tiruvalluvar

tiruvalluvar (tamil: தaaிaaரaaுaaவaaளaa்aaளaaுaaவaaரaa்) ek prakhyaat tamil kavi hain jinhonne tamil saahitya mein neeti par aadhaarit kruti thirookural ka srujan kiya. unhein theva pulavar, valluvar aur poyaamodi pulavar jaise anya naamon se bhi jaana jaata hai.

tiruvalluvar ka janm maayalaapur mein hua tha. unki patni vaasuki ek pavitra aur samarpit mahila thi, ek aisi aadarsh patni jisne kabhi bhi apne pati ke aadeshon ki avajnyaa naheen ki aur unka shatash: paalan kiya. tiruvalluvar ne logon ko bataaya ki ek vyakti gruhasth ya gruhasthasvaami ka jeevan jeene ke saath-saath ek divya jeevan ya shuddh aur pavitra jeevan ji sakta hai. unhonne logon ko bataaya ki shuddh aur pavitrata se paripoorn divya jeevan jeene ke liye parivaar ko chhodkar sanyaasi banane ki aavashyakta naheen hai. unki gyaan bhari baatein aur shiksha ab ek pustak ke roop mein maujood hai jise 'tirukkural' ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[1] tamil calendar ki avadhi usi samay se hai aur use tiruvalluvar aandu (varsh) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.[2]

tiruvalluvar ke astitv ka samay puraataatvik saakshya ke bajaay jyaadaatar bhaashaai sabooton par aadhaarit hai kyonki kisi puraataatvik saakshya ko abhi tak nirdhaarit naheen kiya gaya hai. unke kaal ka anumaan 200 E.poo. aur 30 E.poo. ke beech lagaaya gaya hai.[3]

anukram

paaramparik vrutaant

tiruvalluvar (tiru valluvar) naam tiru (ek tamil shabd jiska arth maananeeya hota hai, jo shri ke samaan hai)[4] aur valluvar (tamil parampara ke anusaar valluvan ke liye ek vinmr naam) se bana hai. unke vaastavik naam ke bajaae valluvan naam ek saamaanya naam hai jo unki jaati / vyavasaaya ka pratinidhitv karta hai. baharahaal, theerookural (valluvan) ke lekhak ka naam unke samudaaya par rakha gaya hai ya uske vipreet, yeh savaal aaj tak anuttarit bana hua hai.

tiruvalluvar ke janm ke baare mein kuchh kinvadantiyaan rahi hain. shaiv, vaishnav, jain, bauddh sampradaayon ka tark hai ki tiruvalluvar unase sambandhit hain. tiruvalluvar ke janm ke baare mein kuchh kinvadanti bhi rahi hain jismein unhein ek jain samaanaar sant ya ek hindu kaha gaya hai. lekin unke dharm ke baare mein koi saboot upalabdh naheen hai| kamaatchi shreenivaasan "kural kuraam samayam", tirukkural prakaashan, madurai kaamaraaj vishvavidyaalaya, 1979 | is kruti ka aarambh sarvashaktimaan Bhagwan ko saadar pranaam karte hue ek adhyaaya se hota hai. iseeliye kaha ja sakta hai ki tiruvalluvar aastik the. lekin unke parameshvar sarvashaktimaan hain, saare sansaar ke nirmaata hain aur jo apne bhakton ki raksha karte hain. daraasal kural kisi bhi vishisht ya saampradaayik dhaarmik aastha ki vakaalat naheen karta hai. ek katha mein unhein pandya shaasakon ki praacheen rajdhani madurai se joda jaata hai, jinhonne tamil saahitya ko sakhti se badhaava kiya tha. ek anya ke anusaar unka janm aur laalan-paalan maayalaapur mein hua tha jo vartamaan mein Madras shahar ka ek hissa hai aur unhonne apni kruti tirukkural ko jama karne ke liye madurai ki yaatra ki taaki ve raaja (pandiyn) aur unke kaviyon ke samooh se anumodan praapt kar sakein. unki patni ka naam vaasuki hai[5]

vahaan aur bhi adhik paramparaagat kahaaniyaan hain jismein kaha gaya hai ki madurai ka tamil sangam (niyamit taur par aayojit kiya jaane wala prakhyaat vidvaanon aur shodhakartaaon ka sammelan/sabha) vah praadhikran tha jiske maadhyam se tirukkural ko vishv ke saamane pesh kiya gaya. ho sakta hai ki tiruvalluvar ne apna adhikaansh jeevan madurai mein bitaaya ho kyonki yeh paandiya shaasakon ke adheen tha jahaan kai tamil kavi aage badhe. abhi haal hi mein kanyaakumaari aitihaasik aur saanskrutik shodh kendra (KHCRC) dvaara daava kiya gaya ki valluvar ek raaja the jinhonne Tamil Nadu ke kanyaakumaari jile ke ek pahaadi ilaake valluvanaadu par shaasan kiya.[6]

George uglo Pope ya ji.you Pope jaise adhikaansh shodhakartaaon aur tamil ke mahaan shodhakartaaon ne jinhonne Tamil Nadu mein kai varsh bitaae aur angreji mein kai paathon ka anuvaad kiya hai jismein tirukkural shaamil hai, unhonne tiruvalluvar ko paraiyaar ke roop mein pahachaana hai. kaarl graul (1814-1864) ne pehle hi 1855 tak tirukkural ko bauddh panth ki ek kruti ke roop mein chitrit kiya tha(graul ne jainiyon ko bhi bauddhon ke antargat sammilit kiya ). is sambandh mein yeh vishesh dilchaspi ka vishay tha ki thirukkural ke lekhak tiruvalluvar ko tamil parampara mein paraiyaar ke roop mein pahachaana gaya (jaisa ki, sanyog se, anya prasiddh praacheen tamil lekhakon ke maamale mein tha, jaise, auvaiyaar; cf. Pope 1886: i–ii, x–xi). ho sakta hai graul ne jainiyon ko bhi bauddhon ke antargat sammilit kiya (graul 1865: xi not).

jain

jain vidvaan aur kai itihaasakaar maanate hai ki tiruvalluvar ek jain muni the, kyoonki tirukkural ka pehla adhyaaya jain dharm ke pratham teerthankar rishabhadev ko samarpit hai | iske aalaava tirukkural ki shikshaaen jain dharm ki shikshaaon se mel khaati hai | bhaarateeya jnyaaanapeeth dvaara prakaashit pustak kural kaavya mein bhi tiruvalluvar ke jain hone ki baat spasht likhi hai |

tirukkural

tirukkural tamil ki ek sabse shraddheya praacheen kruti hai[7] . kural ko 'duniya ka aam vishvaas'[krupaya uddharan jodein] maana jaata hai, kyonki yeh maanav naitikta aur jeevan mein behatari ka raasta dikhlaata hai. sanbhavat: baaibal, Quraan aur geeta ke baad kural ka sabse adhik bhaashaaon mein anuvaad kiya gaya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]. 1730 mein tirukkural ka laitin anuvaad kostaanjo beschi dvaara kiya gaya jisse Europeeya buddhijeeviyon ko ullekhaneeya roop se tamil saahitya ke saundarya aur samruddhi ko jaanane mein madad mili.

tirukkural ka nirmaan tiru aur kural do shabdon ko jodkar hua hai, arthaat tiru + kural = tirukkural.

tirukkural teen vargon mein vibhaajit hai. pehle khand mein aram, vivek aur sammaan ke saath achhe naitik vyavahaar ("sahi aacharan") ko bataaya gaya hai. khand do mein paarul saansaarik maamalon ki sahi dhang se charcha ki gayi hai aur teesare anubhaag inabam, puroosh aur mahila ke beech prem sambandhon par vichaar kiya gaya hai. pratham khand mein 38 adhyaaya hain, doosare mein 70 adhyaaya aur teesare mein 25 adhyaaya hain. pratyek adhyaaya mein kul 10 dohe ya kural hai aur kul milaakar kruti mein 1330 dohe hain.

moorti

kanyaakumaari mein tiruvalluvar pratima

bhaarateeya upamahaadveep (kanyaakumaari) ke dakshini sire par sant tiruvalluvar ki 133 foot lambi pratima banaai gayi hai jahaan arab saagar, Bengal ki khaadi aur hind mahaasaagar milte hain. 133 foot, tirukkural ke 133 adhyaayon ya athiyaakaram ka pratinidhitv karte hain aur unki teen anguliya aram, porool aur inabam naamak teen vishay arthaat naitikta, dhan aur prem ke arth ko ingit karti hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

tippaniyaan

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain