tooniseeya

tooniseeya ganaraajya
اaaلaaجaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaتaaوaaنaaسaaيaaة
Réapublique Tunisienne
dhvaj kulachih
raashtravaakya: shaanti, svatantrata aur nyaaya
raashtragaan: himaat alhima
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
toonis
36°a50′aN 10°a9′aE / 36.833°aN 10.15°aE / 36.833; 10.15
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi bhaasha
sarkaar ganaraajya
- raashtrapati baji kaid E sabsi
- pradhaan mantri habeeb essid
kshetrafal
- kul 163,610 varg kilometer (89)
63,170 varg meal
- jal (%) 5.0
janasankhya
- July 2005 janaganana 10,102,000 (79 vaan)
- 1994 janaganana 8,785,711
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2005 praakkalan
- kul $ 76.91 billion (63 vaan)
- prati vyakti $7,400 (105 vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2003) 0.753
uchch · 89 vaan
mudra deenaar (TND)
samay mandal CET (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+1)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) CEST (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
doorabhaash koot 216
Internet teeeladi .tn
* Rank in 2005

tooniseeya uttari afreeka mahaadveep mein ek arab raashtra hai jiska arabi bhaasha mein naam aljamhooreeyaah attooniseeyaah (اaaلaaجaaمaaهaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaتaaوaaنaaسaaيaaة) ya toonis hai. yeh bhoomadhyasaagar ke kinaare sthit hai, iske poorv mein Libya aur pashchim me Algeria desh hain. desh ki paintaalees pratishat jameen sahaara registaan mein hai jabki baaki tateeya jameen kheti ke liye istamaal hoti hai. roman itihaas me toonis ka shahar kaarathij ek aavashyak jagah rakhata hai aur is praant ko baad mein romeeya raajya ka ek pradesh bana deeya gaya jis ka naam afreeka yaani garam praant rakha gaya jo ab poore mahaadveep ka naam hai.

anukram

parichay

Tunisia sthiti : 33° 30' u. a. tatha 9° 10' poo. de.. yeh uttari Africa ka ek svatantr ganatantr (July, 1957 tak raajatantr) raashtra hai, jiske pashchim mein alajeeriya, uttar tatha poorv mein bhoomadhyasaagar tatha dakshin-poorv mein Libya hai. jibraaltar ke muhaane tatha svej nahar ke madhya mein sthit hone ke kaaran trayooneeshiaa sisli ke saath bhoomadhyasaagar ke poorvi tatha pashchimi bhaagon mein vyavadhaan upasthit karta hai. is tarah ki sthiti tatha 900 meal lambe samudratat par adhikaar hone ke kaaran tyooneeshiaa k bahut aarthik tatha raajaneetik mahatva hai. ganatantr ka kshetrafal 48,332 varg meal hai.

90,00,000 hekteyar vistrut kheti karne laayak jameen mein se 34,00,000 hekteyar par kheti hoti hai parantu upaj bahut kam hoti hai. 36,000 hekteyar par angoor ki kheti tatha 25,00,000 ekad mein jungle hai.

yahaaain fausfet ka Akshay bhandaar hai. achhe kism ka kachcha loha kef ke dakshin mein milta hai. paara, mainganeej, taaainba, tatha namak bhi yahaaain milte hain. (nru. ku. sin.)

bhaasha

arabi raajabhaasha hai. French ka bhi prayog prashaasan aur vyaapaar mein kiya jaata hai tyooaanijiyaai arabi bhaasha, jispar magaribi lipi ka prabhaav hai, madhya poorv mein hi voli jaati hai. berabar bhaashiyon ki sankhya bahut thodi hai.

raajya ka dharm isalaam hai. fir bhi yahaaain ke nivaasi dharm ke maamale mein duraagrahi naheen. moolavaasi sunni muslim hain. Europeeya log roman Catholic, greek aarthodauks, protesteint aur anaaglikn aadi dharmon par aastha rakhate hain.

itihaas

tooniseeya ka itihaas 1200 varsh isa poorv se aarambh hota hai. us samay kuchh feenishiyn vahaaain aa base aur unhonne kaarthej nagar ki sthaapana ki. 146 varsh isa poorv prasiddh pyoonik yuddh mein kaarthej dhvast hua aur vahaaain romanon ka raajya sthaapit hua. kuchh samay pashchaat‌ romanon ka patan hua tatha lagbhag do shataabdiyon tak Tunisia mein avyavastha tatha araajakata rahi videshi aakramanakaariyon ne tyanooeejiya aana aarambh kiya. paaainchaveen aur chhathi shataabdiyon mein kramash: vandal aur baaijeintaain aae. arabon ne saataveen shataabdi mein tooniseeya ko vijay kiya.

800 mein tooniseeya ke taatkaalik manoneet prashaasak Ibrahim bin agalab ne Baghdad ke khaleefa se vidroh karke apne aadhiptya mein tooniseeya ko alag raajya banaaya. sisli bhi usamein mila liya gaya. do shataabdiyon baad haafasid vansh sattaaroodh hua aur usane agale 300 varshon mein Tunisia ko bahut sampann bana diya. 1574 se 1881 ke beech turk aatoman saamraajya ka adhikaar raha. dheere dheere tarki dvaara niyukt chhote-chhote sthaaneeya prashaasak Tunisia ke shaasak ban gaye aur 1705 mein unhonne raajya ko svatantr ghoshit kar diya. is prakaar satta husen vansh ko praapt hui. yeh vansh 1957 tak Tunisia ka shaasak raha.

19veen shataabdi ka antim charan aate aate Tunisia ki aarthik sthiti gambhir roop se bigad gayi. antaraashtreeya aayog ki sifaarish par use Europe ke raashtron se rin praapt hua, saath hi France, Britain aur Italy ki pratinidhi vahaaain ke aarthik maamalon ki dekh rekh ke liye niyukt hue. is sandarbh mein France ne vahaaain apni sthiti sudhaarani chaahi aur isi se prerit hokar 1885 ke May mein usane apna sainik adda kaayam kar liya. iske atirikt tooniseeya ke aadhunikeekaran mein bhi usane ruchi li. badle mein pratham vishvayuddh mein tooniseeya ne France ka saath diya.

pratham vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke saath tooniseeya mein raashtreeya chetna ka jaagaran hua. jyoon tooniseeya party (Jeune Tunisian Party) ne 1920 mein saamaajik sudhaaron ki maaaing ki. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein jab France ki bahut kshati hui to usane tooniseeya ko antarik vishyon mein svaayattata pradaan karne ka aashvaasan diya. 1945 mein destoor party aur niyo-destur party ne milkar poorn svatantrata ki maaaing ki. kintu 1951 mein France apne vaade se mukar gaya aur usane svaayatt shaasan ki maaaing ko bhi thukara diya. saath hi fraanseesi prashaasakon ne damanachakr aarambh kiya. anek lambi vaartaaon ke baad June, 1955 ko fraanseesi tyooneeshiyaai sammelan peris mein hua. 20 March 1956 ki France ne tooniseeya ko svatantr kar diya. usi varsh April mein habeeb boraguiva (niyo-destoo party ke neta) ke netrutv mein svatantr sarkaar ka gathan hua. 25 July 1957 ko pratinidhi sabha ne tooniseeya ko ganaraajya ghoshat kiya aur habeeb-bor-guiva raashtrapati nirvaachit hue. 1 June 1959 ko svatantr tooniseeya ka naya samvidhaan laagoo hua.

arthavyavastha

krushi tooniseeya ka mukhya udyog hai. raashtreeya aay ka lagbhag 40 pratishat bhaag isse praapt hot hai. dhaanya ka niryaat badi maatra mein desh ke liye laabhakaari hai. khanij padaarthon se bhi jinmein faasfet raak‌ (Phosphate rock) mukhya hain, laabh milta hai. udyogeekaran kramash: badh raha hai aur vah raashtreeya aay ke 28 pratishat bhaag ki poorti karta hai. kintu aabaadi ke nirantar badhte rahane ke saath saath aay mein vruddhi naheen ho pa rahi hai. falat: rahanasahan ka star gir raha hai aur berojgaari bhi bana rahi hai. is sankat ke nivaaran ke liye sarkaar anek yojanaaeain bana rahi hai aur nae nae udyog bhi khol rahi hai.