tamil naadu

Tamil Nadu
தaaமaaிaaழaa்aaநaaாaaடaaு

भारत के मानचित्र पर तमिलनाडु  தமிழ்நாடு

Bhaarat ke praant
rajdhani chennai
sabse bada shahar chennai
janasankhya 62,405, 679 (2001)
- ghanatv 478 /kimee²
kshetrafal 130,058 kimee²
- jile 30
raajabhaasha(eain) tamil
pratishtha 1 November, 1956
- raajyapaal ke rosaiyya[1]
- mukhyamantri jayalalita
- vidhaanasabha ek sadaneeya
aaiesao sankshep IN-TN
www.tn.gov.in
Tamil Nadu ke raajya prateek
pashu neelagiri tahar
(tamil: வaaரaaை யaaாaaடaaு)
Niltahr.jpg
pakshi panna kabootar
(tamil: மaaரaaகaaதaaபaa் பaaுaaறaaா,பaaஞaa்aaசaaவaaரaa்aaண பaaுaaறaaா)
Emerald dove444.jpg
nrutya bhaaratanaattiym
(tamil: பaaரaaதaaநaaாaaடaa்aaடaaிaaயaaமaa்)
pushp curry hari
(tamil: சaaெaaஙaa்aaகaaாaaநaa்aaதaaளaa்,கaaாaaரaa்aaதaa்aaதaaிaaகaaை மaaலaaரaa்)
Gloriosa Superba.jpg
geet neeraaram
Neerarum Kadaludutha.jpg
khel saadugudu
A Kabaddi match at 2006 Asian Games.jpg
vruksh taad
(tamil: பaaனaaை மaaரaaமaa்)
Palm Tamil Nadu.jpg
srot:[2]

tamil naadu (tamil: , Tamil Nadu) Bhaarat ka ek dakshini raajya hai. tamil naadu ki rajdhani chennai hai. tamil naadu ke anya mahattvapoorn nagar madurai, trichi, koyambatoor, salem, tiroonelaveli hain. iske padosi raajya aandhr pradesh, Karnataka aur Kerala hain. tamil naadu mein boli jaane waali pramukh bhaasha tamil hai. tamil naadu ki vartamaan mukhyamantri jayalalita aur raajyapaal ke rosaiyya hain.

anukram

naamaakaran

british shaasanakaal mein yeh praant Madras presideinsi ka bhaag tha. svatantrata ke baad Madras presideinsi ko vibhinn bhaagon mein baaaint diya gaya, jiska parinti Madras tatha anya raajyon mein hui. 1968 mein Madras praant ka naam badalkar tamil naadu kar diya gaya.

Tamil Nadu shabd tamil bhaasha ke tamil tatha naadu (நaaாaaடaaு) yaani desh ya vaasasthaan, se milkar bana hai jiska arth tamilon ka ghar ya tamilon ka desh hota hai.

itihaas

Tamil Nadu ka itihaas bahut praacheen hai. yeh un gine chune kshetron mein se ek hai jo praagaitihaasik kaal se ab tak lagaataar base hue hai. atyaarambh se yeh teen prasiddh raajavanshon ki karmabhoomi rahi hai - cher, chol tatha paandya. tamil naadu ke praacheen sangam saahitya mein, yahaaain ke tatkaaleen raajaaon, raajakumaaron tatha unke prashanshak kaviyon ka baarambaar vivran milta hai. vidvaan tatha visheshagya esa maanate hain ki, yeh sangam saahitya isottar (isa-pashchaat) ki aarambhik kuchh sadiyon ka hai. aarambhik chol, pehli sadi se lekar chauthi sadi tak satta ke mukhya adhipti rahe. inmein sarvapramukh naam karikaal chol (tamil - கaaரaaிaaகaaாaaல சaaோaaல (tamil hijje ki shuddhata apoorn ho sakti hai)) hai, jisne apne saamraajya ko kaancheepuram tak pahuainchaaya. cholon ne vartamaan tanyajaavur tatha tiruchiraapalli tak apna saamraajya vistrut kiya tatha sainya karmon mein mahaarat praapt ki. apne yauvan kaal mein cholon ne dakshin mein Sri Lanka tatha uttar mein kai sau ki॰mee॰ tak apna prabhutv sthaapit kiya. teesari sadi tak kaalabhron ke aakraman se cholon ka patan aarambh ho gaya. kaalabhron ko chhathi sadi tak, uttar mein pallavon tatha dakshin mein paandyon ne haraakar baahar kar diya.

mandir nirmaan

580 i0 ke aaspaas paandya shaashak, jo mandir nirmaan mein nipun nikle, satta ke pramukh ho gaye aur agale 150 varshon tak raaj sambhaala. kaancheepuram unka pramukh kendra tha. Dravid sthaapatya is samay apne charam par tha.

9veen sadi mein cholon ka punarodaya hua. raajaaraaja chol tatha uske putr raajeindr chol ke netrutv mein chol Asia ke pramukh saamraajyon mein gina jaane laga. unka saamraajya Bengal tak fail gaya. raajeindr chol ki nausena ne barma (myaanamaar), andamaan aur nikobaar dweep samooh, sumaatra, jaava, malaya tatha lakshadveep tak par adhiptya jamaaya. cholon ne bhi bhuvan (mandir) nirmaan mein praveenata haasil ki. tanjaavur ka vruhadeshvar mandir iska sundaratam udaaharan hai. 14veen sadi ke aarambh mein paandya fir prabhutv mein aae, par adhik dinon tak tik naheen sake. unhein uttar ke muslim khilji shaashakon ne hara diya. madurai ko loot liya gaya.

16veen sadi ke madhya mein vijyanagar saamraajya ke patan ke baad kuchh puraane mandiron ka punarnimaan kiya gaya. 1670 tak raajya ka lagbhag sampoorn kshetr maraathon ke adhikaar mein aa gaya. par maraathe adhik dinon tak shaasan mein naheen rah sake iske 50 varshon ke baad Mysore svatantr ho gaya jiske adheen aaj ke tamilnaadu ka uttar-poorvi kshetr tha. iske alaava dakshin ke raajya bhi svatantr ho gaye. san 1799 mein chauthe aagl-Mysore yuddh mein teepoo sultaan ki mrutyu ke baad yeh angreji shaasan mein aa gaya.

bhoogol

tamil naadu ka kshetrafal 1,30,058 kimi2 hai. yeh Bhaarat ke dakshin mein sthit hai aur uttar mein aandhr pradesh, pashchim mein Kerala, dakshin mein hind mahaasaagar aur poorv mein Bengal ki khaadi iske padosi hain. iske atirikt raajya ke uttarapoorv mein Puducherry bhi sthit hai. yahaaain ki sabse pramukh nadi kaaveri hai.

raajya ka pashchimi, dakshini aur uttarapoorvi bhaag pahaadi bhoobhaag wala hai. tamil naadu desh ka ekamaatr aisa raajya hai jiski seema ke bheetar poorvi aur pashchimi ghaat padte hain jo neelagiri mein jude hue hain. Kerala ki seema se lagta pashchimi ghaat hai jo dakshinpashchim monsoon ki baarish ko rok deta hai. raajya ka poorvi bhaag upajaaoo hai, uttari bhaag mein pahaadiyaaain aur samatal bhoomi bhi hai. raajya ke madhya bhaag shushk hain aur raajya ke anya kshetron ki tulana mein kam varsha praapt karte hain.

tamil naadu ki tatarekha 910 kimi hai. varsh 2004 mein I sunaami ki laharein is raajya ki tatarekha se bhi takaraai theen jiske kaaran yahaaain bahut kshati hui. us sunaami mein tamil naadu mein lagbhag 7,790 log maare gaye the. is raajya ki jalavaayu monsoon par nirbhar hai aur bahut se kshetr sookha-sambhaavit hain. raajya mein ausat vaarshik avakshepan 945 meemi hai.

