teleegraaf

klaad chaip (Claude Chappe) ke prakaasheeya teleegraaf ki pratikruti (Germany mein)

kisi bhautik vastu ke vinimay ke bina hi sandesh ko door tak sanpreshit karna teleegraafi (Telegraphy) kahalaata hai. vidyut‌ dhaara ki sahaayata se, poorv nirdhaarit sanketon dvaara, samvaad evam samaachaaron ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan ko bhejanevaala tatha praapt karanevaala yantr taarayantr (telegraph) kahalaata hai. vartamaan mein yeh praudyogiki aprachalit (obsolete/aabsoleet) ho gayi hai.

anukram

parichay

lagbhag do shataabdi poorv vaigyaaniko ke mastishk mein yeh vichaar aaya ki vidyut‌ ki shakti se bhi samaachaar bheje ja sakte hain. is disha mein sarvapratham prayog Scotland bhi samaachaar bheje ja sakte hain. is disha mein sarvapratham prayog Scotland ke vaigyaanik dau॰ maadeesan se san‌ 1753 mein kiya. isko moort roop dene mein british vaigyaanik ronaald ka haath tha, jinhone san‌ 1838 mein taar dvaara khabarein bhejane ki vyaavahaarikta ka pratipaadan saarvajanik roop se kiya. yadyapi ronaald ne taar se khabarein bhejana sambhav kar dikhaaya, kintu aajkal ke taarayantr ke aavishkaar ka adhikaash shreya Amreeki vaigyaanik, saimuel efa0 bee0 maurs, ko hai, jinhone san‌ 1844 mein Washington aur baultimor ke beech taar dvaara khabarein bhejkar iska saarvajanik roop se pradarshan kiya.

telegraph yunaani bhaasha ka shabd hai, jiska arth hota hai door se likhna. aajkal vidyutadvaara sandesh bhejane ki is paddhati ko taar pranaali tatha is prakaar samaachaar bhejane ko taar (telegram) karna ya bhejana kehte hai.

saadhaaranataya yeh sabhi ko gyaat hai ki soochanaaon ya sandeshon ko vividh shabdon dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai. ye shabd swayam vibhinn aksharon ya varno se bante hain. taar pranaali mein in vibhinn aksharon ya varno ko ham sanketon (signal elements) ke naana prakaar ke sanyojanon se prastut karte hain. is prakaar aksharon ka sanketon dvaara niroopan taarakoot (telegraph code) Eòaha jaata hai. samaachaar bhejane ke sthaan se taarakoot ki sahaayata se sandesh ke vibhinn shabdon ke aksharon ko sanket mein parivrtit kar liya jaata hai. is prakaar vidyut dhaara ke anshon (current elements) ko, jinka nirmaan sanketon par aadhrut rahata hai, taar ki laainon (lines) mein bheja jaata hai. jin sthaanon par samaachaar bhejana hota hai un sthaanon par is dhaara ke anshon ko pun: sanketon mein badal liya jaata hai. in sanketon ko taarakoot ki sahaayata se aksharon mein parivrtit kar poora samaachaar praapt kar liya jaata hai. is prakaar samaachaar bhejane mein taarakoot vyavastha apna vishisht sthaan rakhati hai. moolat: taar pranaali mein ek preshitr (Transmitter), ek graahi yantr (Receiver or Sounder), vidyudvaara ke liye ek baitari tatha taar ki ek line ki aavashyakta hoti hai. taar ki line ya to oopar hava mein rahati hai, ya dharati ke andar hai. isi ka mool taar paripth (basic telegraph circuit) chitr 1. mein diya gaya hai. taar ki paddhati mein kai sudhaar bhi kiye gaye hain, jisse ab ek saath hi anek samaachaar donon dishaaon mein bheje jaate hain.

hastachaalit taar paddhati (manual telegraphy) mein haath se hi taar kunji (telegraph key) chalaakar, ek preshitr ki sahaayata se vidyudvaara ke un anshon ko, jo vibhinn aksharon ko vyakt karte hain, utpann kiya jaata hai. kintu uchch gati taarapranaali (high speed telegraphy) mein pehle taarakoot ke anusaar, sandesh ke chhidran (perforations) ek kaagaj ke feete par liye jaate hain. tadanantar yahi feeta preshitr ki sahaayata se sanket dhaaraaon (signal currents) ko utpann karne ke liye prayog mein laaya jaata hai. praapt dhaaraaon (received currents) ko dhvani sanket (sound signals) aksharon ke vyakt karte hain, athva inheen praapt dhaaraaon ko kaagaj mein prayukt kiya ja sakta hai. mukhyataya taar pranaali ki nimnalikhit do shaakhaaeain :

  • 1. line taarapranaali (Line telegraphy),
  • 2. samudri taar pranaali (Submarine telegraphy)

line taarapranaali

mukhyat: do prakaar ke taarakoot is pranaali mein prayukt hote hain:

  • 1. maurs taarakoot tatha
  • 2. panch ikaai taarakoot (Five unit code).

kjiklk

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain