taimooralang

tamed chingij Khan (Tamed Chingizid Khan)
janm 6 April 1336
shahar-ai-sabj, ujbegistaan
mrutyu 19 fravari 1405
otraar, kajaakhstaan
dafn gur-ai-Aamir, samarakand, ujbegistaan
raajagharaana timur
vansh mugal

taimur lang (arthaat taimoor langada) (jise 'timur' (8 April 1336 – 18 fravari 1405) chaudahavi shataabdi ka ek shaasak tha jisne mahaan taimoori raajavansh ki sthaapana ki thi. usaka raajya pashchim Asia se lekar madhya Asia hote hue Bhaarat tak faila tha. usaki ganana sansaar ke mahaan‌ aur nishthur vijetaaon mein ki jaati hai. vah baralas turk khaanadaan mein paida hua tha. usaka pita turagaai baralas turkon ka neta tha. Bhaarat ke mugl saamraajya ka sansthaapak baabar timur ka hi vanshaj tha.

anukram

parichay

taimoor ka raajya
taimoor ka sunahare kshetr (golden hord) par aakraman

taimoor ka janm san‌ 1336 mein traans-aaksiyaana (Transoxiana), traans aamoo aur sar nadiyon ke beech ka pradesh, maavaraaunnahar, mein kesh ya shahar-A-sabj naamak sthaan mein hua tha. uske pita ne islaam kabool kar liya tha. at: taimoor bhi islaam ka kattar anuyaayi hua. vah bahut hi pratibhaavaan‌ aur mahatvaakaankshi vyakti tha. mahaan‌ mangol vijeta changej khaaain ki tarah vah bhi samast sansaar ko apni shakti se raund daalna chaahata tha aur sikandar ki tarah vishvavijya ki kaamna rakhata tha. san‌ 1369 mein samarakand ke mangol shaasak ke mar jaane par usane samarakand ki gaddi par kabja kar liya aur iske baad usane poori shakti ke saath digvijya ka kaarya praarambh kar diya. changej khaaain ki paddhati par hi usane apni sainik vyavastha kaayam ki aur changej ki tarah hi usane kroorata aur nishthurata ke saath door-door ke deshon par aakraman kar unhein tahas nahas kiya. 1380 aur 1387 ke beech usane khuraasaan, seestaan, Afghanistan, faaras, ajarabaijaan aur kurdeestaan aadi par aakraman kar unhein adheen kiya. 1393 mein usane Baghdad ko lekar mesopotaamiya par aadhiptya sthaapit kiya. in vijyon se utsaahit hokar ab usane Bhaarat par aakraman karne ka nishchaya kiya. uske ameer aur sardaar praarambh mein Bhaarat jaise doorasth desh par aakraman ke liye taiyaar naheen the, lekin jab usane islaam dharm ke prachaar ke hetu Bhaarat mein prachalit moortipooja ka vidhvans karna apna pavitra dhyeya ghoshit kiya, to uske ameer aur sardaar Bhaarat par aakraman ke liye raaji ho gaye.

moortipooja ka vidhvans to aakraman ka bahaana maatr tha. vastut: vah Bhaarat ke svarn se aakrusht hua. Bhaarat ki mahaan‌ samruddhi aur vaibhav ke baare mein usane bahut kuchh baatein sun rakhi theen. at: Bhaarat ki daulat lootane ke liye hi usane aakraman ki yojana banaai thi. use aakraman ka bahaana dhooaindhne ki avashyakata bhi naheen mahasoos hui. us samay Delhi ki tugaluk saltanat Ferozshah ke nirbal uttaraadhikaariyon ke kaaran shochaneeya avastha mein thi. Bhaarat ki is raajaneetik durbalata ne taimoor ko Bhaarat par aakraman karne ka swayam suavasar pradaan diya.

1398 ke praarambh mein taimoor ne pehle apne ek pote peer mohammad ko Bhaarat par aakraman ke liye ravaana kiya. usane mulataan par ghera daala aur chh: maheene baad usapar adhikaar kar liya.

April 1398 mein taimoor swayam ek bhaari sena lekar samarakand se Bhaarat ke liye ravaana hua aur September mein usane sindhu, Jhelum tatha raavi ko paar kiya. 13 October ko vah mulataan se 70 meal uttar-poorab mein sthit tulunba nagar pahuaincha. usane is nagar ko loota aur vahaaain ke bahut se nivaasiyon ko katl kiya tatha bahuton ko gulaam banaaya. fir mulataan aur bhataner par kabja kiya. vahaaain hinduon ke anek mandir nasht kar daale. bhataner se vah aage badha aur maarg ke anek sthaanon ko lootata-khasotata aur nivaasiyon ko katl tatha kaid karta hua December ke pratham saptaah ke ant mein Delhi ke nikat pahuainch gaya. yahaaain par usane ek lakh hindu kaidiyon ko katl karavaaya. Panipat ke paas nirbal tugalak sultaan Mehmood ne 17 December ko 40,000 paidal 10,000 ashvaarohi aur 120 haathiyon ki ek vishaal sena lekar taimoor ka mukaabila kiya lekin buri tarah paraajit hua. bhayabheet hokar tugalak sultaan Mehmood Gujarat ki taraf chala gaya aur usaka vajeer malloo Iqbal bhaagakar baaran mein ja chhipa.

doosare din taimoor ne Delhi nagar mein pravesh kiya. paaainch dinon tak saara shahar buri tarah se loota-khasota gaya aur uske abhaage nivaasiyon ko bebhaav katl kiya gaya ya bandi banaaya gaya. peedhiyon se sanchit Delhi ki daulat taimoor lootakar samarakand le gaya. anek bandi banaai gayi auraton aur shilpiyon ko bhi taimoor apne saath le gaya. Bhaarat se jo kaareegar vah apne saath le gaya unase usane samarakand mein anek imaaratein banavaain, jinmein sabse prasiddh usaki svaniyojit masjid hai.

taimoor Bhaarat mein keval loot ke liye aaya tha. usaki ichha Bhaarat mein rahakar raajya karne ki naheen thi. at: 15 din Delhi mein rukane ke baad vah svadesh ke liye ravaana ho gaya. 9 January 1399 ko usane Meerut par chadhaai ki aur nagar ko loota tatha nivaasiyon ko katl kiya. iske baad vah haridvaar pahuaincha jahaaain usane aas paas ki hinduon ki do senaaon ko haraaya. shivaalik pahaadiyon se hokar vah 16 January ko kaangada pahuaincha aur usapar kabja kiya. iske baad usane Jammu par chadhaai ki. in sthaanon ko bhi loota khasota gaya aur vahaaain ke asankhya nivaasiyon ko katl kiya gaya. is prakaar Bhaarat ke jeevan, dhan aur sampatti ko apaar kshati pahuainchaane ke baad 19 March 1399 ko pun: sindhu nadi ko paar kar vah bhaaratabhoomi se apne desh ko laut gaya.

Bhaarat se lautane ke baad taimoor se san‌ 1400 mein anaatoliya par aakraman kiya aur 1402 mein angora ke yuddh mein otoman turkon ko buri tarah se paraajit kiya. san‌ 1405 mein jab vah cheen ki vijay ki yojana banaane mein laga tha, usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

kroor

taimoor lang doosra changej khaaain banana chaahata tha. vah changej ka vanshaj hone ka daava karta tha, lekin asal mein vah turk tha. vah langada tha, isliye 'taimoor lang' (lang = langada) kahalaata tha. vah apne baap ke baad san 1369 E. mein samarakand ka shaasak bana. iske baad hi usane apni vijay aur kroorata ki yaatra shuroo ki. vah bahut bada siphasalaar tha, lekin poora vahashi bhi tha. madhya Asia ke mangol log is beech mein musalmaan ho chuke the aur taimoor khud bhi musalmaan tha. lekin musalmaanon se paala padne par vah unke saath jara bhi mulaayamit naheen baratata tha. jahaaain-jahaaain vah pahuaincha, usane tabaahi aur bala aur poori museebat faila di. nar-mundon ke bade-bade dher lagavaane mein use khaas maja aata tha. poorv mein Delhi se lagaakar pashchim mein Asia-kochak tak usane laakhon aadmi ktl kar daale aur unke kate siron ko stoopon ki shakl mein jamavaaya.

Bhaarat par aakraman

taimoor ka Bhaarat par aakraman

1399 E. mein taimoor ka Bhaarat par bhayaanak aakraman hua. apni jeevani 'tujuke taimuri' mein vah Quraan ki is aayat se hi praarambh karta hai 'ai paigambar kaafiron aur vishvaas na laane vaalon se yuddh karo aur un par sakhati barato.' vah aage Bhaarat par apne aakraman ka kaaran bataate hue likhta hai-

Hindustan par aakraman karne ka mera dhyeya kaafir hinduon ke viruddh dhaarmik yuddh karna hai (jisse) islaam ki sena ko bhi hinduon ki daulat aur moolyavaan vastueain mil jaayein.

kaashmeer ki seema par kator naami durg par aakraman hua. usane tamaam purushon ko katl aur striyon aur bachchon ko kaid karne ka aadesh diya. fir un hathi kaafiron ke siron ke meenaar khade karne ke aadesh diye. fir bhataner ke durg par ghera daala gaya. vahaaain ke raajapooton ne kuchh yuddh ke baad haar maan li aur unhein kshamaadaan de diya gaya. kintu unke asavaadhaan hote hi un par aakraman kar diya gaya. taimoor apni jeevani mein likhta hai ki 'thode hi samay mein durg ke tamaam log talavaar ke ghaat utaar diye gaye. ghante bhar mein 10,000 (das hajaar) logon ke sir kaate gaye. islaam ki talavaar ne kaafiron ke rakt mein snaan kiya. unke sarosaamaan, khajaane aur anaaj ko bhi, jo varshon se durg mein ikat‌aatha kiya gaya tha, mere sipaahiyon ne loot liya. makaanon mein aag laga kar raakh kar diya. imaaraton aur durg ko bhoomisaat kar diya gaya.

doosra nagar sarasuti tha jis par aakraman hua. 'sabhi kaafir hindu katl kar diye gaye. unke stri aur bachche aur sampatti hamaari ho gayi. taimoor ne jab jaaton ke pradesh mein pravesh kiya. usane apni sena ko aadesh diya ki 'jo bhi mil jaaye, katl kar diya jaaye.' aur fir sena ke saamane jo bhi gram ya nagar aaya, use loota gaya. purushon ko katl kar diya gaya aur kuchh logon, striyon aur bachchon ko bandi bana liya gaya.'

Delhi ke paas loni hindu nagar tha. kintu kuchh musalmaan bhi bandiyon mein the. taimoor ne aadesh diya ki musalmaanon ko chhodkar shesh sabhi hindu bandi islaam ki talavaar ke ghaat utaar diye jaayein. is samay tak uske paas hindu bandiyon ki sankhaya ek lakh ho gayi thi. jab yamuna paar kar Delhi par aakraman ki taiyaari ho rahi thi uske saath ke ameeron ne usase kaha ki in bandiyon ko camp mein naheen chhoda ja sakta aur in islaam ke shatruon ko svatantr kar dena bhi yuddh ke niyamon ke viruddh hoga. taimoor likhta hai-

isaliye un logon ko sivaaya talavaar ka bhojan banaane ke koi maarg naheen tha. mainne camp mein ghoshana karva di ki tamaam bandi katl kar diye jaayein aur is aadesh ke paalan mein jo bhi laaparavaahi kare use bhi katl kar diya jaaye aur usaki sampatti soochana dene vaale ko de di jaaye. jab islaam ke gaajiyon (kaafiron ka katl karne vaalon ko aadar soochak naam) ko yeh aadesh mila to unhonne talavaarein soot leen aur apne bandiyon ko katl kar diya. us din ek lakh apavitr moorti-poojakakaafir katl kar diye gaye.

tugalak baadshah ko haraakar taimoor ne Delhi mein pravesh kiya. use pata laga ki aas-paas ke dehaaton se bhaagakar hinduon ne badi sankhya mein apne stri-bachchon tatha moolyavaan vastuon ke saath Delhi mein sharan li hui hain. usane apne sipaahiyon ko in hinduon ko unki sampatti samet pakad lene ke aadesh diye.

baahari kadiyaaain