tin


tin / Tin
raasaayanik tatv
Sn,50.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: Sn
parmaanu sankhya: 50
raasaayanik shrunkhala: sankramanoparaant dhaatu
Sn-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 050 Tin.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Tin (angreji)

vang ya raanga ya tin (Tin) ek raasaayanik tattv hai. laitin mein iska naam stainnam (Stannum) hai jisse iska raasaayanik prateek Sn liya gaya hai. yeh aavart saarani ke chaturth mukhya samooh (main group) ki ek dhaatu hai. vang ke das sthaayi samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122 tatha 124) praapt hain. inke atirikt chaar anya rediyoaiktiv samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 113, 121, 123 aur 125) bhi nirmit hue hain.

anukram

itihaas

vang ki mishradhaatu ka upayog aaj se 5,000 varsh poorv bhi hota tha. vang dhaatu ki bani sabse praacheen botal misr ki sthit samaadhi mein pai gayi, jo lagbhag isa se 1,500 varsh poorvakaal ki hai. vang ke ayask misr mein naheen milte. is kaaran vahaaain yeh dhaatu avashya hi baahar se I hogi. isa se lagbhag 300 varsh poorv England mein vang ke dhaatukarm ke namoone milte hain. yahaaain vang ki khaanein theen. us samay yeh dhaatu rom mein jaati thi. dakshini amareeka ke aadivaasiyon ko vang ki mishradhaatuon ka gyaan tha.

Bhaarat mein sindhu ghaati ki sabhyata ke kaal ke praapt dhaatu padaarthon mein vang paaya gaya hai. aisa anumaan hai ki us samay vang Iran se aata tha. isa se paaainch shataabdi poorv aayurved kaal mein sushrut mein trapu (vang) tatha vaagbhatt ke ashtaangahrudaya mein bhi vang ke yaugik ka varnan aaya hai. rasaratnasamuchchaya mein vang dhaatu tatha vaig bhasm donon ke gunon ki vivechana ki gayi hai.

upasthiti

vang mukt avastha mein praapt naheen hai. pruthvi ki satah par iski maatra lagbhag 40 gram prati tan hai. iske pramukh ayask hain : kaisiteraait, (SnO2) aur salfaaid. malayeshiya, Thailand, Indonesia, kaango, Nigeria tatha boliviya mein vang ki mukhya khaanein hain.

dhaatukarm

vang ke ayask mein praaya: 1 se 5 pratishat tin oksaaid (SnO2) upasthit rahata hai. is kaaran ise saandrit karna aavashyak hai. uchch ghanatv tatha achunbakeeya gunon ke dvaara hi kaisiteraait ka saandran karte hain. saandrit ayask ko koyale se mishrit kar paraavartani (reverberatory) athva vaatya (blast) bhatthi mein rakhakar apachayan (reduction) karne se vang dhaatu praapt hoti hai. ashuddh vang ke vishuddh karne ki anek vidhiyaaain hain.

gunadharm

vang shvet rang ki komal tanya (ductile) dhaatu hai. iske taar saralata se kheenche ja sakte hain, parantu vang ki chaadar modne par katakataane ki dhvani hoti hai, jise vang ki chillaahat kehte hain. dhaatu ke do apararoopi roopaantaran (allotropic modifications) hain. saamaanya avastha mein yeh shvet rang ki dhaatu hai, parantu yadi vang ko adhik kaal tak 13� sein. taap se neeche rakha jaae, to yeh bhurabhura evam bhoore rang ke choorn mein parivrtit hokar vang ka doosra apararoop banaata hai, jo nimn ta par sthaayi hai.

vang ke kuchh bhautik sthiraank ye hain : sanket Sn, parmaanu sankhya 50, parmaanu bhaar 118.69, galanaank 231.9 degree sein., kvanaank 2,272 degree sein., ghanatv 7.31 gram prati ghan semi., parmaanu vyaas 3.16 aingstraum, vidyut pratirodhakata 11.5 maaikroom-seinmi. tatha aayanan vibhv (ionization potential) 7.3 ivo (eV).

saamaanya taap par vang vaayu dvaara prabhaavit naheen hota, parantu uchch taap par usapar oksaai ki parat jam jaati hai. shvet taap par vang vaayu mein jal kar daaioksaaid, (SnO2) banaata hai. yeh tapt avastha mein peele rang ka aur saamaanya taap par shvet rang ka padaarth hai. vang tanu amlon mein dheere dheere ghulakar, (Sn++), yaugik banaata hai aur haaidrojan mukt karta hai. dhaatu par saandr naaitrik aml ki abhikriya dvaara jalayukt stainik oksaaid athva metaastainik aml (metastannie acid) banta hai. vang kshaareeya vilyan mein ghulakar stainet banaata hai, jiske falasvaroop haaidrojan mukt ho jaata hai.

yaugik

vang ke do prakaar ke yaugik gyaat hain : ek stainnas, jismein vang ki sanyojakata 2 hai aur doosra stainik, jismein vang ki sanyojakata chaar rahati hai. iske do oksaaid, stainas oksaai, (SnO) aur stainik oksaai, (SnO2), hote hain. gandhak ke saath vang ko garam karne se stainas salfaaid, (SnS) praapt hota hai. stainik salfaaid (SnS2) bhi banta hai.

helojan ke saath vang stains hailaaid aur stainik hailaaid banaata hai. vang ke kloraaid rangabandhak ke roop mein resham rangane mein kaam aate hain. yeh naaitrojan, haaidrojan aur fausforas ke saath bhi yaugik banaata hai. iske naaitret aur fausfet asthaayi hote hain. klorostainik aml ka amoniym lavan, [(N H4)2 SnCl6] resham rangane mein kaam aata hai.

vang anek upasahasanyojakata (coordinate) yaugik banaata hai.

upayog

vang mulamma karne aur mishradhaatuon ke nirmaan mein kaam aata hai. lohe par vang se kalai karne par usapar na muracha hi lagta aur na amlon ka jaldi asar padta hai. kaaainsa iski mahatva ki mishradhaatu hai. khaadya padaarthon ke dibbon mein vang ki kalai karne se ve jald aakraant naheen hote. vang ke anek yaugik vastr udyog, raingaai, kaaainch evam cheeni mitti ke paatr ke udyogon mein kaam aate hain.