tantr

vigyaan evam praudyogiki se sambandhit tantr ya pranaali ya system ke baare mein dekhein - tantr (system)


tantr parampara se jude hue aagam granth hain. inke vakta saadhaaranatay: shivji hote hain.

tantr ka shaabdik udbhav is prakaar maana jaata hai - “atanoti traayati tantr”. jisse abhipraaya hai – tanana, vistaar, failaav is prakaar isse traan hona tantr hai. hindu, bauddh tatha jain darshanon mein tantr paramparaayein milti hain. yahaaain par tantr saadhana se abhipraaya "guhya ya goodh saadhanaaon" se kiya jaata raha hai.

tantron ko vedon ke kaal ke baad ki rachana maana jaata hai aur saahityak roop mein jis prakaar puraan granth madhyayug ki daarshanik-dhaarmik rachanaayein maane jaate hain usi prakaar tantron mein praacheen-akhyaan, kathaanak aadi ka samaavesh hota hai. apni vishyavastu ki drushti se ye dharm, darshan, srushtirchana shaastr, pracheen vigyaan aadi ke inasaaklopeediya bhi kahe ja sakte hain.

vaise to tantr granthon ki sankhya hajaaron mein hai, kintu-mukhya-mukhya tantr 64 kah gaye hain. tantr ka prabhaav vishv star par hai aur iska pramaan hindu muslim-jain, tibbati aadi dharmon ki tantr-saadhana ke granth hain. Bhaarat mein praacheen kaal se hi Bengal, Bihar aur Rajasthan tantr ke gadh rahe hain.

anukram

parichay

shabd shaastr ke anusaar tantr shabd 'tan' dhaatu se bana hai jiska arth hai 'vistaar'. shaiv siddhaant ke 'kaayik aagam' mein iska arth kiya gaya hai, 'vah shaastr jiske dvaara gyaan ka vistaar kiya jaata hai- -tanyate vistaaryate jnyaaanam anen, iti tantram.'' tantr ki nirukti 'tan' (vistaar karna) aur 'trai' (raksha karna), in donon dhaatuon ke yog se siddh hoti hai. iska taatparya yeh hai ki tantr apne samagr arth mein gyaan ka vistaar karne ke saath us par aacharan karne vaalon ka traan bhi karta hai.

tantr-shaastr ka ek hi naam 'aagam shaastr' bhi hai. iske vishay mein kaha gaya hai-

aagamaat shivvaktraat gatan ch girija mukham.
sammatan vaasudeven aagam: iti kathyate .

vaachaspati mishr ne yog bhaashya ki tatv vaishaaradi vyaakhya mein 'aagam' shabd ka arth karte hue likha hai ki jisse abhyudaya (laukik kalyaan) aur ni:shreyas (moksh) ke upaaya buddhi mein aate hain, vah 'aagam' kahalaata hai. shaastron ke ek anya svaroop ko 'nigam' kaha jaata hai. ismein ved, puraan, upanishd aadi aate hain. ismein gyaan, karm aur upaasana aadi ke vishay mein bataaya gaya hai. iseeliye ved-shaastron ko nigam kehte hain. us svaroop ko vyavahaar aacharan aur vyavahaar mein utaarane vaale upaayon ka roop jo shaastr batalaata hai, use 'aagam' kehte hain. tantr athva aagam mein vyavahaar paksh hi mukhya hai. tantr kriyaaon aur anushthaan par bal deta hai 'vaaraahi tantr' mein is shaastr ke jo saat lakshan bataae hain, unamein vyavahaar hi mukhya hai. ye saat lakshan hain- srushti, pratyaya, devaarchan sarvasaadhan (siddhiyaan praapt karne ke upaaya) purashcharan (maaran, mohan, uchchaatan aadi kriyaaen) shatkarm (shaanti, vasheekaran stambhan, vidveshan, uchchaatan aur maaran ke saadhan) tatha dhyaan (isht ke svaroop ka ekaagr talleen man se chintan).

tantr ka saamaanya arth hai 'vidhi ya upaaya'. vidhi ya upaaya koi siddhaant naheen hai. siddhaanton ko lekar matabhed ho sakte hain. vigrah aur vishd bhi ho sakte hain, lekin vidhi ke sambandh mein koi matabhed naheen hai. doobne se bachane ke liye tairakar hi aana padega, bijli chaahiye to koyale, paani ka anu ka roopaantaran karna hi padega. daudne ke liye paaainv aage badhaane hi honge. parvat par chadhna hai to ooainchaai ki taraf kadam badhaaye bina koi chaara naheen hai. yeh kriyaaeain 'vidhi' kahalaati hain. tantr athva aagam mein vyavahaar paksh hi mukhya hai. tantr ki drushti mein shareer pradhaan nimitt hai. uske bina chetna ke uchch shikharon tak pahuaincha hi naheen ja sakta. isi kaaran se tantr ka taatparya 'tan' ke maadhyam se aatma ka 'traan' ya apne aapka uddhaar bhi kaha jaata hai. yeh arth ek seema tak hi sahi hai. vaastav mein tantr saadhana mein shareer, man aur kaaya kalevar ke sookshmatam staron ka samanvit upayog hota hai. yeh avashya satya hai ki tantr shareer ko bhi utana hi mahattv deta hai jitna ki man budghi aur chit ko.

karmakaand aur pooja-upaasana ke tareeke sabhi dharmon mein agal-alag hai, par tantr ke sambandh mein sabhi ekamat hain. sabhi dharmon ka maanana hai maanav ke bheetar anant oorja chhipi hui hai, usaka paaainch-saat pratishat hissa hi kaarya mein aata hai, shesh bhaag bina upayog ke hi pada rahata hai. sabhi dharm–sampradaaya is baat ko ek mat se sveekaar karte hain va apne hisaab se us bhaag ka maarg bhi bataate hain. un dharm-sampradaayon ke anuyaayi apni chhipi hui shaktiyon ko jagaane ke liye praay: ek samaan vidhiyaan hi kaam mein laate hain. unamein jap, dhyaan, ekaagrata ka abhyaas aur shareeragat oorja ka saghan upayog shaamil hota hai. yahi tantr ka pratipaadya hai.

vishay ko spasht karne ke liye tantr-shaastr bhale hi kaheen siddhaant ki baat karte hon, anyatha aagam-shaastron ka teen chauthaai bhaag vidhiyon ka hi upadesh karta hai. tantr ke sabhi granth Shiv aur paarvati ke samvaad ke antargat hi prakat hain. devi paarvati prashn karti hain aur Shiv unka uttar dete hue ek vidhi ka upadesh karte hain. adhikaansh prashn samasya pradhaan hi hain. siddhaant ke sambandh mein bhi koi prashn poochha gaya ho to bhi Shiv usaka uttar kuchh shabdon mein dene ke uparaant vidhi ka hi varnan karte hain.

aagam shaastr ke anusaar karna hi jaanana hai aur koi jaanana gyaan ki paribhaasha mein naheen aata. jab tak kuchh kiya naheen jaata saadhana mein pravesh naheen hota, tab tak koi uttar ya samaadhaan naheen hai.

tantron ke vishay vastu

tantron ke vishay vastu ko mote taur par nimn taur par batalaaya ja sakta hai-

  • gyaan, ya darshan,
  • yog,
  • karmakaand,
  • vishisht-saadhanaayein, paddhatiyaaain tatha samaajik aachaar-vichaar ke niyam.

saankhya tatha vedaant ke advait vichaar donon ka prabhaav tantr granthon mein dikhlaayi padta hai. tantr mein prakruti ke saath Shiv advait donon ki baat ki gayi hai. parantu tantr darshan mein 'shakti' (ishvar ki shakti) par vishesh bal diya gaya hai.

tantr ki teen paramparaayein

tantr ki teen paramparaayein maani jaati hain –

  • shaiv aagam ya shaiv tantr,
  • vaishnav sanhitaayein, tatha
  • shaakt tantr

shaiv aagam

shaiv aagamon ki chaar vichaaradhaaraayein hain –

  • (1) shaivasiddhaant,
  • (2) tamil shaiv,
  • (3) Kashmiri shaivadarshan, tatha
  • (4) veerashaiv ya lingaayat shaiv darshan

bhaarateeya parampara mein aagamon ka atyant mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. praacheen mandiron, pratimaaon, bhavanon, evam dhaarmik-aadhyaatmik vidhiyon ka nirdhaaran inke dvaara hua hai.

shaiv siddhaant

pracheen taur par shaiv siddhaant ke antargat 28 aagam tatha 150 upaagamon ko maana gaya hai.

shaiv siddhaant ke anusaar saiddhaantik roop se Shiv hi keval chetan tattv hain tatha prakruti jad tattv hai. Shiv ka moolaadhaar shakti hi hai. shakti ke dvaara hi bandhan evam moksh praapt hota hai.

