tank

ti-90 bheeshm tank

kavachayaan ya tank (Tank) ek prakaar ka kavachit, svachaalit, apna maarg aap banaane tatha yuddh mein kaam aanevaala aisa vaahan hai jisse golaabaari bhi ki ja sakti hai. yuddhakshetr mein shatru ki golaabaari ke beech bhi yeh bina rukaavat aage badhta hua kisi samay tatha sthaan par shatru par golaabaari kar sakta hai. gatisheetala evam shatru ko vyaakul karne ka saamarthya hai aur jo kabachit hone ke kaaran swayam surakshit hai.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

angrejon dvaara aavishkaar

pratham vishvayuddh mein khaaiyon mein morcha banaakar ladnevaalon ke kaaran yuddhamein gatyavarodh ho gaya tha. ek aise saadhan ki aavashyakta thi jispar khaaiyon mein chhipe logon ki golaabaari ka vishesh prabhaav na ho, jo khaaiyon aur yuddhakshetr ki oobad bhoomi par nirvaadh roop se chal sake, jo kainteele taaron ki ulajhaton ko paar kar sake aur jismein baithanevaale swayam surakshit rah kar shatru par baar bhi kar sakein. England ke leftaneint Colonel aranest tatha dau॰ svintan 15 varsh se aisa yantr banaane mein prayatnasheel the. unhonne san 1914 mein holt kaitarapilr pranaali ko kabachit yaan ke liye anukoolit karne ka sujhaav diya. kuchh samay baad ti. ji. tuloch ne ek bhookroojar ka vichaar prastut kiya, jisse shatru ki halaki topon ka bhi saamana kiya ja sake. January, 1915 mein angreji nausena ke sarvochch adhikaari vinstan charchil ne in prastaavon ka anumodan kiya. falasvaroop svintan ki pariyojana ki abhiklpana nausena ke lieutenant dablyoo. kyoo. Wilson aur kaustar company ke dablyoo A. traaitan ne prastut ki. September, 1915 i0 mein faustar company ne pehla maadal "chhota vili" taiyaar kiya. yeh santoshaprad naheen nikla. fir isi company ne doosra model "vili bada" banaaya. yeh model sveekaar kar liya gaya.

is yantr ke svaroop ke sambandh mein naam se kuchh anumaan na lagaaya ja sake, isaliye san 1916 i0 mein som ke yuddh mein pratham baar tainkon ka prayog kiya gaya. aakraman ke liye 49 tank bheje gaye the, jinmein se keval nau ne safalataapoorvak apne kaarya ka nirvaah kiya. anya tank kisi na kisi prakaar ka vikaar utpann ho jaane ke kaaran kaarya poora na kar sake.

angreji model ka pehla tank "mark-1" kahalaaya. yeh do namoonon mein banaaya gaya. pehla namoona 31 tan ka tha. ispar chhah paaundar topein aur chaar masheenaganein theen. aakraman ke samay yeh sabse aage rahata tha. iske abhedya bhaagon par ki chaadar 0.4 inch moti thi aur shesh chaadar 0.2 inch. iski pratyek baajoo par ek ek taret kasi hui thi, jispar 6 paauaindar topein chadhi hui theen. mark-1 ka doosra namoona bhaar mein 30 tan tha aur ispar chh: masheenaganein lagi theen. ise pehle namoonevaale tank ki raksha ke liye kaam mein laaya jaata tha. donon prakaar ke tainko ki lanbaai 26 foot 5 inch, chaudaai 13 foot 9 inch aur ooainchaai 8 foot 1 inch thi. donon mein 105 ashv shakti ke jalasheetak daaimalar engine lage the. inki adhiktam gati 3.7 meal prati ghanta thi 53 gailan samaai ki indhan ki tanki ek baar bharakar, inhein 12 meal door le jaaya ja sakat tha. ye 4.5 foot ooainchi baadhaaon aur 11.5 foot chaudi khaaiyon ko paar kar sakte the aur 22 degree tak ki dhaal par saralata se chadh sakte the. pahiyon par anamya aalanban tha aur ispaat ka track tha. kavach ki motaai 0.2 inch se 0.4 inch tak hoti thi.

mark-1 tank mein pravesh aur bahirgaman ke maarg asuvidhaajanak the aur antarakaksh havaadaar naheen tha. isliye ise tyaagakar "mark-2" aur "mark-3" banaae gaye. san 1917 mein "mark-4" bana, jismein pehle bane tainkon ke adhikaansh dosh door kar diye gaye. ise yuddh ke shesh 16 maheenon tak prayog mein laaya gaya. yuddh samaapt hone ke lagbhag "mark-5" bana. iska tank 26.5 inch tha. iske indhan ki samaai 108 gailan kar di gayi thi aur gati 4.6 meal prati ghanta. kavach ki adhiktam motaai 0.47 inch thi. ismein 150 ashvashakti ka ek jalasheetak engine tha aur sanchaaravyavastha graheeya pranaali ki thi. der se banane ke kaaran yeh pratham vishvayuddh mein prayukt na ho saka.

pehle vishvayuddh ke samay angrejon ne ek anya tank banaaya, jo "madhyam A" ya hvipet tank kahalaata tha. iska bhaar 14 tan, adhiktam gati 8.3 meal prati ghanta tatha indhan ki dhaarita 84 gailan thi aur ek baar bhar lene par yeh 40 meal tak ja sakta tha. yeh ladaakoo tainkon ke kaarya to karta hi tha, bhooprushth ki samaan sthitiyon mein bhaari taikon se adhik teevr gati se chal bhi sakta tha.

jarman tank

14 May 1917 i0 ko Germany ke kaipten veganar aur engineer volmar ke sahayog se ek tank bana, jise parivhan aur yuddh donon ke kaam mein laaya ja sakta tha. kintu jarman log kainbre (Cambrai) ke patan ke pashchaat, arthaat 20 November 1917 ke baad, hi in tainkon ko yuddh mein kaam mein la sake.

pehla jarman tank, A-7-vi, daaimalar motor company mein December 1917 mein bana. yeh tank kai baaton mein angreji tainkon se uttam tha. iske kavach ki motaai 0.59 inch se 1.18 inch tak, gati aath meal prati ghanta tatha bhaar 33 tan tha. 132 gailan indhan ki sahaayata se yeh 50 meal tak chal sakta tha aur ispar achhe hathiyaar lage hue the. Germany ne in tainkon ka prayog 21 March 1918 ka kveintin ke yuddh mein kiya.

pratham vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke lagbhag, kaipten veganar aur har volmar ne do anya utkrusht tank bana liye the. ye 42 foot 7 inch lambe, 20 foot chaud, 9 foot 5 inch ooainche aur bhaar mein 165 tan the. kabach ki motaai 0.4 inch se 1.18 inch thi. inapar 22 vyaktiyon ka karmeedal rahata tha, jo 77 mileemeetar ki chaar topon aur chh: bhaari masheenaganon ka upayog kar sakta tha. in daityaakaar tainkon mein chh: sau ashvashakti ke glaaikaulasheetak do engine lage the, jo inhein 5 meal prati ghante ki gati se kheenchate the. sarvatr bijli ka prakaash panadubbiyon ke samaan niyantranatantr aur kai prakaar ki sanchaar vyavastha, in tainkon ki visheshata thi iske atirikt inhein 18 se lekar 25 tan tak ke khandon mein alag-alag karke jahaaj se bhi le jaaya ja sakta tha. Germany ki paraajaya ke pashchaat bina pareekshan kiye hi in tainkon ko nasht kara diya gaya.

fraanseesi tank

pratham vishvayuddh se bahut pehle hi Colonel baiptiste estiyeain ne halake tainko ka vikaas kar liya tha, kintu sarkaar se protsaahan na milne ke kaaran kaam aage na badh saka aur san 1916 E. mein France mein tainkon ke do namoone ban sake. inmein se ek namoona "shnaaidar" kahalaata tha aur doosra "seint shaamon". shnaaidar par chhah vyaktiyon ka karmeedal aur "seint shaamon" par nau vyaktiyon ka karmeedal rahata tha. donon par saat saat mileemeetar ki ek ek top aur do-do masheenaganon prayukt hoti theen.

san 1917-18 mein French renaal factory ne "French renaal" naam ka halaka tank banaaya, jiska bhaar 7.4 tan, kavach ki motaai 0.3 inch se 0.6 inch tak aur jiski mahattam gati chhah meal prati ghanta thi. yeh 16 foot 5 inch lamba, 5 foot 8 inch chauda aur 7 foot 6.5 inch ooaincha tha. yeh chh: foot chh: inch chaudi khaai aur 27 inch gahari dhaara paar kar sakta tha. indhan ki samaai 24 gailan thi jiske dvaara vah 24 meal tak ja sakta th. ispar do aadamiyon ka karmeedal rahata tha aur 37 mileemeetar ki top ya masheenagan lagi rahati thi. ye teenon prakaar ke tank san 1917 mein April se lekar October tak ke beech yuddh mein prayukt hue.

Amreeki tank

san 1917 ki garami mein amareeka ne tank ke do namoone banaae aur unka pareekshan kiya. ek namoona pahiyedaar tha aur doosra chenadaar. donon mein se koi bhi santoshaprad naheen nikla. san 1918 anya do namoone bane. pehla namoona tha "Ford", jiska bhaar teen tan tha aur jispar ek masheenagan tatha do vyaktiyon ka karmeedal tha aur jiski mahattam gati aath meal prati ghanta thi. doosra namoona "mark pratham" tha. yeh renaal ka viksit roop tha. ispar 37 mileemitr ki ek top aur ek masheenagan lagi thi. ispar teen vyaktiyon ka karmeedal kaam karta tha. der mein banane ke kaaran yeh yuddh mein prayukt na ho saka.

pratham vishvayuddh aur dviteeya vishvayuddh ke beech ke kaal mein bane tank - is kaal mein vishesh roop se madhyam bhaar ke tainko ka vikaas hua. ye tank 18 se lekar 36 tan tak ke the. inmein kabach ki motaai badhaai gayi aur inki gati bhi 45 meal prati ghante tak ho gayi. tainkon mein vaayusheetak ya tailasheetak engine lage, rabar ke belan lage aur aalanban pranaali mein dvikundali tatha shankhaavart kamaaniyon ka prayog kiya gaya. sanchaar vyavastha ke liye laghutarang radio ka prayog hua. aantarik sanchaar vyavastha mein kanthya dhvanivrdhak yantr (dyanddhadruththadya thrtdddhadrudrandrudaddh) ka upayog kiya gaya aur karmeedalavaale kamron mein pankhe lagaae gaye. aur bhi gayi sudhaar hue. dhoomraavarana utpann karne vaale goalon ka bhi prayog praarambh kiya gaya.

Germany ne varasei (Versailles) ki sandhi ki sharton ki avhelna karke tainkon ke liye prayog jaari rakhe. san 1935 mein varasei ki sandhi bhang karke hitlar ne tainkon ka pratham baar prayog kiya. aath se lekar 40 tan tak ke tainkon ke vikaas ke prayatn hote rahe. san 1934 aur 1938 ke beech ke kaal mein jhalaai kiye hue madhyam bhaar ke tank viksit kiye gaye. in tainkon mein ispaat ke tainkon par bogi ke rabar ke tyre chadhe the aur aalanban vyavastha mein ainthi hui chhad ya kamaani ka prayog kiya gaya tha. in tainkon mein paryaapt sthaan tha, dekhne ki vyavastha uttam thi, chhat neechi thi aur aapatti ke samay bahirgaman ke liye khidkiyon ki bhi vyavastha thi. kintu in tainkon ki machine vishvasaneeya naheen thi.

France mein bhi dhale hue jhalaai kiye hue tainkon ka nirmaan aur vikaas kiya gaya. inhein tank shilpi, roosi sharanaarthi, ema0 kegrais ki sahaayata mili, jisne niyantrit antaraparivrti stiyring ka prayog karne mein sahayog diya. fraas mein kai prakaar ke tank aur kavachit yaan nirmit hue, jinke liye namya rabar traink ka prayog kiya jaata tha.

isi samay amareeka mein J. vaaltar kristi ne aise tank ka namoona prastut kiya jo niyamit sadkon par to rabar ke tyre ke pahiyon par teevr gati se daud sakta tha aur oobadkhaabad bhoomi par traiktar tyre ke daaainton ko rabar tyre ki bogiyon par chadhaakar, kaitarapilr tank ki bhaaainti chal sakta tha. yeh pranaali amareeka mein to vishesh pasand naheen ki gayi, haaain, roos aur England mein ise avashya hi kaaryaanvit kiya gaya. isi beech amareeka mein padaati sena ke liye halake tatha madhyam tank bhi bane. in halake tainkon ka bhaar 14 tan aur gati 35 meal prati ghanta thi. inmein 250 ashvashakti ka traijya vaayusheetak engine laga tha aur ispar chaar vyaktiyon ka karmeedal rahata tha. madhyam bhaar ke tank ka bhaar 23 tan aur usaki mahattam gati 30 meal prati ghanta thi. is tank mein 400 ashvashakti ka traijya vaayusheetak engine laga tha.

anya

roosiyon ne san 1925 mein angreji tainkon ke aadhaar par ek 80 tan ka tank banaaya. pehla vishuddh roosi tank ti-18 tha, jo san 1926 mein banaaya gaya. ispar 37 mileemeetar ki ek top aur ek masheenagan rahati thi aur do vyaktiyon ka karmeedal tha. 1935 i0 tak roos mein tank nirmaan-kaarya mein paryaapt pragati ho chuki thi aur vibhinn namoonon ke lagbhag 10,000 tank ban chuke the. in namoonon mein ti-27, ti-37 ti-28 aur bi-ti tank ullekhaneeya hain. inmein sabse bhaari tank ti-28 tha, jinka bhaar 112 tan tha.

jaapaaniyon ne tank banaane mein mukhyat: angrejon ka anukaran kiya. inka ek namoona madhyam bhaar ka 2597 tha, jo aalanban pranaali ki drushti se kristi prakaar ke tainkon ka viksit roop tha. iski mahattam gati 28 meal prati ghanta thi. ispar chaar vyaktiyon ka karmeedal aur 47 mileemeetar ki ek top tatha do masheenaganein lagi theen.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay

san 1938 tak Germany ne praamaanik namoonon ke tank taiyaar kar liye the. September, 1939 aur uske baad ke greeshmakaal mein Germany ke painjar divijnon ne tainkon se Poland, France, haulaind aur belajiym par vidyudgati se adhikaar kar liya. in aakramanon mein Germany ki tank shakti usaki vaayushakti se adhik prabhaavi siddh hui. yuddh ke aarambh mein jarmanon ne halake aur madhyam bhaar ke peejed kedablyoo (PzKw) pratham, dviteeya, truteeya aur chaturth tainkon ka prayog kiya. san 1942 ke praarambh mein unhonne aise tainkon ka vikaas kiya jinpar bhaari tonpein lagaai ja sakein. aise ek tank tiger tha, jise leningraad mein badi sankhya mein prayog mein laaya gaya. ismein ardhapaksheeya prakaar ka aalanban tha aur iska bhaar 60 tan tha. ismein naalamukh rodhak lage the aur 88 mileemeetar ki ek vimonavedhi top bhi lagi thi. sab aur se band rahane ke kaaran yeh 15 foot gahari dhaara ko paar kar sakta tha. doosra bhaari aur sarvottam jarman tank painthar tha, jo roos ke ti-34 naamak tank ke aadhaar par banaaya gaya tha. ise teevr gati se kaheen bhi le jaakar aakraman kiya ja sakta tha. 1,000 gaj ki doori par yeh kisi bhi tank ka saamaana kar sakta tha. isak bhaar 75 tan aur gati 24 meal prati ghanta thi. ispar 42 mileemeetar ki top lagi thi. iski leek (track) 32.5 inch chaudi thi. isse yeh mulaayam aur keechaddaar maarg par bhi chalne mein samarth tha.

Germany ki yuddh ki praarambhik safalataaon ne mitr shaktiyon ki tank-nirmaan-yojanaaon ko vishesh prabhaavit kiya. angrejon ne dviteeya vishvayuddh ke praarambh mein hi das prakaar ke tainkon aur chh: prakaar ke kavachit yaanon ka prayog kiya. in tainkon mein se mark pratham tatha truteeya, charchil, kraumavel, maatilda pratham aur dviteeya aur valentine pramukh the. mark pratham aur truteeya, maarak shakti ko dhyaan mein rakhakar nirmit kiye gaye the. inka bhaar 14 tan aur gati 18 meal prati ghanta thi. ispar do paaundar ek top thi. charchil model ka antim roop tha 42 tan ka ek tank, jiski gati 20 meal prati ghanta thi. ismein 350 ashvashakti ka engine aur 6 paaundar top lagi thi. iska niyantran do sthaanon se ho sakta tha, jisse yadi chaalak atyadhik ghaayal ho jaae to saamanevaala golandaarj sanchaalanakaarya sanbhaal sake. kraamavel ka bhaar 28 tan tha aur gati 31 meal prati ghanta. ispar 75 mileemeetar ki ek top lagi thi aur karmeedal ki sankhya paaainch thi. yadyapi tank maatilda pratham ka bhaar 12.3 tan aur gati madhyam thi, tathaapi ismein karmeedal ki suraksha ka vishesh dhyaan rakha gaya tha. maatilda dviteeya ki gati kuchh teevr thi. yeh adhik kushalata se kaarya karta tha. iska bhaar 26 tan tha aur iske kavach ki adhiktam motaai 3.5 inch thi.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke theek poorv aur yuddhakaal mein amareeka mein M-3 aur M-L naam ke madhyam tainkon ka vikaas hua, jinhein graant aur sharman bhi kaha jaata tha. 77 mileemeetaravaale graant tank ne Libya mein general romel ko pareshaan kar diya. kintu is tank ki maarak shakti badi seemit thi. sharman naamak doosra tank saadhaaran banaavat ka tha, jismein shankhaavart kamaani prayukt hoti thi aur jiski aalanban pranaali bogiyon ki bhaaainti thi. ismein ati viksit vi-8 engine laga tha. Amreeki bhaari tainkon mein M-6 aur M-26 the. M-6 ka bhaag 65 tan tha aur ispar teen inch ki shaktishaali top lagi thi. ise M-26 ya parshig tank ne sthaanaantarit kar diya. parshig tank ka bhaar 45 tan, gati 20 meal prati ghanta aur karmeedal ki sankhya paaainch thi. ispar 90 mileemeetar ki top aur 500 ashv shakti ka vi-8 engine laga tha.

Amreeki halake tainko mein se M-24 atyant safal raha. iska bhaar 1.9 tan se kuchh adhik tha. ismein dohara kedilaak engine laga tha aur iski gati 35 meal prati ghanta thi. iske kavach mi motaai 2.5 inch thi.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ki avadhi mein amareeka mein tairanevaala tank bhi bana. is tank ke saath baks ke samaan, dhaatu ke tairanevaale dibbe laga diye jaate the. tank ko samudratat se kuchh meal door jahaaj se uttaar liya jaata tha. vahaaain se ye apni hi shakti se samudratat par aa jaate the. nauramandi mein is tank ka safalataapoorvak prayog kiya gaya.

san 1940 i0 mein roos ne ti-34 naamak prasiddh tank taiyaar kiya. yeh roosi sainya saamagri mein sarvashreshth tha. ismein kristi tank ke samaan kamaani yukt aalanban ki vyavatha thi. iski ooainchaai bahut kam thi. iske bhaar 26 tan tha aur iski gati 30 meal prati ghanta thi. ismein 500 ashv shakti ka vaayusheetak vi-12 diesel engine aur 76.2 mileemeetar ki top lagi hui thi. isi tank ka ek doosra sanskaran ti-34/85 bhi bana. yeh bhi ti-34 tank tha, kintu ispar teen vyaktiyon dvaara chaalit taret lagi thi, jispar 85 mileemeetar ki top chadhi hui thi. san 1944 mein ise yuddh mein kaam mein laaya gaya. iske pashchaat ti-34/85 roosi sena ka praamaanik shaastr ban gaya. san 1950 in0 mein Korea yuddh ke praarambh mein is tank ne pralaya macha diya. baad mein cheeni svayansevakon ne ise Korea mein istemaal kiya aur roosiyon ne san 1953 ke poorvi Germany ke janajaagaran ke viruddh iska prayog kiya. roos ka ek anya pramukh madhyabhaareeya tank tha ti-54. iska pramukh shastr tha 100 mileemeetar ki top, jise teevr gativaali kaart taret (Cart turret) par chadhaaya gaya tha. iski ooainchaai kam thi, at: shatru dvaara ispar nishaana saadhana kathin tha. san 1955 ke lagbhag is tank ka adhik upayog hua. baad mein Hungary ki janakraaainti ke daman ke liye roosiyon ne iska prayog san 1956 mein bhi kiya.

bhaari tainkon mein roos ka sarvaprasiddh namoona Joseph stailin truteeya tha. dviteeya vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke lagbhag yeh bankar taiyaar hua. ispar 122 mileemeetar ki top lagi thi. iska bhaar 56 tan, kavach ki motaai, 10 inch aur agr bhaag tatha taret poornaroopen jhalaai kiye hue the. ismein 600 ashvashakti ka engine laga tha.

aajkal tainkon ka mahatva san 1916, ya san 1939 se bhi adhik badh gaya hai. yeh nishchit roop se kaha ja sakta hai ki yuddhon ke parinaamon ka nishchaya paaramaanavik shastron aur tainkon dvaara hi hoga. bhavishya mein bhi tank suraksha aur aakraman ke sarvashreshth saadhan raheinge aur koi aashcharya naheen yadi nikat bhavishya mein paramaanavik astron ka pratirodh karne mein saksham tainkon ka nirmaan aur prayog ho.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad bane tainko ko unki peedi mein baata jaata hai.

sabse pehle bane tainko mein se british mark 4 star
pehli peedi ka roosi ti-54 tank
doosari peedi ka ameriki M-60 ai3 tank
teesari peedi ka bhaarateeya arjun emabeeti tank

baahari kadiyaaain