tulyakaalik motor

trifeji tulyakaalik motor ke rotar ka ghoomana : stetar mein ek ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr banta hai jo teenon vaaindigs ke dvaara utpann chumbakeeya kshetr ke yog ke baraabar hota hai.
trifeji tulyakaalik motor ka taurk-speed vakr

tulyakaalik motor ya sinkronas motor pratyaavarti dhaara se chalne waali vidyut motor hai. iska naam tulyaakaalika motor ya sinkronas motor is kaaran hai kyonki iske rotar ki ghoornan gati theek-theek utani hi hoti hai jitni stetar mein nirmit ghoorni chumbakeeya kshetr (rotating magnetic field) ki gati hoti hai. is motor ka upayog praay: kisi lod ko ghumaane mein naheen kiya jaata balki shakti gunaank ko sudhaarane mein kiya jaata hai. vishesh sthitiyon mein iska upayog lod chalaane mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

sinkronas chaal,

jahaaain:

  • f: stetar mein lagaayi gaye pratyaavarti voltej ki aavrutti (Hz)
  • p: motor ke dhruvon (pols) ki sankhya
  • n: rotar ki chaal (chakkar prati minute)

anukram

sanrachana

tulyakaalik motor ke andar ki sanrachana

tulyakaalik motor ke mukhya bhaag hain- stetar aur rotar. iski stetar bhi preran motor ke samaan hi hoti hai jis par teen-feji vaainding ki gayi hoti hai. rotar par ya to sthaayi chumbak se chumbakeeya kshetr paida kiya jaata hai ya rotar par nirmit vidyutachumbakon mein deesi dekar paida kiya jaata hai. baahar se is deesi ko rotar par laane ke liye slip ring ka prayog karna padta hai. badi-badi motaron mein usi shaift par ek di si janitr baitha diya jaata hai. isse praapt deesi ko rotar par bane vidyutchumbakon ko diya jaata hai.

rachana ke aadhaar par rotar do tarah ke hote hain-

  1. sailiyent rotar
  2. belanaakaar rotar

upayog

shakti gunaank ko unnat banaane ke liye

tulyakaalik motor ke vi-karv' (inka aakaar angreji akshar V se milte hain.)

tulyakaalik motor ko 'over-iksaait' karke chalaane par iske dvaara li gayi dhaara iske voltej se agragaami (leeding) hoti hai. isi aadhaar par yeh shakti gunaank ko badhaane ke liye upayog mein laaya ja sakta hai. iski sabse achhi baat yeh hai ki yadi lod ka shakti-gunaank parivrtit ho raha ho to is motor ki fild-vaaiding ki dhaara ko parivrtit karke iske dvaara li jaane waali dhaara ka shakti-gunaank bhi is prakaar parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai ki lod tatha yeh tulyakaalik motor ka sammilit shakti-gunaank 1 ho jaaya.

tulyakaalik motor ka vi-vakr saamane ke chitr mein dikhaaya gaya hai. isse spasht hota hai ki rotar ka fild iksaaiteshan badalne par iske stetar se li gayi dhaara ka phase badalta hai.

staart karne ki vidhiyaaain

  • bahut chhoti tulyakaalik motarein (jinke rotar ka jadtvaaghoorn bahut kam hota hai) saplaai lagaate hi chaaloo ho jaati hain aur bahut alp samay mein sinkronas speed par chali jaateen hain.
  • kintu madhyam aur bade aakaar ki tulyakaalik motarein self-staarting naheen hoteen. inhein neeche di gayeen vibhinn vidhiyon se chaaloo kiya jaata hai.
  • kuchh badi motarein kisi anya motor se ghumaakar sinkronas speed tak le jaayi jaateen hai. kintu abhi tak in par lod naheen lagaaya jaata. sinkronas speed par pahunchane par inke stetar aur rotar ko iksaait kar diya jaata hai, poni motor ko band kar diya jaata hai, lod laga diya jaata hai.
  • kaumarshiyl aavrutti (jaise 50 harts) par kaam karne waali badi tulyakaalik motaron ke rotar mein 'skvairel kej' vaaindig bhi hoti hai. iske kaaran yeh motor indaksan motor ki tarah kaam karte hue tvarit hokar sinkronas speed ke aaspaas pahunchati hai. iske baad iski fild vaainding ko iksaait kiya jaata hai aur motor sinkronas speed pakad leti hai. is tarah ki motaron ki rotar par lagi 'skvairel kej' vaaindig ka ek aur laabh bhi hai- yeh chalte samay motor ke rotar mein hone vaale jhatakon (oscillations) ko daimp karne mein yeh madad karta hai.
  • aajkal parivrti aavrutti drive (VFD) bhi aa gayi hain. inse chalne waali masheene shoonya chaal se shuroo hokar dheere-dheere tvarit hoti hain. jaise jaise chaal badati jaati hai, inki aavruti kramash: badhaayi jaati hai. antat: yeh antim aavrutti aur uske sangat sinkronas speed par chalne lagti hai.

tulyakaalik motaron ke prakaar

  1. teen feji AC tulyakaalik motor (Three-phase AC synchronous motors)
  2. Synchronous brushless wound-rotor doubly fed electric machine
  3. stepar motor (Stepper motor) - yeh sinkronas bhi ho sakti hai aur naheen bhi.
  4. rilktains motor (Reluctance motor) - yeh sinkronas bhi ho sakti hai aur naheen bhi.

baahari kadiyaaain