janasaankhyiki

2011 ki janaganana ke anusaar tamil naadu ki janasankhya 7,21,38,958 hai jo desh mein saataveen sabse adhik hai aur desh ki kul janasankhya ka 5.96% hai. raajya mein janasankhya ghanatv 555 vyakti/kimi2 hai jo raashtreeya ausat se kaheen adhik oopar hai. yahaaain ki 44% janasankhya nagareeya kshetron mein nivaas karti hai. varsh 2001 se 2011 ke dauraan tamil naadu ki janasankhya mein 15.6% ki vruddhi hui thi. tab bhi raajya ki prajanan dar desh mein sabse kam mein se hai - 1.8 bachche prati 1 mahila. raajya ki adhikaansh janasankhya hindu dharm ki anuyaayi hai, lagbhag 88.34%, jiske pashchaat isaai (6.08%) aur musalmaan (5.57%) hain. raajya ki aadhikaarik bhaasha tamil hai aur kul 89% log ise bolte hain. anya pramukh bhaashaaeain hain: telugu (5.66%), kannad (1.7%), urdoo (1.5%) aur malayalam (0.6%). raajya ki jeevan pratyaasha dar purushon ke liye 65.2 varsh aur mahilaaon ke liye 67.6 varsh hai. varsh 2004-05 ke aaainkadon ke anusaar raajya mein 27.5% log nirdhanata seema se neeche rah rahe hain.

sanskruti

tamil sabhyata vishv ki puraatanatam sabhyataaon mein se ek hai. tamil yahaan ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai aur haal mein hi ise janak bhaasha ka darja mila. tamil bhaasha ka itihaas kaafi praacheen hai, jiska parivrtit roop aaj saamaanya bolachaal mein prayukt hota hai.

Tamil Nadu ki saanskrutik visheshata tanjaavur ke bhittichitr, bharatanaatyam, mandir-nirmaan tatha anya sthaapatya kalaaen hain.

saahitya

sant kavi tiroovalluvar ka tirukkural (tamil - தaaிaaரaaுaaகaa்aaகaaுaaறaaளaa்), praacheen tamil ka sarvaprasiddh granth hai. sangam saahitya, tamil ke saahityik vikaas ka dastaavej hai. tamil ka vikaas 20veen sadi ke svatantrata sangraam ke dauraan bhi kaafi teji se hua.

sangeet

Karnataka sangeet yahaan ki mukhyadhaara sangeet-vidha hai.

nrutya

bharatanaatyam kaafi lokapriya aur prasiddh hai.

bhojan

chaaval Tamil Nadu ka pramukh bhojan hai, chaaval va chaaval ke bane vyanjan jaise dosa, uthappam, idli aadi lokapriya hai jinhe kele ke patte par parosa jaata hai. yahaan ke khaane mein mirch masaalon ka kaafi prayog kiya jaata hai jisse bhojan atis‍aavaadish‍aat evam roochikr lagta hai.

raajaneeti

tamil naadu mein dvisdanaatmak lokatantr tha, jise 1986 mein anya kai bhaarateeya raajyon ki tarah, ekasadanaatmak kar diya vidhaanasabha - 234

arthavyavastha

tamil naadu, Bhaarat ka Maharashtra ke baad sabse bada audyogik raajya hai. yeh Bhaarat ka sarvaadhik nagareekrut raajya bhi hai jahaan ki 47% janasamkhya nagareeya kshetron mein nivaas karti hai. desh ke anya raajyon ki tulana mein tamil naadu mein audyogik utpaadan kshetr samaan roop se faila hua hai. tamil naadu, Karnataka ke baad desh ka sabse bada soochana praudyogiki (IT) vikaas ka kshetr hai visheshakar chennai jo Karnataka ki rajdhani bangalaur ke baad desh ka sabse bada IT nagar hai aur desh ka sabse bada IT park yahaaain sthit hai. iske atirikt yahaaain baayopraudyogiki vikaas (chainnai aur madurai), lauh dhaatu-vigyaan (saalem), parmaanu oorja (kalapakkam aur kundankulam) ke bhi kendra hai. yahaaain yaantrik abhiyaantriki kendra bhi hain aur desh ke 40% vaahan yahaaain nirmit hote hain. iske atirikt vastr-udyog bhi yahaaain ka ek paaramparik roop se pramukh udyog hai aur iska kendra tirupur mein hai.

tamil naadu ka paryatan udyog bhi viksit hai aur paryatan ke pramukh kendra kaanyacheepuram, mamallapuram (ya mahaabalipuram), tiruchiraapalli, kanyaakumaari aur raameshvaram hain. chainnai ka mareena tat bhi vishv ka doosra sabse lamba samudratat hai.

krushi

raajya ki arthavyavastha mein krushikshetr ki pramukh bhoomika hai. tamil naadu ka chaaval utpaadan desh mein paaainchava sabse adhik hai. is raajya mein Bhaarat ke kul fal-utpaadan ka 10% aur sabjiyon ke utpaadan ka 6% paid hota hai. yahaaain sthit kaaveri nadi droni ko "dakshin Bhaarat ka chaaval ka katora" kaha jaat hai. tamil naadu kelon aur foolon ka sabse bada, aam, rabad, moongafali, naariyl ka doosra sabse bada aur kaufi ka teesara sabse bada utpaadak hai. ganna utpaadan ke liye raajya ki 2% juti hui bhoomi upayog mein hai. tamil naadu doodh ka bhi pramukh utpaadak hai.

shiksha

2011 ki janaganana ke anusaar tamil naadu ki saaksharata dar 80.3% hai jo raashteeya ausat se adhik hai. 2001 ki janaganana mein yeh dar 73.5% tha. yahaan shiksha-kshetr mein ek pramukh samasya prashikshit adhyaapakon ki kami hona hai. tamil naadu mein kul milaakar 37 vishvavidyaalaya, 454 takaneeki mahaavidyaalaya, 566 kala aur vigyaan mahaavidyaalaya, 34,335 praarambhik vidyaalaya, 5,167 maadhyamik vidyaalaya, 5,054 uchchatar vidyaalaya hain. pramukh shaikshanik sansthaanon mein hain: Madras vishvavidyaalaya, IIT Madras, peeesaji praudyogiki mahaavidyaalaya, anna vidhvavidyaalaya chainnai, koyamabatoor praudyogiki sansthaan, kaamaraaj vishvavidyaalaya madurai, enaaaaiti trichi, Madras kishchan college, kishchan medical college, vellor praudyogiki sansthaan, Madras medikl college, loyola college, tamil naadu krushi vishvavidyaalaya aur madurai medical college hain.

parivhan

tamil naadu ka parivhan tantr apekshaakrut roop se viksit hai. raajya mein sadkon ki kul lambaai 1,99,040 kimi hai jismein se 4,873 kimi raashtreeya raajamaarg hain. sadak tantr ka ghanatv 153 se 100 kimi2 hai jo raashtreeya ausat se adhik hai. raajya mein rel-tantr bahut achhi tarah viksit hai aur yahaaain relamaargon ki kul lambaai 5,952 kimi hai. tamil naadu bhaarateeya rel ke dakshini jon mein aata hai.

raajya ki rajdhani chainnai mein metro nirmaanaadheen hai aur sambhaavit hai ki 2014-15 tak yeh khul jaaegi.[3] raajya ka pramukh bas seva sanchaalak - tamil naadu raajya parivhan nigam hai jo raajyabhar mein bas sevaaeain pradaan karta hai. raajya ka pramukh antarraashtreeya havaai adda chainnai mein sthit hai aur desh ka chautha sabse vyast hai. do anya antarraashtreeya havaai adde tiruchiraapalli aur koyamabatoor mein hain.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • Tamil Nadu ke Loksabha sadasya

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain