udbhat

udbhat alankaar sanpradaaya (sanskrut) mein bhaamah aur dandi ke paravarti pradhaan pratinidhi aachaarya the. kalhanakrut raajatarangini ke anusaar ye Kashmir ke shaasak jayaapeed ki vidvatparishd ke sabhaapati the aur inka vetan prati ek laksh deenaar (svarnamudra) tha. itihaasakaaron ne jayaapeed ka shaasanakaal san 779-813 E. maana hai. udbhat jayaapeed ke shaasanakaal ke pratham charan mein rakh ja sakte hain kyonki maanyata hai ki jayaapeed ne apne shaasan ke antim charan mein praja ko paryaapt utpeedit kiya tha. isse kshubdh ho braahmanon ne usaka bahishkaar kar diya tha. ataev udbhat ka samay isavi san ki aathaveen shataabdi mein hi sambhav ho sakta hai.

udbhat ne 'kaavyalankaarasaarasangrah' naamak granth ki rachana ki thi. yeh granth apraapya tha kintu dau॰ voolar ne iski laghuvruttiyukt ek prati jaisalamer mein khoj nikaali thi. ukt granth chhah vargon mein vibhkt hai, iski 75 kaarikaaon mein 41 alankaaron ka niroopan hai aur 95 padyon mein udaaharan hain jo udbhat ne svarachit 'kumaarasanbhav' kaavya se prastut kiye hain. ukt sankhya baanbe sanskrut series dvaara prakaashit sanskaran ke anusaar hai jab ki nirnaya saagar press ke sanskaran mein 79 kaarikaaon mein lakshan tatha 100 mein udaaharan hain. inke ek anya granth 'bhaamah vivran' ke bhi ullekh pratihaareinduraajakrut 'kaavyaalankaarasaarasangrah' ki laghuvrutti tatha abhinvaguptaachaarya ke 'dhvanyaalokalochan' mein milte hain.

udbhat ne alankaaron ka kram aur unke varg bhaamah ke kaavyaalankaar ke anuroop rakhe hain aur praaya: sankhya bhi vahi di hai. bhaamah dvaara niroopati 39 alankaaron mein se inhonne aashi, utprekshaavayav, upamaaroopak aur yamak ityaadi chaar alankaaron ko chhod diya hai tatha punaruktavadaabhaas, chhekaanupraas, laataanupraas, kaavyahetu, prativstoopama, drushtaant aur sankar, in chhah naveen alankaaron ko liya hai. itna hi naheen, ukt chhah alankaaron mein punaruktavadaabhaas, kaavyahetu tatha drushtaant to sarvapratham udbhat dvaara hi aavishkrut hain, kyonki poorvavarti bhaamah, dandi aadi aachaaryon mein se kisi ne bhi inka ullekh naheen kiya hai. anupraas, utpreksha, rasavat aur bhaavik ke atirikt aur bhi 12 alankaaron ke lakshan inhonne bhaamah ke anusaar hi diye hain.