takshashila

Bhaarat mein duniya ke pehle vishvavidyaalaya 'takshashila vishvavidyaalaya' ki sthaapana saataveen shati isa poorv ho gayi thi. yeh samay naalanda vishvavidyaalaya se lagbhag 1200 varsh pehle tha.

'telapatt' aur 'suseemajaatak' mein takshashila ko kaashi se 2,000 kos door bataaya gaya hai. jaatakon mein takshashila ke mahaavidyaalaya ki bhi anek baar charcha hui hai. yahaaain adhyayan karne ke liye door-door se vidyaarthi aate the. Bhaarat ke gyaat itihaas ka yeh sarvapraacheen vishvavidyaalaya tha. is vishvavidyaalaya mein raaja aur rank sabhi vidyaarthiyon ke saath samaan vyavahaar hota tha. jaatak kathaaon se yeh bhi gyaat hota hai ki takshashila mein 'dhanurved' tatha 'vaidyak' tatha anya vidyaaon ki oonchi shiksha di jaati thi. sthaapana

takshashila vishvavidyaalaya vartamaan pashchimi Pakistan ki rajdhani raavalapindi se 18 meal uttar ki or sthit tha. jis nagar mein yeh vishvavidyaalaya tha uske baare mein kaha jaata hai ki shri Ram ke bhaai bharat ke putr 'taksh' ne us nagar ki sthaapana ki thi.

 yeh vishv ka pratham vishvavidyaalaya tha jiski sthaapana 700 varsh isa poorv mein ki gayi thi.
 takshashila vishvavidyaalaya mein poore vishv ke 10,500 se adhik chhaatr adhyayan karte the.
 yahaan 60 se bhi adhik vishyon ko padhaaya jaata tha.
 326 isvi poorv mein videshi aakramanakaari sikndar ke aakraman ke samay yeh sansaar ka sabse prasiddh vishvavidyaalaya hi naheen tha, apitu us samay ke 'chikitsa shaastr' ka ekamaatr sarvopari kendra tha.

aayurved vigyaan ka sabse bada kendra

500 E. poo. jab sansaar mein chikitsa shaastr ki parampara bhi naheen thi tab takshashila 'aayurved vigyaan' ka sabse bada kendra tha. jaatak kathaaon evam videshi paryatakon ke lekh se pata chalta hai ki yahaan ke snaatak mastishk ke bheetar tatha antadiyon tak ka operation badi sugamata se kar lete the. anek asaadhya rogon ke upachaar saral evam sulabh jadi bootiyon se karte the. iske atirikt anek durlabh jadi-bootiyon ka bhi unhein gyaan tha. shishya aachaarya ke aashram mein rahakar vidyaadhyayan karte the. ek aachaarya ke paas anek vidyaarthi rahate the. inki sankhya praaya: sau se adhik hoti thi aur anek baar 500 tak pahunch jaati thi. adhyayan mein kriyaatmak kaarya ko bahut mahattv diya jaata tha. chhaatron ko deshaatan bhi karaaya jaata tha.

shulk aur pareeksha

shiksha poorn hone par pareeksha li jaati thi. takshashila vishvavidyaalaya se snaatak hona us samay atyant gauravapoorn maana jaata tha. yahaan dhani tatha nirdhan donon tarah ke chhaatron ke adhyayan ki vyavastha thi. dhani chhaatra aachaarya ko bhojan, nivaas aur adhyayan ka shulk dete the tatha nirdhan chhaatr adhyayan karte hue aashram ke kaarya karte the. shiksha poori hone par ve shulk dene ki pratijnyaa karte the. praacheen saahitya se vidit hota hai ki takshashila vishvavidyaalaya mein padhne vaale uchch varn ke hi chhaatr hote the. suprasiddh vidvaan, chintak, kootneetigya, arthashaastri chaanakya ne bhi apni shiksha yaheen poorn ki thi. uske baad yaheen shikshan kaarya karne lage. yaheen unhonne apne anek granthon ki rachana ki. is vishvavidyaalaya ki sthiti aise sthaan par thi, jahaan poorv aur pashchim se aane vaale maarg milte the. chaturth shataabdi E. poo. se hi is maarg se bhaaratavarsh par videshi aakraman hone lage. videshi aakraantaaon ne is vishvavidyaalaya ko kaafi kshati pahunchaai. antat: chhathaveen shataabdi mein yeh aakramanakaariyon dvaara poori tarah nasht kar diya. sthiti

us kaal mein takshashila ek vikhyaat vishvavidyaalaya tha, jo sindhu nadi ke kinaare base nagar ke roop mein tha. vishvavidyaalaya mein prakhyaat vidvaan tatha visheshagya shikshakon ke roop mein chhaatron ko shiksha dete the. takshashila mein shiksha grahan karne ke liye door-door se Rajkumar, shaahi parivaaron ke putr, braahmanon, vidvaanon, dhani logon tatha uchch kulon ke bete aate the. takshashila aajkal Pakistan mein hai. puraatattv khudaai mein vishvavidyaalaya ka poora chitr ubharakar saamane aaya hai. takshashila mein das hajaar chhaatron ke aavaas va padhaai ki suvidhaaeain theen. shikshakon ki sankhya ka sahaj hi anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai. vishvavidyaalaya mein aavaas kaksh, padhaai ke liye kaksh, sabhaagruh aur pustakaalaya the. takshashila ke avasheshon ko dekhne ke liye aaj prativrsh hajaaron paryatak, itihaasakaar tatha puraatattvavetta takshashila jaate hain. paathyakram

 us samay vishvavidyaalaya kai vishyon ke paathyakram upalabdh karta tha, jaise - bhaashaaen, vyaakaran, darshan shaastr, chikitsa, shalya chikitsa, krushi, bhoovijnyaaan, jyotish, khagol shaastr, gyaan-vigyaan, samaaj-shaastr, dharm, tantr shaastr, manovijnyaaan tatha yogavidya aadi.
 vibhinn vishyon par shodh ka bhi praavadhaan tha.
 shiksha ki avadhi 8 varsh tak ki hoti thi.
 vishesh adhyayan ke atirikt ved, teerandaaji, ghudsavaari, haathi ka sandhaan va ek darjan se adhik kalaaon ki shiksha di jaati thi.
 takshashila ke snaatakon ka har sthaan par bada aadar hota tha.
 yahaan chhaatr 15-16 varsh ki avastha mein praarambhik shiksha grahan karne aate the. svaabhaavik roop se chaanakya ko uchch shiksha ki chaah takshashila le I. yahaan chaanakya ne padhaai mein vishesh yogyata praapt ki. 
takshashila mein praacheen bauddh math ke bhagnaavashesh

takshashila praacheen Bhaarat mein gaandhaar desh ki rajdhani aur shiksha ka pramukh kendra tha. yahaaain ka vishvavidyaalaya vishv ke praacheenatam vishvavidyaalayon mein shaamil hai. yeh hindu evam bauddh donon ke liye mahatva ka kendra tha. chaanakya yahaaain par aachaarya the. 405 E mein faahyaan yahaaain aaya tha. takshashila vartamaan samay mein Pakistan ke Punjab praant ke raavalapindi jile ki ek tahaseel hai.

aitihaasik roop se yeh teen mahaan maargon ke sangam par sthit tha-

(1) uttaraapath - vartamaan graind trank road, jo gandhaar ko magadh se jodta tha,

(2) uttarapashchimi maarg - jo kaapish aur pushkalaavati aadi se hokar jaata tha,

(3) sindhu nadi maarg - shreenagar, maanasera, haripur ghaati se hote hue uttar mein resham maarg aur dakshin mein hind mahaasaagar tak jaata tha.

anukram

parichay

takshashila

yon to gaandhaar ki charcha rigved se hi milti hai[tathya vaanchhit] kintu takshashila ki jaankaari sarvapratham vaalmeeki raamaayan se hoti hai. ayodhya ke raaja raamachandr ki vijyon ke ullekh ke silsile mein hamein yeh gyaat hota hai ki unke chhote bhaai bharat ne apne naana kekayaraaj ashvapati ke aamantran aur unki sahaayata se gandharvo ke desh (gaandhaar) ko jeeta aur apne do putron ko vahaaain ka shaasak niyukt kiya. gandharv desh sindhu nadi ke donon kinaare, sthit tha (sindhorubhayat: paarshve desh: paramashobhan:, vaalmiki raamaayan, saptam, 100-11) aur uske daanon or bharat ke taksh aur pushkal naamak donon putron ne takshashila aur pushkaraavati naamak apni-apni raajadhaaniyaaain basaai. (raghuvansh pandrahavaaain, 88-9; vaalmeeki raamaayan, saptam, 101.10-11; vaayupuraan, 88.190, mahaabhaarat, pratham 3.22). takshashila sindhu ke poorvi tat par thi. un raghuvanshi kshatriyon ke vanshajon ne takshashila par kitne dinon tak shaasan kiya, yeh bata sakana kathin hai. mahaabhaarat yuddh ke baad pareekshit ke vanshajon ne kuchh peedhiyon tak vahaaain adhikaar banaae rakha aur janamejaya ne apna naagayajnya vaheen kiya tha (mahaa0, svargaarohan parv, adhyaaya 5). Gautam buddh ke samay gaandhaar ke raaja pukkusaati ne magadharaaj vinbisaar ke yahaaain apna dootamandal bheja tha. chhathi shati i0 poorv faaras ke shaasak kurush ne sindhu pradeshon par aakraman kiya aur baad mein bhi uske kuchh uttaraadhikaariyon ne usaki nakal ki. lagta hai, takshashila unke kabje mein chali gayi aur lagbhag 200 varshon tak usapar faaras ka adhiptya raha. makadooniya ke aakramanakaari vijeta sikandar ke samay ki takshashila ki charcha karte hue straibo ne likha hai (haimiltan aur Falkner ka angreji anuvaad, truteeya, prusht 90) ki vah ek bada nagar tha, achhi vidhiyon se shaasit tha, ghani aabaadeevaala tha aur upajaaoo bhoomi se yukt tha. vahaaain ka shaasak tha baisiliys athva taiksilij. usane sikandar se upahaaron ke saath bheint kar mitrata kar li. usaki mrutyu ke baad usaka putr bhi, jiska naam aanbhi tha, sikandar ka mitr bana raha, kintu thode hi dinon pashchaat chandragupt maurya ne uttari pashchimi seemaakshetron se sikandar ke siphasaalaaron ko maarkar nikaal diya aur takshashila par usaka adhikaar ho gaya. vah uske uttaraapath praant ki rajdhani ho gayi aur maurya Rajkumar matriyon ki sahaayata se vahaaain shaasan karne lage. usak putr bindusaar, pautr suseem aur papautr kunaal vahaaain baari-baari se praanteeya shaasak niyukt kiye gaye. divyaavadaan se gyaat hota hai ki vahauain matriyon ke atyaachaar ke kaaran kabhi kabhi vidroh bhi hote rahe aur ashok (suseem ke prashaasakatv ke samay) tatha kunaal (ashok ke raaja hote) un vidrohon ko dabaane ke liye bheje gaye. maurya saamraajya ki avanati ke dinon mein yoonaani baarivtrayon ke aakraman hone lage aur unka us par adhikaar ho gaya tatha dimitr (demetriys) aur yookretaainds ne vahaaain shaasan kiya. fir pehli shataabdi isavi poorv mein seethiyon aur pehli shati isavi mein shakon ne baari baari se usamar adhikr kiya. kanishk aur uske nikat ke vanshajon ka us par avashya adhikaar tha. takshashila ka uske baad ka itihaas kuchh andhakaarapoorn hai. paaainchaveen shataabdi mein hoonon ne Bhaarat par jo dhvansak aakraman kiye, unamein takshashila nagar bhi dhvast ho gaya. vaastav mein takshashila ke vidyaakeindr ka hraas shakon aur unke yoochi uttaraadhikaariyon ke samay se hi praarabhan ho gaya tha. gupton ke samay jab faahyaan vahaaain gaya to use vahaaain vidya ke prachaar ka koi vishesh chinh naheen praapt ho saka tha. vah use cho-sh-shilo kehta hai. (legi faahyaan ki yaatraaeain angraji mein, prushth 32) hoonon ke aakraman ke pashchaat Bhaarat aane vaale doosare cheeni yaatri yuvaan chvaand (saataveen shataabdi) ko to vahaaain ki puraani shri bilkul hi hat mili. us samay vahaaain ke bauddh bhikshu du:khi avastha mein the tatha praacheen bauddh vihaar aur math khandahar ho chuke the. asabhya hoonon ki durdaant talavaaron ne bhaarateeya sanskruti aur vidya ke ek pramukh kendra ko dhaah diya tha.

utkhanan (khudaai) evam puraatatv

takshashila

praacheen takshashila ke khandaharon ko khoj nikaalne ka prayant sabse pehle general kaningham ne shuroo kiya tha, kintu thos kaam 1912 i0 ke baad hi bhaarateeya puraatatv vibhaag ki or se sar John maarshal ke netrutv mein shuroo hua aur ab uske kai sthaanon par chhitre hue avashesh khod nikaale gaye hain. lagta hai, bhinn bhinn yugon mein nagar videshi aakramanon ke kaaran dhvast hokar nai bastiyon ke roop mein idhar-udhar sarakata raha. usaki sabse pehli basti Pakistan ke Rawalpindi jile mein bheer ke teelon se, doosari basti Rawalpindi se 22 meal uttar sirkap ke khandaharon se aur teesari basti usase bhi uttar sirsukh se milaai gayi hai. ye bastiyaaain kramash: paaainchavi aur doosari shati isavi poorv ke beech doosari aur pehli shati isavi poorv ke beech (yooneeni baakhtri yug) tatha pehli shati isa poorv aur pehli isavi shati ke madhya (shak-kushan yug) ki maani jaati hain. khudaaiyon mein vahaaain anek stoopon aur vihaaron (visheshat: kunaal vihaar) ke chinh mile hain (aarkeyaalaujikl sarve ov India ki riportein, 1912-13 ki, 1923-24 ki tathaa1928-29 ki maarshal krurt A guide tu taiksila Delhi 1936; eainshyeint India, puraatatv vibhaag ki buletin, 1947-48 prushth 41 aur aage).

takshashila vishvavidyaalaya

bhaarateeya itihaas mein takshashila nagari vidya aur shiksha ke mahaan kendra ke roop mein prasiddh thi. aisa lagta hai ki vaidik kaal ki kuchh antim shataabdiyon ke poorv usaki khyaati bahut naheen ho pai thi. kintu bauddhayug mein to vah vidya ka sarvamukhya kshetr thi. yadyapi bauddh saahitya ke praacheen sootron mein usaki charcha naheen milti tathaapi jaatakon mein uske varnan bhare pade hain. tripitk ki teekaaon aur aththakathaaon se bhi usaki anek baatein gyaat hoti hain. tadanusaar banaaras, raajagruh, mithila aur ujjayini jaise bhaaratavarsh ke door-door kshetron se vidyaarthi vahaaain padhne ke liye jaate aur vishvaprasiddh guruon se shiksha praapt karte the. tilmushti jaatak (fausavaul aur kauvel ke sanskaranon ki sankhya 252) se jaana jaata hai ki vahaaain ka anushaasan atyant kathor tha aur raajaaon ke ladke bhi yadi baar-baar dosh karte to peete ja sakte the. Varanasi ke anek raajaaon (brahmadatton) ke apne putron, anya raajakumaaron aur uttaraadhikaariyon ko vahaaain shiksha praapt karne ke liye bhejane ki baat jaatakon se gyaat hoti hai (fausabaul ki sankhya 252).

spasht hai ki takshashila raajaneeti aur shastravidya ki shiksha ka anyatam kendra thi. vahaaain ke ek shastravidyaalaya mein vibhinn raajyon ke 103 Rajkumar padhte the. aayurved aur vidhishaastr ke vahaaain vishesh vidyaalaya the. takshashila ke snaatakon mein bhaarateeya itihaas ke kuchh atyant prasiddh purushon ke naam milte hain. sanskrut saahitya ke sarvashreshth vaiyaakaran paanini gaandhaar sthit shaalaatur ke nivaasi the aur asambhav naheen, unhone takshashila mein hi shiksha pai ho. Gautam buddh ke samakaaleen kuchh prasiddh vyakti bhi vaheen ke vidyaarthi rah chuke the jinmein mukhya the teen sahapaathi kosalaraaj prasenajit, mall sardaar bandhul evam lichhavi mahaali; pramukh vaidya aur shalyak jeevak tatha braahman lutera angulimaal. vahaaain se praapt aayurved sambandhi jeevak ke apaar gyaan aur kaushal ka vivran vinyapitk se milta hai. chaanakya vaheen ke snaatak aur adhyaapak the aur unke shishyon mein sarvaadhik prasiddh hua chandragupt maurya, jisne apne guru ke saath milkar maurya saamraajya ki sthaapana ki. takshashila mein praaya- uchchastareeya vidyaaeain hi padhaai jaati theen aur door-door se aane vaale baalak nishchaya hi kishoraavastha ke hote the jo praarambhik shiksha pehle hi praapt kar chuke hote the. vahaaain ke paathayakram mein aayurved, dhanurved, hastividya, trayi, vyaakaran, darshanashaastr, ganit, jyotish, ganana, sankhyaanak, vaanijya, sarpavidya, tantrashaastr, sangeet, nrutya aur chitrakala aadi ka mukhya sthaan tha. jaatakon mein ullikhit (fausabaul sanskaran, jild pratham, prushth 256) vahaaain padhaae jaanevaale teen vedon aur 18 vidyaaon mein upayukt avashya hongein. kintu karmakaand ki shiksha ke liye takshashila naheen, apitu Varanasi hi adhik prasiddh thi. takshashila ki sabse badi visheshata thi, vahaaain padhaae jaanevaale shaastron mein laukik shastron ka praadhaanya.

kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai (altekar, education in ensheint India, 1944, prushth 106-7) ki takshashila mein koi aadhunik mahaavidyaalayon athva vishvavidyaalayon jaisi ek sangathit evam samavet sanstha naheen thi, apitu vah vidya ka aisa kendra tha jahaaain alag-alag chhote-chhote gurukul hote aur vyaktigat roop se vibhinn vishyon ke aachaarya aagantuk vidyaarthiyon ko shiksha pradaan karte the. kintu is baat ka dhyaan rakhate hue ki us samay ke gurukulon par guruon ke atirikt anya kisi adhikaari athva keindreeya sanstha ka koi niyantran naheen hota tha, yeh asambhav naheen jaan padta ki takshashila ke sabhi gurukulon ke chhaatron ki saari sankhya aur un alag alag gurukulon ka samavet svaroop aadhunik vishvavidyaalayon se vishesh bhinn na raha ho. kabhi-kabhi to ek-ek gurukul mein paaainch-paaainch sau vidyaarthi hote the (jaatak, fausabaul, pratham, prushth 239, 317, 402; truteeya, pru0 18, 235 aadi) aur unamein vibhinn vishay avashya padhaae jaate hogein. unako mahaavidyaalayon ki sanjnyaa dena anuchit na hoga.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain