tantr saahitya (bhaarateeya)

tantr bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki ek vaividhtaapoorn evam sampann aadhyaatmik paripaati hai. tantr ke antargat vividh prakaar ke vichaar evam kriyaakalaap aa jaate hain. tanyate vistaarayate jnyaaanan anen iti tantram - arthaat gyaan ko iske dvaara taanakar vistaarit kiya jaata hai, yahi tantr hai. iska itihaas bahut puraana hai. samay ke saath yeh paripaati anek parivrtanon se hokar gujri hai aur samprati atyant dakiyaanoosi vichaaron se lekar bahut hi pragat vichaaron ka sammishran hai. tantr apne vibhinn roopon mein Bhaarat, Nepal, cheen, Japan, Tibet, Korea, kambodiya, myaanmaar, indoneshiya aur mangoliya mein vidyamaan raha hai.

bhaarateeya tantr saahitya vishaal aur vaichitryamaya saahitya hai. yeh praacheen bhi hai tatha vyaapak bhi. vaidik vaadmaya se bhi kisi kisi ansh mein iski vishaalata adhik hai. charanaavyooh naamak granth se vaidik saahitya ka kinchit parichay milta hai, parantu iski apeksha upalabdh vaidik saahitya ek prakaar se saadhaaran maaloom padta hai. taantrik saahitya ka ati praacheen roop lupt ho gaya hai. parantu uske vistaar ka jo parichay milta hai usase anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki praacheen kaal mein vaidik saahitya se bhi iski vishaalata adhik thi aur vaichitrya bhi. sankshep mein kaha ja sakta hai ki param advait vigyaan ka sookshaatisookshm vishleshan aur vivran jaisa tantr granthon mein hai vaisa kisi shaastr ke granthon mein naheen hai. saath hi saath yeh bhi sach hai ki uchchaatan, vasheekaran prabhruti kshudr vidyaaon ka prayog vishyak vivran bhi tantr mein milta hai. spashtat: vartamaan hindu samaaj vedaashrit hone par bhi vyavahaar-bhoomi mein vishesh roop se tantr dvaara hi niyantrit hai.

anukram

parichay

'tantr' tatha 'aagam' donon samaanaarthak shabd hain. kisi-kisi sthaan mein aagam shabd ke sthaan mein, 'nigam' shabd ka bhi prayog dikhaai deta hai. fir bhi yeh sach hai ki tantr samajhne ke liye aagam shabd ka 'shabdapramaan' roop mein arthaat aaptavachan roop mein vyavahaar karte the. angreji mein jise, rivileshan, (revelation) kehte hain, ye aagam praaya: vahi hain. laukik aaptapurooshon se alaukik aaptapurooshon ka mahatva adhik hai, ismein sandeh naheen. ved jis prakaar hirnayagarbh athva brahm ke saath sanshlisht hai usi prakaar tantr moolat: Shiv aur shakti ke saath sanshlisht hai. jaise Shiv ke, vaise hi shakti ke bhinn roop hain. bhinn roopon se vibhinn prasthaanon ke tantro ka aavirbhaav hua tha. isi prakaar shaiv tatha shaakt tantr ke anuroop vaishnav tantr bhi hai. 'paancharaatr', athva 'saatvat', aagam isi ka naamaantar hai. vaishnnav ke sadyash ganapati aur saur aadi sanpradaayon mein bhi apni dhaara ke anusaar aagam ka pramaar hai. dau॰ shredar ne 'ahirbudhnya sanhita' ki bhoomika mein paancharaatr aagam ke vishay mein ek utkrusht nibandh prakaashit kiya tha. jisse pata chalta hai ki vaishnav aagam ka bhi ati vishaal saahitya hai. parantu yahaaain vaishnav tantr ke vishay mein kuchh vistrut aalochna na kar shaiv aur shaakt aagamon ki aalochna hi prastut hai.

taantrik saahitya ki visheshataaeain

vaise to tantr ek samaangi (coherent) paripaati naheen kahi ja sakti kintu taantrik saahitya mein-

  • Shiv evam shakti pramukh araadhya (devata/devi) hain.
  • adhikaanshat: Shiv aur paarvati ke samvaad ke roop mein hai.
  • baaton ko rahasyamaya evam laakshanik dhng se kaha gaya hai.
  • tantr ki teen pramukh dhaaraaen hain - dakshin, vaam aur madhyam.
  • karmakaandon ki pradhaanata hai tatha iske adhikaansh granth ek prakaar se 'vyaavahaar-pustika' (practical mainual) jaise granth hain.

tantr saahitya ka vargeekaran

mool tantr saahitya saamaanyat: teen bhaagon mein vibhkt ho sakta hai-

  • sabse pehle aadi aagam, athva upaagam vibhaag.
  • uske baad aagamon ka ek dviteeya vibhaag jiska praamaanya praaya: pratham vibhaag ke hi anuroop hai. is prakaar ke granthon ki sankhya ati vishaal hai.
  • iske anantar vibhinn rishiyon aadi ke dvaara upadisht bhinn-bhinn granth bhi hain. ye sab praamaanik jnyaaanadhaara ka aashray lekar gyaan, yog, charya tatha kriya ke vishay mein bahusankhyak prakaran granth rachit hue hain. keval itna hi naheen, tatsanbandhi upaasana, karmakaand aur yahaaain tak ki laukik prayog saadhan aur prayog vigyaan ke vishay mein anek granth tantr saahitya ke antargat hain.

praacheen aagam

vistrut vivran ke liye praacheen tantr saahitya dekhein.

maadhyamik tantr-saahitya

vistrut vivran ke liye maadhyamik tantr-saahitya dekhein.

tantrasaahitya ke vishisht aachaarya

vistrut vivran ke liye tantrasaahitya ke vishisht aachaarya dekhein.

baahari kadiyaaain