Kashmiri shaivadarshan

pramukh granth shivsootr hai. ismein Shiv ki pratyabhijnyaa ke dvaara hi gyaan praapti ko kaha gaya hai. jagat Shiv ki abhivyakti hai tatha Shiv ki hi shakti se utpann ya sambhav hai. is darshan ko 'trik' darshan bhi kaha jaata hai kyonki yeh – Shiv, shakti tatha jeev (pashu) teenon ke astitv ko sveekaar karta hai.

veerashaiv darshan

is darshan ka mahatpoorn granth “vaachanam” hai jisse abhipraaya hai 'Shiv ki ukti'.

yeh darshan paaramparik tatha Shiv ko hi poornataya samast kaarak, sanhaarak, sarjak maanata hai. ismein jaatigt bhedabhaav ko bhi naheen maana gaya hai. is darshan ke antargat guru parampara ka vishesh mahatva hai. aagam ka mukhya lakshya 'kriya' ke oopar hai, tathaapi gyaan ka bhi vivran yahaaain kam naheen hai. 'vaaraaheetantr' ke anusaar aagam in saat lakshanon se samavit hota hai : srushti, sthiti , pralaya, devataarchan, sarvasaadhan, purashcharan, shatkarm, (=shaanti, vasheekaran, stanbhan, vidveshan, uchchaatan tatha maaran) saadhan tatha dhyaanayog. 'mahaanirvaan' tantr ke anusaar kaliyug mein praani medhya (pavitra) tatha amedhya (apavitr) ke vichaaron se bahudha heen hote hain aur inheen ke kalyaanaarth Bhagwan maheshvar ne aagamon ka upadesh paarvati ko swayam diya. shaiv aagam (paashupat, veerashaiv siddhaant, trik aadi) dvait, shaktivishishtadvait tatha advait ki drushti se bhi inmein teen bhed maane jaate hain. aagamik pooja vishuddh tatha pavitra bhaarateeya hai.

28 shaivaagam 'siddhaant ke roop mein vikhyaat hain. 'bhairav aagam' sankhya mein chaunsath sabhi moolat: shaivaagam hain. inmein dvait bhaav se lekar param advait bhaav tak ki charcha hai. kirnaagam, mein likha hai ki, vishvasrushti ke anantar parameshvar ne sabse pehle mahaajnyaaan ka sanchaar karne ke liye das shaivo ka prakat karke unamein se pratyek ko unke avibhkt mahaajnyaaan ka ek ek ansh pradaan kiya. is avibhkt mahaajnyaaan ko hi shaivaagam kaha jaata hai. ved jaise vaastav mein ek hai aur akhand mahaajnyaaan svaroop hai, parantu vibhkt hokar teen athva chaar roopon mein prakat hua hai, usi prakaar mool shivaagam bhi vastut: ek hone par bhi vibhkt hokar 28 aagamon ke roop mein prasidv hua hai. in samast aagamadhaaraaon mein pratyek ki parampara hai.

vaishnav sanhita

vaishnav sanhita ki do vichaaradhaaraayein milti hain – vaikhaanas sanhita, tatha pancharaatr sanhita.

vaikhaanas sanhita – yeh vaishnav parampara ke vaikhaanas vichaaradhaara hai. vaikhaanas parampara praathamik taur par tapas evam saadhan parak parampara rahi hai.

pancharaatr sanhita – pancharaatr se abhipraaya hai – 'panchanishaaon ka tantr'. pancharaatr parampara pracheenataur par vishv ke udbhav, srushti rachana aadi ke vivechan ko samaahit karti hai. ismein saankhya tatha yog darshanon ki maanyataaon ka samaavesh dikhaayi deta hai. vaikhaanas parampara ki apeksha pancharaatr parampara adhik lokaprachalan mein rahi hai. iske 108 granthon ke hone ko kaha gaya hai. vaishnav parampara mein bhakti vaadi vichaaradhaara ke atirikt shakti ka siddhaant bhi samaahit hai.

shaakt tantr

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain