tarbaain

simens (Siemens) ki tarbaain jiska aavaran kho diya gaya hai

tarbaain ek ghoorni (rotary) engine hai jo kisi taral ki gatij ya/tatha sthitij urja ko grahan karke swayam ghoomti hai aur apne shauft par lage anya yantron (jaise vidyut janitr) ko ghumaati hai. pavan chakki (vind mil) aur jal chakki (vaatar hveel) aadi tarbaain ke praarambhik roop hain. vidyut shakti ke utpaadan mein tarbaainon ka atyadhik mahatva hai. gas, bhaap aur jal se jalanevaale tarabaain ek doosare se bhinn hote hain.

gas kampreshar ya pamp bhi tarbaain jaisa hi hota hai par yeh tarbaain ke ulta kaarya karta hai.

anukram

parichay

tarabaain mein kam se kam ek rotar assembly hoti hai jo iska gatimaan purja ek ya ek se adhik bledon ke saath shaaft ya drum ke saath is machine ko chalaata hai. blade par taral padaarth ya anya padaarth dabaav daalata hai jisse rotar ya ghoorni chalti hai. yeh chaal aur rotar ghoorni ko gatij oorja pradaan karti hai. gas, bhaap aur jal tarbaain mein aamtaur par blade ke aaspaas ek aavaran hota hai jo drav ki maatra ko niyantrit karta hai.

shabd "tarabaain" 1822 mein French khanan engineer klaaud bardeen (Burdin) ne laitin tarbo shabd ya bhanvar se gadha tha. iska ullekh ek sansmaran mein unhone kiya tha jo raayal science academy peris ko prastut kiya gaya tha. klaaud bardeen ke ek poorv chhaatr benoit forneron (Fourneyron) ne pehli vyaavahaarik jal tarabaain ka nirmaan kiya tha. bhaap tarabaain ke aavishkaar ka shreya british engineer sar Charles paarsans (1854-1931) ko, pratikriya tarabaain ke aavishkaar ke liye aur sveedish engineer gustaaf de laivaal (1845-1913) ko, aaveg tarabaain ke aavishkaar ke liye diya jaata hai aadhunik bhaap tarbaain praay: ek hi ikaai mein pratikriya aur aaveg ka upayog hota hai. aam taur par pratikriya aur aaveg ki degree iski paridhi blade ki jad mein alag-alag hoti hai

ab agar tarabaain ki kaaryapranaali ki baat karein to yeh nyootan ke teesare gati niyam ke adhaar par kaam karti hai. yaani pratyek kriya par, vipreet pratikriya hoti hai. isi tarah tarabaain ka propelar kaam karta hai. propelar mein laga spaaindal hava ya paani par dabaav banaata hai. isi dabaav ki vajah se propelar tarabaain ko peechhe ki or dhakka maarta hai, jisse vah chalti hai. aamtaur par tarabaain ko ek jagah rakh diya jaata hai, taaki jab bhi paani usase hokar gujre to tarabaain ke har blade par padne vaale dabaav se vah chal pade. hava ya paani ke tarabaain ke saath ek hi niyam laagoo hota hai. jitna adhik paani ya hava ka pravaah hoga, tarabaain utani tej gati se chalegi.

kaaryakaari drav (varking fluid) mein dabaav oorja aur gatij oorja shaamil hain. drav sanpeedit ya asanpeedit kiya ja sakta hai. kai bhautik siddhaanton ke aaropan dvaara tarbaainon ko is oorja ko ikattha karne ke liye niyojit kiya jaata hai. aaveg tarbaainon mein uchch veg taral ya gas jet ke pravaah ka upayog rotar blade ki disha badalne ke liye kiya jaata hai. parinaamasvaroop aaveg tarabaain ghoomti hai aur gas ya drav dheemi gati se baahar nikal jaata hai.

tarbaainon ka vargeekaran

kaaryakaari maadhyam ke anusaar

sampeedya taral (compressible fluids)
  • gas tarabaain
  • bhaap tarabaain
  • pavan tarabaain (wind turbine)
  • tarbojet
asanpeedya taral (Incompressible fluids)
  • jal tarabaain

maadhyam ke gati ki disha ke anusaar

  • trijya tarabaain (radial turbine)
  • aksheeya tarabaain (axial turbine)
  • kaplaan tarabaain
  • sparsharekheeya tarabaain
  • tesla tarabaain
  • peltan tarabaain
  • Francis tarabaain

upayog ke aadhaar par

  • audyogik tarabaain
  • oorja tarabaain
  • uddayan tarabaain
  • propelar tarabaain
  • karshan tarabaain (turbine traction)
  • sahaayak tarabaain ( auxiliary turbine)

gas tarabaain

is shabd ki vibhinn paribhaashaaeain di jaati hain. vistrut paribhaasha ke anusaar gas tarabaain vah mool chaalak (prime mover) hai jiske sampoorn ushmeeya chakr mein kaaryakaari taral gaiseeya avastha mein hi bana rahata hai evam jiske sabhi yantraangon ki gati paribhrami hoti hai. sankeern paribhaasha ke anusaar is shabd ka prayog sirf us mukhya tarabaain ang ke liye kiya jaata hai jiska maadhyam garam vaayu hoti hai. kuchh vidvaanon ke mataanusaar gas tarabaain vah yantr hai jismein pravaah prakram avirt rahata hai evam shakti tarabaain dvaara praapt hoti hai.

jal tarabaain ya jalachakr

un mool chaalak yantron (prime movers) ko kehte hain jo jalaraashi mein nihit sthitij oorja ko yaantrik kaarya mein parivrtit kar dete hain. panachakkiyaaain vibhinn prakaar se banaai jaane par bhi badi hi saral prakaar ki yuktiyaaain (devices) hain, jinka prayog praagaitihaasik kaal se hi shakti utpaadan karne ke liye hota chala aaya hai. samay samay par aavashyakataaon tatha paristhitiyon se prerit hokar logon ne inmein anek sudhaar kiye, at: jal tarabaain bhi panachakki ka hi viksit roop hai. pichhli ardhashataabdi se to inka itna upayog badh gaya hai ki inke dvaara lagbhag sabhi sabhya deshon mein jagah jagah, chhote bade anek jal-vidyuchhakti-gruh banaae jaane lage. is kaaran sudoor jalaheen dehaaton mein bhi bade saste bhaav par bijli praapt hone lagi aur naana prakaar ke udyog dhandhon ke vikaas ko pratsaahan mila.

bhaap tarabaain

bhaap tarabaain (Steam Turbine) ek moolachaalak (prime mover) hai, jismein bhaap ki ushma-oorja ko gatij urja mein parivrtit kar, uchch gatisheel bhaap ko ek ghoornak (rotor) par baindhe hue bahut se falakon par takaraaya jaata hai, jisse falak paribhraman karte hain evam isse kaarya hota hai. anyonyagatik (reciprocating) bhaap engine mein bhaap ki sthaitik (statical) daab dvaara pistan par kaarya kiya jaata hai. yadyapi engine mein bhaap pistan ke saath chalti hai, fir bhi engine ki kriya mein bhaap ki gatij urja ka prabhaav naganaya hai. bhaap tarabaain mein bhaap engine ki apeksha uchchatar gati mil sakti hai aur gatiseema bhi badi ha sakti hai. tarabaain ke purjon ka santulan achha rahata hai. bhaap ki samaan maatra evam samaan avastha mein bhaap tarabaain bhaap engine se adhik shakti paida kar sakta hai. bhaap engine se kuchh varsh kaam lene ke baad bhaap ki khapat badh jaati hai, parantu tarabaain mein aisi avastha naheen aati pruthvi par ke sabhi mool chaalakon mein bhaap tarabaain sabse adhik tikaaoo hota hai. tarabaain se sabse bada laabh yeh hota hai ki isse ghoornak gati seedhe praapt hoti hai, jabki bhaap engine mein anyonyagati se ghoornak gati praapt karne ke liye alag se upaadaan ka vyavahar karna padta hai.

vaashpitr (bauyalar) mein bhaap ka janan uchch daab evam adhitaap (superheat temperature) par hota hai. jab yeh bhaap tarabaain ke paas pahuainchati hai, us samay ismein adhik maatra mein ushma oorja hoti hai aur iski daab bhi itni adhik hoti hai ki yeh nimnadaab tak prasaarit ho sakti hai. parantu us samay iski gatij urja naganya hoti hai. at: bhaap kuchh kaarya kar sake iske pehle iski ushma oorja ko gatij urja mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai. yeh parivartan, achhi tarah abhiklpit upakaran mein, bhaap ko vistaarit karne se hota hai. bhaap ka prasaar ya to ek hi kriya mein poorn kiya jaata hai, ya vibhinn kriyaaon mein. iska arth yeh hota hai ki ushma oorja ko gatij oorja mein parivrtit karne ke liye bahut se sthir upakaran vyavahaar mein laae jaate hain aur praaya: do sthir upakaranon ke beech ek gatimaan upakaran laga rahata hai. sthir upakaran mein praapt gatij oorja ko uske baad baindhe hue gatimaan upakaran ke oopar kaarya karne ke liye lagaaya jaata hai.

baahari kadiyaaain