tarkashaastr

tarkashaastr shabd angreji 'laujik' ka anuvaad hai. praacheen bhaarateeya darshan mein is prakaar ke naamavaala koi shaastr prasiddh naheen hai. bhaarateeya darshan mein tarkashaastr ka janm svatantr shaastr ke roop mein naheen hua. akshapaad gotam ya Gautam (300 i0) ka nyaayasootr pehla granth hai, jismein tathaakathit tarkashaastr ki samasyaaon par vyavasthit dhang se vichaar kiya gaya hai. ukt sootron ka ek bada bhaag in samasyaaon par vichaar karta hai, fir bhi ukt granth mein yeh vishay darshanapaddhati ke ang ke roop mein niroopit hua hai. nyaayadarshan mein solah pareekshaneeya padaarthon ka ullekh hai. inmein sarvapratham pramaan naam ka vishay ya padaarth hai. vastut: bhaarateeya darshan mein aaj ke tarkashaastr ka sthaanaapann 'pramaanashaastr' kaha ja sakta hai. kintu pramaanashaastr ki vishyavastu tarkashaastr ki apeksha adhik vistrut hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

anukram

itihaas

Europe mein tarkashaastr ka pravartak evam pratishthaata yoonaani daarshanik arastoo (384-322 i0 poo0) samjha jaata hai, yon usase pehle katipya tarkashaastreeya samasyaaon par vaitandik (sofist) shikshakon, sukaraat tatha afalaatoon ya pleto dvaara kuchh kuchh chintan hua tha. yeh dilchasp baat hai ki swayam arastoo, jisne vichaaron ke itihaas mein pehli baar gyaan ka vibhinn shaakhaaon mein vibhaajan kiya, 'tarkashaastr' naam se parichit naheen hai. usane apni etadvishyak vichaarana ko 'enelitiks' (vishleshiki) naam se abhihit kiya hai. tarkashaastr ke vaachak shabd 'laajika' ka sarvapratham prayog roman lekhak sisro (106-43 i0 poo0) mein milta hai, yadyapi vahaaain usaka arth kuchh bhinn hai.

arastoo ke anusaar tarkashaastr ka vishay chintan hai, na ki chintan ke vaahak shabdaprateek. uske tarkashaastreeya granthon mein mukhyat: nimn vishyon ka pratipaadan hua hai :

  • (1) pad (tarms),
  • (2) vaakya ya kathan (stetament),
  • (3) anumaan aur uske vividh roop, jinhein nyaayavaakyon (silaajijmon) ke roop mein prakat kiya jaata hai.

vaakya padon se banta hai. pratyek pad kuchh vastuon ka sanket karta hai aur kuchh gunon ya visheshataaon ka bodhak bhi hota hai. vastusanket ki visheshata pad ka 'dinotaishan' kahalaati hai, sanketit svaroopaprakaashak gunon ko samashti roop mein 'kaunoshan' kehte hain, jaise 'manushya' pad ka dinoteshan 'sab manushya' hai, usaka kaunoteshan 'praanitv' tatha 'buddhisanpannatv' hai. (manushya ki paribhaasha hai - manushya ek buddhisanpann praani hai.) pratyek vaakya mein ek uddeshya pad hota hai, ek vidheya pad aur unhein jodnevaala sanyojak. vidheya pad kai shreniyon ke hote hain, kuchh uddeshya ka svaroop-kathan karanevaale, kuchh usaki baahari visheshataaon ko batalaanevaale. vidheya padon ke vargeekaran ka arastoo ke paribhaasha sambandhi vichaaron se ghana sambandh hai. vaakyon (tarkavaakyon) ya kathanon ka vargeekaran bhi kai prakaar hota hai; arthaat gun, parimaan, sambandh aur nishchayaatmakata ke anusaar. sambandh ke anusaar vaakya kaitegaurikl (kathan roop : Ram manushya hai); hetuhetumad (yadi niyukti hui, to vah Patna jaayega); aur disjanktiv (vah ya to moorkh hai, ya dusht) hote hain. nishchaayaatmakata ke anusaar kathanaatmak (Ram yahaaain hai), sanbhaavya (sambhav hai vah Patna jaae) aur nishchayaatmak (varsha avashya hogi) teen prakaar ke hote hain. vaakya ka pramukh roop 'kaitegaarikl' (nirpeksh kathan roop) hai. vaise vaakyon ka vargeekaran gun (vigheyaatmak tatha pratishedhaatmak) tatha parimaan (kuchh athva sarv sambandhi) ke anusaar hota hai. gun aur parimaan ke sammilit prakaaron ke anuroop vargeekaran dvaara chaar tarah ke vaakya upalabdh hote hain, jinhe roman aksharon - A, E, I, O dvaara sanketik kiya jaata hai. vidheyaatmak sarv sambandhi vaakya ki sanjnyaa A hai, jaise 'koi manushya poorn naheen hai'; kuchh sambandhi vidhaayak aur nishedhak vaakya kramash: I va O kahaate hai; yatha - 'kuchh manushya shikshit hain' aur 'kuchh manushya shikshit naheen hai.'

arastoo ke tarkashaastr ka pradhaan pratipaadya vishay nyaayavaakyon mein vyakt kiye jaanevaale anumaan hai; sahi anumaan 19 prakaar ke hote hain jo chaar tarah ki avayavasanhatiyon mein prakaashit kiye jaate hain. chaar prakaar ke nvaayavaakya ya avayavasanhatiyaaain 'figrs' kahalaati hain aur unamein paae jaanevaale sahi anumaanaroop 'mood' kahe jaate hain. ye 'mood' doosari 'figron' se pehli 'figr' ke roopon mein parivrtit kiye ja sakte hain. pratham 'figr' sabse poorn 'figr' maani jaati hai.

bhaarateeya pramaanashaastr tatha laujik

bhaarateeya darshan mein, jaisa oopar kaha gaya, jis cheej ka vikaas hua, vah pramaanashaastr hai; tathaakathit tarkashaastr usaka ek bhaag maatr hai. gotam ke 'nyaayasootr' mein prama ya yathaarth gyaan ke utpaadak vishisht ya pradhaan kaaran 'pramaan' kahalaate hain; unki sankhya chaar hai, arthaat‌ pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan aur shabd. bhaatt meemaansakon aur vedaantiyon ke anusaar pramaan chhah hain, arthaat upayukt chaar tatha arthapati va anupalabdhi. bhaarateeya gyaan meemaansa mein ukt pramaanon ko lekar bahut chintan aur vivaad hua hai. bauddhon, naiyaayikon, vedaantiyon aadi ke dvaara kiya hua pratyaksh ka vishleshan vishesh roop mein unke apne-apne tatvameemaansa sambandhi vichaaron se prabhaavit hai. nyaaya ke anusaar anumaan do prakaar ka hota hai, paraarthaanumaan tatha svaarthaanumaan. anumaan ke bodhak nyaayavaakya mein paaainch vaakya hote hain jo kramash: pratijnyaa, hetu, udaaharan, upanaya tatha nigman kahalaate hain. vedaantiyon ke anusaar in paaainchon mein se shuroo ya baad ke teen vaakya anumaan ke liye paryaapt hai. bauddh tarkashaastri dharmakeerti ke mat mein triroop arthaat‌ teen visheshataaon se yukt ling ya hetu hi anumaan ka kaaran hai. ye teen visheshataaeain hain- anumeya ya paksh (parvat) mein nishchit upasthiti; sapaksh (mahaanas ya rasoighar) mein hi upasthiti (sab sapakshon mein naheen kintu kuchh mein); aur asapaksh ya vipaksh (sarovar) mein nishchit anupasthiti (samast vipkshon mein anupasthiti). yahaaain parvat paksh hai, jahaaain dhoom ki upasthiti se agni ka anumaan kiya jaata hai; rasoidhar sapaksh hai, jahaaain hi anishchit upasthiti ke saath dhoom ki upasthiti vidit hai, jahaaain agni ke saath dhoom ki anupasthiti nishchit hai.

tarkashaastr ka svaroop

aage ham 'tarkashaastr' shabd ka prayog uske sankeern, aadhunik arth mein kareinge. is arth ke daayare mein tarkashaastr ki paribhaasha kya hogi? jaan stuart mil ke mat mein tarkashaastr ka vishay anumitiyaaain hain, na ki anubhavagamya satya. tarkashaastr vishvaason ka vigyaan naheen hai, vah upapatti (proof) athva saakshya (eveedeins) ka vigyaan naheen hai. tarkashaastr ka kshetr hamaare gyaan ka vah ansh hai, jiska roop 'poorvajnyaaat satyon se anumit' hota hai. tarkashaastr ka kaarya kisi satya ka saakshya jutaana naheen hai, vah yeh aaainkane ka prayatn hai ki kisi anumiti ke liye uchit saakshya prastut kiya gaya hai ya naheen. sankshep mein tarkashaastr ka kaam sahi anumiti ke aadhaaron ki khoj hai. tarkashaastr ka gyaan hamamein yeh dekhne aur aaainkane ki kshamata utpann karta hai ki kisi satya ka saakshya jutaana naheen hai, vah yeh aaainkane ka prayatn hai ki kisi anumiti ke nishchayaatmak aadhaaron ka gyaapan hi hai, arthaat‌ usaka vishay nishchayaatmak anumitiyon aur aadhaarbhoot saakshya ke sambandhon ko spasht karna athva un niyamon ko prakaash mein laana hai jo sahi anumaan prakriya ko niyantrit karte hain. isliye kabhi kabhi kaha jaata hai ki tarkashaastr ek niyaamak (naarametiv, aadarshak, aadarshaanveshi) vigyaan ya shaastr hai, jiska kaarya anumiti ya tark ke aadarsh roopon ko sthir karna hai. iske vipreet bhautiki ya bhautikshaastr, arthashaastr, samaajashaastr aadi yathaarthaanaveshi (paajitiv) vigyaan hai, jo vastusatta ke yathaarth ya vaastavik roopon ya niyamon ka anveshn karte hain.

vijnyaaanon ka yeh vargeekaran kuchh had tak bhraamak hai. tarkashaastr ya aachaarashaastr (neetishaastr) niyaamak shaastr hai, is kathan ka yeh arth lagaaya ja sakta hai ki ukt shaastr krutrim dhang se kshetravishesh mein maanav vyavahaar ke niyamon ka nirdesh karte hain maano sahi chintan evam sahi naitik vyavahaar ke niyam maanav prakruti ke niji niyam na hokar usapar baahar se laade jaanevaale niyam hain. kintu baat aisi naheen hai. vastut: tarkashaastr un niyamon ko, jo sahi chintan prakaaron mein svat:, svabhaavat: otaprot samajhe jaate hain, prakat roop mein nirdeshit karne ka upakaran maatr hai. vichaarasheel manushya svat:, svabhaavat: sahi aur galat chintan mein, nirdosh evam sadosh tarkana- prakaaron mein antar karte hain. kintu is prakaar ka antar karte hue ve kinheen niyaamak aadarshon ya kaanoonon ki avagati ya chetna ka parichay naheen dete. sahi samajhe jaanevaale tarkana prakaaron ka vishleshan karke unamein anusyoot niyamon ko sachet jaankaari ke dharaatal par laana, yahi tarkashaastr ka kaam hai. isi prakaar aachaarashaastr bhi hamein un niyamon ya aadarsho ki jaankaari deta hai, jo hamaare bhale bure ke nirnayon mein, anajaane roop mein, parivyaapt rahate hain. iseeliye kaha jaata hai ki vishisht aachaar paddhati, athva kisi samaaj ki aachaarasanhita tatha naitik shiksha, us samaaj ke naitik pakshapaaton ko prakaashit karti hai. isi arth mein deshavishesh, kaalavishesh athva samaajavishesh ke naitik vichaarak apne desh, yug athva samaaj ke pratinidhi chintak hote hain.

tarkashaastr ke sambandh mein ukt maanyata se ek mahatvapoorn nishkarsh anugat hota hai. yadi kinheen kaaranon se manushya ki chintanapranaali athva tarkapranaali mein parivartan ya vikaas ho, to uske anuroop tarkashaastreeya mantavyon mein bhi parivartan ya vikaas ho sakta hai. tarkashaastr ke itihaas mein aisa bhi hota hai ki kaalaantar mein chintan ke puraane maanadandon ya niyamon mein sanshodhan aavashyak ho jaata hai; nae chintanaprakaaron ki srushti ke saath saath naveen tarkashaastreeya niyamon ka niroopan bhi apekshit ho sakta hai. Europe mein jab bhautik vigyaan ki pragati shuroo hui, to vahaaain kramash: arastoo ki nigmanapranaali ki aalochna aur usase bhinn aagamanapranaali ki parikalpana aur prashansa bhi hone lagi. Europeeya vaichaarik itihaas mein is koti ka kaarya laard bekan ne kiya. baad mein, vaigyaanik anveshan pranaali ka adhik vishleshan ho chukane par, Europe ke tarkashaastriyon ne nigmanamoolak vichaarapaddhati (didktiv system) evam parikalpana nigmanapranaali (haaipothetikl didktiv methad) jaisi avadhaaranaaon ka vikaas kiya. aagamanaatmak tarkashaastr (indaktiv laujik) mein un niyamon ka vichaar kiya jaata hai, jo nireekshit ghatnaaon ya vyaapaaron ke aadhaar par tatsanbandhi saamaanya kathano ki upalabdhi ya niroopan sambhav banaate hain. saamaanya kathan praay: vyaaptivaakyon ka roop dhaaran kar lete hain. bhaarateeya pramaanashaastr mein is prashn ko lekar ki vyaaptivaakya ki upalabdhi kaise hoti hai, kaafi chhaanabeen ki gayi hai. 'jahaaain-jahaaain dhoom hota hai, vahaaain agni hoti hai' - yeh vyaaptivaakya hai. spasht hi hamaare nireekshan mein dhoom aur agni ke saahacharya ke kuchh hi udaaharan aate hain. prashn hai, kuchh sthitiyon mein nireekshit do cheejon ke saahacharya se ham unke saarvadeshik aur saarvakaalik saahacharya ki kalpana ke auchitya ko kaise siddh kar sakte hai? is samasya ko tarkashaastr mein aagamanaatmak pluti (indaktiv leep) ki samasya kehte hain. parikalpana nigmanapranaali is ulajhan mein pade bina saamaanya kathanon athva vyaaptivaakyon ki praamaanik prakalpana ke prashn ka samaadhaan prastut kar deti hai. sankshep mein aadhunik vaigyaanik anveshan ki pranaali yeh hai :

nireekshit ghatanaasanhatiyon se prerana lekar vaigyaanik anveshak niymasootron ki parikalpana karta hai; iske baad vah un pariklpanaaon se kuchh aise nishkarsh nikaalata hai, jinka prayaagon dvaara pareekshan ho sake. jahaaain tak kisi parikalpana ke nishkarsh prayogavidhi se samarthan paate hain, vahaaain tak yeh samjha jaata hai ki vah parikalpana pareeksha mein safal hui. parikalpana mein nihit saamaanya niyam antat: anveshak ki svachhand kalpana ki srushti hota hai, aisa prasiddh vaigyaanik alabart aainstaain ka mat hai. prakruti ke niyam aagaman pranaali se anveshit hote hain, yeh maanyata bahut had tak bhraamak hai. kehna yeh chaahiye ki anubhav saamagri yaani anubhoot ghatanaasanhatiyaaain, prashikshit vaigyaanik ko upayukt pariklpanaaon ya sanbhaavya praakrutik niyamon ke nyoonaadhik shaktivaale sanket bhar deti hain.

oopar humne is baat par bal diya ki nai tarkapranaaliyon ke vikaas ke saath saath tarkashaastreeya siddhaanton ke svaroop mein bhi nyoonaadhik parivartan hota hai. is drushti se tarkashaastr ek gatisheel vidya hai; vah sthir, shaashvat niyamon ka sankalan ya ullekh maatr naheen hain. vastut: vibhinn bhautik, jaiv evam samaajashaastreeya vijnyaon ke vikaas ne tarkashaastr ko bahut prabhaavit kiya hai. anumaan aur tarkana ki pranaaliyon tatha niyamon se adhik aaj vibhinn vidyaaon ki anveshn prakriya anusheelan ka vishisht vishay ban gayi hai. ukt prakriya ki shaastreeya jaaainch ko reetimeemaansa (methadaulauji) kehte hain.

yahaaain ek jyaada mahatva ka spashteekaran apekshit hai. anubhav evam chintan ke vibhinn kshetron mein hamaari tarkanaaprakriya ek hi koti ki naheen hoti. vigyaan aur ganit mein tarkana ke tareeke ek prakaar ke hain. saahityasameeksha athva naitik nirnayon ke kshetr mein bhi ye tareeke kaafi bhinn ho jaate hain. doosare shabdon mein ham kah sakte hai ki kala sameeksha, saahitya meemaansa, neetishaastr aadi ke kshetro mein pareekshakon ke svamatasthaapan evam paramatakhandan ki pranaliyaaain ek hi si naheen hoteen. ve kaafi bhinn bhi ho sakti hain aur hoti hain. is sthiti ko nimnaankit shabdon mein bhi prakat kiya jaata hai:

gunatmak drushti se bhinn pratyek koti ke vishay-vivechan (diskors) ke niyaamak maanadand athva niyam bahut kuchh alag hote hai; arthaat chintan aur vivechan ke pratyek kshetr ka tarkanaashaastr ek niraali koti ka hota hai. isse anugat hota hai ki sab prakaar ke chintanavivechan ka niyaamak koi ek tarkashaastr naheen hai.

prateekaashrit (prateekamoolak) tarkashaastr

beesaveen sadi mein paramparaagat arastoo ke tarkashaastr se bhinn prateek moolak ya prateekanishth tarkashaastr ka vikaas hua hai. kuchh pareekshakon ki drushti mein yeh ek badi ghatna hai. is naye tarkashaastr ko ganitnishth tarkashaastr bhi kehte hain. unneesaveen sadi ke madhya mein do angrej ganitaajnyaon ne tarkashaastr ke is naye roop ka aadhaar khada kiya; ye do ganitjnya the - aagastas di maargan tatha George bool. inka mukhya anveshan yeh tha ki arastoo ke tarkashaastr mein jin anumitiyon ka ullekh hai, unamein kaheen adhik kotiyon ki praamaanik anumitiyaaain hain. arastoo ke nyaaya-vaakya (silaajijm) mein prakat ki jaane anumitiyon ka aadhaar siddhaant vargasamaavesh ka niyam hain. vaise anumaan ka prasiddh udaaharan hai: sab manushya maranasheel hai; yahaaain sukaraat manushya hai; isliye sukaraat maranasheel hai yahaaain maranasheelata manushya naam ke varg ka vyaapak dharm hai; vah us varg mein samaaveshit sukaraat ka bhi dharm hai. maargan aur bool ne yeh pata chalaaya ki anumiti ka asli aadhaar vishesh koti ke sambandh hote hai, varg samaavesh ka niyam in kai sanbandhakein mein se ek ke antarbhoot hai. at: us niyam ko anumiti ka svatantr siddhaant naheen maanana chaahiye. doosare, aisi anek anumitiyaaain hoti hain, jo nyaayavaakya ke roop mein prakat naheen ki ja sakti. udaaharan- 'k ki avastha kh se adhik hai aur kh ki avastha g se adhik hai, isaliye k ki avastha g se adhik hai.' prasiddh daarshanik ef‌aa0 ech‌aa0 braidale (1846-1924) ne bhi aisi anumitiyon ka sanket kiya hai, jo arastoo ke nyaayaavaakya mein niveshit naheen ho sakateen.

oopar kaha gaya hai ki naveen vichaarakon ke anusaar anumiti ka aadhaar vaakyon ke beech rahanevaale kuchh sambandh hain. swayam 'sambandh' ki avadhaarana ko paribhaashit karna kathin hai. sambandhon ka vargeekaran kai tarah se hota hai. kuchh sambandh do padon ya padaartho me beech hote hain, kuchh teen ke, ityaadi. koi padaarth sanbandhagrast hai, yadi uske baare mein kuchh kathan karte hue kisi doosare padaarth ka ullekh aavashyak ho. 'Ram seeta ka pati hai', 'raaja ne apne shatru ko jahar de diya', 'devadatt ne vishnudatt se das hajaar rupae lekar makaan khareed liya;' - ye vaakya kramash: dvimoolak, trimoolak evam chaturmoolak sambandhon ko prakat karte hain. ek anya vargeekaran ke anusaar sambandh sam (simetreekal), visham (anasimetrikl), evam a-sam-visham (naun‌-simetreekal) teen prakaar ke hote hain. jo sambandh karte hai; yatha - Ram shyaam ka bhaai hai; devadatt vishnudatt ka hamaumr hai ya sahapaathi hai; ityaadi. visham sambandh Ram seeta ka pati hai. a-sam visham- devadatt vishnudatt ko pyaar karta hai. ek prakaar ke sambandh utpalavi sambandh kahalaate hai; usase bhinn anutplavi. 'avastha mein bada hona' ye sab utplavi (traanjitiv) sambandh hain. yadi k kh se bada, ya lamba ya bhaari hai;aur kh g se to yeh siddh hota hai k g se bada ya bhaari hai. anutplavi sambandh- k kh ka pita hai aur kh g ka; yahaaain yeh siddh naheen hota ki k g ka pita hai. jahaaain ham dekhte hain ki utpavi sambandh anumiti ka hetu ban jaata hai. arastu dvaara pratipaadit varg samaavesh ka siddhaant vastut utplavi sambandh ka doosra udaaharan aakshep sambandh (inpleekeshan) hai. yadi vaakya ya vaakya r ko aakshit karta hai aur r vaakya l ko, to ya, l ko aakshipt karta hai.

prateekanishth tarkashaastr ki ek anya visheshata yeh hai ki vahaaain vaakyon aur unke sambandhon ko prateekon ke dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai. anumiti ke aadhaar vaakyon ke vishisht sambandh hai; ye sambandh vaakyon ke aakaar (form) par nirbhar karte hain, na ki unke arthon par. falat: vaakyon ke arthon ka vichaar kiye bina, unke aakaaron mein anusyoot sambandhon ko aur unapar aadhaarit anumitiyon ko, prateekon ki bhaasha mein prakat kiya ja sakta hai. prateekit hone par vibhinn sambandhon ko sankshep mein prakat kiya ja sakta hai. yeh prakriya ganit ki shlaaghaneeya visheshata hai. ganit shaastr ki unnati ka ek pradhaan hetu sankhyaaon ko dashamlav vidhi (desamil system) se likhne ka aavishkaar tha, yeh aavishkaar bhaaratavarsh mein hua. ankon ko likhne ki roman pranaali mein das, pachaas sau aadi sankhyaaon ke liye alag alag sanketachinh hai; iske vipreet prachalit dashamlav pranaali mein ankavishesh ka moolya usaki sthiti ke anusaar hota hai aur sif nau ankon tatha shoonya-chinh, ki madad se kisi bhi sankhya ko prakat kiya ja sakta hai. prateekanishth tarkashaastr mein vargon, vaakyon aadi ko prateekon mein prakat karke unase sambaddh anumitiyon ke niyam pratipaadit kiye gaye hain. vargakalan (kailakulas‌ aaf‌ klaasej) mein vargon ke paarasparik sambandhon, virodh aadi ke niyam batalaae gaye hain. isi prakaar vaakyasanbandhon, virodh aadi ke niyam batalaae gaye hain. isi prakaar vaakyakalan (kailakulas ov praapojeeshans) mein vaakyasanbandhon ke niyaamak siddhaaton ya niyamon ka ullekh rahata hai. arastoo ke nyaayavaakya mein sannihit siddhaant ukt niyamon mein se hi ek hai. isse prakat hai ki prateekanishth tarkashaastr ka anumitikshetr arastoo ke tarkashaastr ki apeksha kaheen adhik vistrut hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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