ko aashray dene ki reeti aur unki kaat-chhaaaint donon hi aati hain. pehli baat ke sahaare paadapon ko ichhaanusaar roop diya ja sakta hai. aalankaarik paadapon ke liye chhaintaai karanevaale ki ichha ke anusaar shankvaakaar (gaavadum), chhatraakaar (chhatareenuma) aadi roop diya ja sakta hai aur kabhi-kabhi to unhein haathi, ghode aadi ka roop bhi de diya jaata hai, parantu falon ke vrukshon ko saadhaaranat: kalash ya pushpapaatr ka roop diya jaata hai aur keindreeya bhaag ko ghana naheen hone diya jaata. chhaintaai ka uddeshya yeh hota hai ki paadap ke praaya: anaavashyak bhaag nikaal diye jaaeain jisse bacha hua bhaag adhik utpaadan kar sake ya adhik sundar, pusht aur svasth ho jaae. kuchh foolon mein, jaise gulaab mein, jad aur tahaniyon ki chhaintaai isliye ki jaati hai ki adhik fool lagein. kuchh mein puraani lakdi isliye chhaaaint di jaati hai ki aisi nai tahaniyaaain jinpar fool lagte hain. chhaintaai mein durbal, rogagrast aur ghani tahaniyon ko chhaaaintakar nikaal diya jaata hai.

karshan

karshan (kaltiveshan) shabd ka prayog yahaaain par do bhinn karmon ke liye kiya gaya hai : ek to us chhichhli aur baar-baar ki jaanevaali godaai ya khurapiyaane ke liye jo ghaas paat maarane ke uddeshya se ki jaati hai aur doosare us gahari jotaai ke liye jo prati varsh isliye ki jaati hai ki bhoomi ke neeche ghaas paat tatha jadein aadi dab jaaeain. tarakaari aur fool ki kheti mein saadhaaranat: jotaai ki badi aavashyakta rahati hai. Bhaarat ki adhikaansh jagahon mein falon ke udyaan mein bhoomi par ghaas ugana vaanchhaneeya naheen hai aur isliye thodi bahut godaai aavashyak ho jaati hai. ismein koi sandeh naheen ki godaai ya khurapiyaane ka pradhaan uddeshya avaanchhit ghaas paat ka nirmoolan hai, isliye yeh tabhi karna chaahiye jab ve chhote hon aur unhonne apni jadein gahari na jama li hon. yeh karshan chhichhla hona chaahiye taaki tarakaari, fool ya falon ki jadon ko haani na pahuainche. shushk ritu mein pratyek sinchaai ke baad ek baar halka karshan aur niraana (veeding) achha hai. iske saath hi falon ki udyaanabhoomi ko, kam-se-kam garmi mein aur fir ek baar barasaat mein, palatanevaale hal se avashya jot dena chaahiye. jotaai kis samay ki jaae, yeh bhi kuchh mahatvapoorn hai. yadi adhik geeli bhoomi par jotaai ki jaae to avashya hi isse bhoomi ko haani pahuainch sakti hai. halki (baalukaamaya) mitti ki apeksha bhaari (chikni) mitti mein aisi haani adhik hoti hai. saadhaaranat: jotaai vahi achhi hoti hai jo paryaapt sookhi bhoomi par ki jaae, parantu bhoomi itni sookhi bhi na rahe ki bade-bade chippad ukhadne lagein. falon ke udyaan aur tarakaari ke kheton mein bina jote hi vishesh raasaayanik padaarthon ke chhidkaav se ghaas paat maar daalna bhi upayogi siddh hua hai.

antarkrushi

yadi paadapon ki paraspar doori theek hai to falon ke nae udyaan mein bahut si bhoomi aisi padi rahegi jo varshon tak falavaale vrukshon ke kaam mein na aaegi. is bhoomi mein sheegra utpann honevaale fal, jaise papeeta, ya koi tarakaari paida ki ja sakti hai.

sinchaai

bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke paadapon ko itni vibhinn maatraaon mein paani ki aavashyakta hoti hai ki inke liye koi vyaapak niyam naheen banaaya ja sakta. kitna paani diya jaae aur kab diya jaae, yeh is par nirbhar hai ki kaun-sa paudha hai aur ritu kya hai. gamale mein lage paudhon ko sookhi ritu mein prati din paani dena aavashyak hai. sabhi paadapon ke liye bhoomi ko nirantar nam rahana chaahiye jisse unki baadh na ruke. falon ke bhi samuchit vikaas ke liye nirantar paani ki aavashyakta rahati hai. yeh smaran rakhana chaahiye ki bhoomi mein nami maatra itni kam kabhi na ho ki paudhe murajha jaaeain aur fir panap na sakein. achhi sinchaai vahi hai jismein paani kam se kam maatra mein kharaab jaae. yeh kharaabi kai kaaranon se ho sakti hai : oopari satah par se paani ke bah jaane se, anaavashyak gaharaai tak ghus jaane se, oopari satah se bhaap bankar ud jaane se tatha ghaas-paat dvaara aavashyak paani khich jaane se. panktiyon mein lagi hui tarakaariyon ki bagal ko bagal ki naaliyon dvaara seenchana saral hai. chhote vruksh thaala banaakar seenche ja sakte hain. thaale is prakaar aayojit hon ki paadapon ke mool tak ki bhoomi sinch jaae. jaise-jaise vruksh badhte jaaeain thaalon ke vrutt ko badhaate jaana chaahiye. bade se bade vrukshon ki sinchaai ke liye naaliyon ki paddhati hi kuchh parivrtit roop mein upayogi hoti hai.

buddhimttaapoorn sinchaai ke liye vrukshon tatha bhoomi ki sthiti par dhyaan rakhana param aavashyak hai. vishesh yantron se, jaise prasaaramaapi (teinsiomeetar) tatha jipsam parichaalak ishtikaaon (jipsam kandaktains block) ko bhoomi ke bheetar rakhakar, bhoomi ki aadrrata naapi ja sakti hai. bhoomi ki nami jaanane ke liye peinchadaar barma (ogar) ka bhi upayog ho sakta he. yadi khet mein ghaas paat ug rahe hon to unki dasha se bhi bhoomi ki nami ka anumaan kiya ja sakta hai.

khaad

paadapon ko uchit aahaar milna sabse mahatva ki baat hai. fal aur tarakaari anya fasalon ki apeksha bhoomi se adhik maatra mein aahaar grahan karte hain. falavaale vruksh tatha tarakaari ke paadapon ko anya paadapon ke sadrush hi apni vruddhi ke liye kai prakaar ke aahaar avayavon ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo saadhaaranat: paryaapt maatra mein upasthit rahate hain. parantu koi avayav paadap ko kitna mil sakega yeh kai baaton par nirbhar hai, jaise vah avayav mitti mein kis khanij ke roop mein vidyamaan hai, mitti ka kitna ansh kalil (kalaayad) ke roop mein hai, mitti mein aadrrata kitni hai aur usaki amlata (pi H) kitni hai. adhikaansh fasalon ke liye bhoomi mein naaitrojan, faasforas tatha potaisiym daalna upayogi paaya gaya hai, kyonki ye tatv vibhinn fasalon dvaara nyoonaadhik maatra mein nikal jaate hain. isliye yeh dekhna aavashyak hai ki bhoomi ke in tatvon ka santulan paudhon ki aavashyakta ke anusaar hi rahe. kisi ek tatv ke bahut adhik maatra mein daalne se doosare tatvon mein kami ya asantulan utpann ho sakta hai, jisse upaj mein kami aa sakti hai.

naaitrojan

bhaarateeya bhoomi ke liye khaad ke sabse mahatvapoorn ang naaitrojan tatha vaanaspatik padaarth hain. yeh smaran rahe ki bhoomi-bhoomi mein antar hota hai; isliye is sambandh mein koi ek vyaapak nuskha naheen bataaya ja sakta jiska prayog sarvatr kiya ja sake. naaitrojan denevaali kuchh vastueain ye hain :-(k) jeevajanik (orgainik) srot : gobar, leed, mootr, kooda karkat aadi ki khaad; khali tatha hari fasalein jo khaad ke roop mein kaam mein aa sakti hain, jaise sanai, tinpatiya (klovar) mooaing, dheincha aadi. (kh) ajeevajanit srot : yooriya, jismein 40 pratishat naaitrojan hota hai, amoniym salfet (20 pratishat naaitrojan), amoniym naaitret (35 pratishat naaitrojan), kailsiym naaitret (15 pratishat naaitrojan) tatha sodiym naaitret (16 pratishat naaitrojan). saadhaaran: bhoomi mein prati ekad 50 se 12 pound tak naaitrojan santoshajanak hone ki aasha ki ja sakti hai.

faasforas

yeh sambhav hai ki faasforas bhoomi mein paryaapt maatra mein rahe, parantu paadapon ko keval dheere-dheere praapt ho. dekha gaya hai ki kabhi-kabhi jahaaain anya fasalein bahut hi nikmmi hoti theen, vahaaain falon ka udyaan bhoomi mein bina oopar se faasforas padaarth daale, bahut achhi tarah foolata falata hai, sambhavat: isliye ki fal ke vrukshon ko faasforas ki aavashyakta dheere-dheere hi padti hai. khaadon mein tatha sabhi prakaar ke jeevajanit padaarthon mein kuchh-na-kuchh faasforas rahata hai. parantu faasforasaprad vishesh vastueain ye hain-asthiyon ka choorn (jismein 20 se 25 pratishat faasforas peintaaksaaid, rahata hai), besik slaig (15 se 20 pratishat faasforas peintaaksaaid) aur super faasfet jiska prayog bahutaayat se hota hai. ismein 16 se 40 pratishat faasforas peintaaksaaid rahata hai. un mittayon mein, jo faasforas ko sthir (fiks) kar leti hain, pehli baar itna faasforasamaya padaarth daalna chaahiye ki sthir karne par bhi paudhon ke liye kuchh faasforas bacha rahe, parantu jo mittayaaain faasforas ko sthir naheen karateen unamein adhik maatra mein faasforasamaya padaarth naheen daalna chaahiye, anyatha santulan bigad jaaega aur anya avayav kam pad jaaeainge.

potaishiym

jis bhoomi mein sulabh potaishiym ki maatra bahut hi kam hoti hai usamein potaishiym dene par darshaneeya antar padta hai, jo upaj ki vruddhi se spasht ho jaata he. potaishiam salfet tatha potaishiym kloraaid hi saadhaaranat: khaad ke liye prayukt hote hain. inmein se pratyek mein lagbhag 50 pratishat potaishiym aaksaaid hota hai. potaishiym naaitret mein 44 pratishat potaishiym aaksaaid hota hai; saath mein 13 pratishat naaitrojan bhi rahata hai. jeevajanit khaadon mein bhi 50 pratishat ya adhik potaishiym oksaaid ho sakta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain