thereegaatha

thereegaatha, khuddak nikaaya ke 15 granthon mein se ek hai. ismein paramapadapraapt 73 bhikshuniyon ke udaan arthaat udgaar 522 gaathaaon mein sangruheet hain. yeh granth 16 "nipaaton" arthaat vargon mein vibhaajit hai, jo ki gaathaaon ki sankhya ke anusaar kramabaddh hain.

thereegaatha mein jin bhikshuniyon ka ullekh aaya hai, unamein se adhiktar Bhagwan buddh ki samakaaleen thi. ek isidaapti ke udaan mein bhavya nagari paataliputr ka ullekh aaya hai. sambhavat: vah ashok ki rajdhani hai. isliye granth ka rachanaakaal pratham sangeeti se lekar truteeya sangeeti tak maan sakte hain.

parichay

thereegaatha ki vishyavastu theragaatha ke samaan hi hai. haaain, theron ke udaanon mein jeevanasansmaranon ka ullekh kam hai. unamein vishyon ki gambheerta aur prakrutichitran adhik hai. iske vipreet adhikaansh theriyon ke udaanon mein sukhadukh se bhare unke poorv jeevan ke sansmaran milte hain. is prakaar unke aadhyaatmik jeevan ke atirikt paarivaarik aur saamaajik jeevan ki bhi jhalak milti hai. shubha jaisi ekaadh theriyon ke udaanon mein hi prakruti ka varnan milta hai. anbapaali jaisi theriyon ke udaan, jinmein saansaarik vaibhav ka ullekh milta hai, kaavyashaastr ke anupam udaaharan hain.

bhikshuneesangh ka sanghatan bhi bahut kuchh bhikshusangh ke aadhaar par hi hua tha. bina kisi bhedabhaav ke, aadhyaatmik jeevan mein rat samaaj ke sabhi staron ki mahilaaon ke liye uske dwaar khule the. raajaparivaaron ki mahilaaon se lekar deen dukhiyon ke parivaaron ki mahilaaeain tak sangh mein shaamil theen. ve sabhi saamaajik vishmataaon ko tyaagakar ek hi pavitra uddeshya se prerit ho kar sangh ki sadasyaaeain ban gayi theen. un saadhikaaon ke vairaagya ke peechhe anek kaaran the. adhiktar saadhikaaon ne priya janon ke viyog se aur saansaarik jeevan se oob kar sangh mein pravesh kiya tha. sabka uddeshya param shaanti ki praapti tha. arhatv ki praapti ke baad nirvaan ki param shaanti ki anubhooti mein un sabhi ko ek hi svar mein gaate sunate hain--seetibhootamhi nibbuta arthaan sheetibhoot ho gayi hooain, upashaant ho gayi hooain.

theriyon ke udaanon se us samay ki mahilaaon ki saamaajik sthiti par bhi prakaash padta hai. isidaasi ki jeevani se maaloom hota hai ki us samay kuchh logon mein talaak ki pratha prachalit thi. isidaasi ka vivaah teen-teen baar hua tha. us saamant yug mein bahupatni pratha prachalit thi. kai theriyaaain apne udaanon mein is baat ka ullekh karti hain. us samay nagarashobhiniyon ki pratha bhi prachalit thi. bhagavaan buddh ne uske viruddh apni aavaaj uthaai thi. unki shikshaaon se prabhaavit hokar us vrutti ko chhodkar kitni mahilaaeain pavitra jeevan vyateet karne lageen. anbapaali adtakaasi aur vimla unamein se hain. ve apne udaanon mein us jeevan ka ullekh karti hain. mahilaaeain vidyaalaabh kar vidushi bhi ban sakti theen. kundalakesi aur nanduttara iske udaaharan hain. shiksha grahan karne ke baad donon desh mein bhraman karti hui dharm aur darshan ke vishay mein vidvaanon se shaastraarth karti theen. dharm ke anusaran ke vishay mein bhi mahilaaeain purushon se svatantr theen. yeh baat rohini tatha bhaddakachchaana ki jeevaniyon se siddh hoti hai. us samay bhi samaaj mein dusht tatv vidyamaan the. bhikshuniyon ko bhi unase saavdhaan rahana padta tha. shubha theri ke udaanon se yeh baat spasht ho jaati hai. us paristhiti ko dhyaan mein rakhakar baad mein bhikshuniyon ke aranavaas ke vishay mein kai niyam banaane pade. is prakaar theriyon ke udaanon mein us samay ki mahilaaon ki saamaajik avastha ka bhi ek chitr milta hai. ab ham teen theriyon ke udaanon ke kuchh ansh udaaharan ke roop mein dete hain.

soma raajagruh ke raaj purohit ki kanya thi. bhikshuni ho vimuktisukh praapt karne ke baad ek din vah dhyaan ke liye andhavan mein baith gayi. maar ne use saadhana ke path se vichlit karne ke vichaar se kaha -- jo sthaan rishiyon dvaara bhi praapt karna kathin hai, usaki praapti alp buddhi waali striyon dvaara sambhav naheen. maar ka uttar dete hue soma ne kaha -- jiska man samaadhisth hai, jismein prajnyaa hai aur jise dharman ka saakshaatkaar hua hai uske maarg mein streetv baadhak naheen hota. mainne trushna ka sarvatha naash kiya hai, avidya roopi andhakaar samooh ko videern kiya hai. paapi maar! samajh le aaj tera hi ant kar diya hai.

bhagavaan buddh ki mausi mahaaprajaapati gautami ne, jo ki bhikshuni sangh ki agrani thi, apne nirvaan ke pehle Bhagwan ke paas jaakar unase antim vida lete hue krutajnyaata ke ye shabd prakat kiye -- he buddh veer! praaniyon mein sarvottam! aapko namaskaar. aapne mujhe aur bahut se praaniyon ko du:kh se mukt kiya hai.........yathaarth gyaan ke bina main lagaataar sansaar mein ghoomti rahi. mainne Bhagwan ke darshan paae. yeh mera antim shareer hai. bahuton ke hit ke liye (meri bahan) maaya devi ne Gautam ko janm diya hai, jinhonne vyaadhi aur maran se trust praaniyon ke du:khasamooh ke door kiya hai.

vimla, anya kai ganikaaon ki tarah, Bhagwan buddh ki shikshaaon se prabhaavit hokar pravrajit ho pavitra jeevan vyateet karne lagi. paramapad ki praapti ke baad vah gaati hai -- roop laavanya, saubhaagya aur yash se matavaali ho, yauvan ke ahankaar mein mast ho main doosari striyon ki avajnyaa karti thi.........shareer ko sajaakar, vyaaghr ki tarah, logon ko fainsaane ke liye jaal banaati thi, anek maayaaeain rachati thi.

aaj main bhiksha se jeeti hooain, mera sir mundit hai, shareer par cheevar hai. vruksh ke neeche dhyaanarat ho avitrk samaadhi mein vihrati hooain. daivi aur maanushi sabhi kaamanaaon ke bandhanon ko mainne tod daala hai. sabhi chitt malon ko naash kar nirvaan ki param shaanti ka anubhav kar rahi hooain.

"paramatthadeepani" thereegaatha ki atthakatha hai. yeh paaainchaveen shataabdi ki kruti hai aur aachaarya dharmapaal ki hai. ismein theriyon ki jeevaniyaaain aur unke udaanon ki vyaakhyaaeain hain. isliye thereegaatha ke samajhne ke liye yeh atyant upayogi hai. jhrdhadrut

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain