thos

thos (solid) padaarth ki ek avastha hai, jiski pehchaan padaarth ki sanrachanaatmak drudhta aur vikruti (aakaar, aayatan aur svaroop mein parivartan) ke prati pratyaksh avarodh ke gun ke aadhaar par ki jaati hai. thos padaarthon mein uchch yang maapaank aur aparoopata maapaank hote hai. iske vipreet, jyaadaatar taral padaarth nimn aparoopata maapaank vaale hote hain aur shyaanata ka pradarshan karte hain. bhautik vigyaan ki jis shaakha mein thos ka adhyayan karte hain, use thos-avastha bhautiki kehte hain. padaarth vigyaan mein thos padaarthon ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gunon aur unke anuprayog ka adhyayan karte hain. thos-avastha rasaayan mein padaarthon ke sanshleshan, unki pehchaan aur raasaayanik sanghatan ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

anukram

thos ke abhilkshan

thos avastha ke abhilkshanik gunadharm ninnalikhit hain.

  • ve nishchit dravyamaan, aayatan evam aakaar ke hote hain.
  • antaraaaanvik dooriyaaain laghu hoti hain.
  • antaraaaanvik bal prabal hote hain.
  • unke avayavi kanon (paramaanuon, anuon athva aayanon) ki sthitiyaaain nishchit hoti hain aur yeh kan keval apni maadhya sthitiyon ke chaaron or dolan kar sakte hain.
  • ve asanpeedya aur kathor hote hain.[1]

thos ke prakaar

thos ka vargeekaran anek aadhaaron par kiya gaya hai.

avayavi kanon ki vyavastha mein upasthit kram ki prakruti ke aadhaar par

thoson ko unke avayavi kanon ki vyavastha mein upasthit kram ki prakruti ke aadhaar par kristaleeya aur akristaleeya mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai.

kristaleeya

dekhein mukhya lekh kristaleeya thos

kristaleeya thos saadhaaranat : laghu kristalon ki atyadhik sankhya se bana hota hai, unamein pratyek ka nishchit jyaamitiya aakaar hota hai. kristal mein paramaaguon, aguon athva aayanon ka kram suvyavasthit hota hai. ismein deergh paraasi vyavastha hoti hai arthaat kanon ki vyavasthaaka khaas paitarn hota hai jiski nischit kram se punaraavrutti hoti hai. kristaleeya thoso ka galanaank nishchit hota hai. kristaleeya thos vishmadaishik prakruti ke hote hain arthaat unke kuchh bhautik gun jaise vidyuteeya pratirodhakata aur apavartanaank ek hi kristal mein bhin-bhin dishaaon mein maapane par bhin-bhin maan pradarshit karte hain. yeh alag- alag dishaaon mein kanon ki bhin vyavastha se utpann hota hai. bhin-bhin dishaaon mein kanon ki vyavastha alag hone par ek hi bhautik gun ka maan pratyek disha mein bhin paaya jaata hai.[2] udaaharan- sodiym kloraaid, kvaartj aadi. adhiktar thos padaarth kristaleeya prakruti ke hote hain. udaaharan ke liye sabhi dhaatvik tatv; jaise- loha, taaainba aur chaaaindi; adhaatvik tatv; jaise-salfar, fausaforas aur aayodeen evam yaugik jaise sodiym kloraaid, jink salpaaid aur neptheleen kristaleeya thos hain. kristaleeya thoson ko unamein parichaalit antaraaaanvik balon ki prakruti ke aadhaar par chaar sanvargo mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai- aanvik, aayanik, dhaatvik aur sahasanyojak.[3]

akristaleeya

akristaleeya thos asamaan aakruti ke kanon se bane hote hain. in thoson mein avayavi kanon paramaaguon, anuon athva aayanon ki vyavastha keval laghu paraasi hoti hai. is vyavastha mein niyamit aur aavarti paitarn keval alp dooriyon tak dekha jaata hai. akristaleeya thoson ki sanrachana dravon ke sadrush hoti hain. akristaleeya thos taap ke ek nishchit paraas par naram ho jaate hain aur galaakar saaainche mein dhaale ja sakte hain aur inse vibhin aakrutiyaaain banaai ja sakti hain, yahi kaaran hai, ki ise atisheetit drav kaha jaata hai. garm karne par kisi ek taapamaan par ve kristaleeya ban jaate hain. akristaleeya thoson ki prakruti samadaishik hoti hai kyonki bhin-bhin dishaaon mein unamein deergh paraasi vyavastha naheen hoti aur sabhi dishaaon mein aniyamit vinyaas hota hai. at kanon ki bhinn-bhinn kon se bhi bhautik gun ka maan samaan hota hai.[4] udaaharan - kaaainch, rabar, plastic aadi. akristaleeya thoson ke hamaare dainik jeevan mein anek anuprayog hain. akristaleeya silikn soorya ke prakaash ka vidyut mein roopaantaran karne ke liye prayukt kiya jaata hai.

bahulak

mrutkala

mishran

jaiv-padaarth

arddhachaalak

rasaayanik vishleshan

thos ka rasaayan

akaarbanik

kaarbanik

thos-taral rasaayan

sukshm-takaneek

anuprayog

bhautik gun

ilektaunik

optikl

daaya-ilektrik

yaantriki

ushmeeya-yaantriki

vidyut-yaantriki

ushmeeya-vaidyutiki

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2
  2. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2-3
  3. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-4
  4. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2-3

baahari kadi