tadit

tadit ka drushya

tadit (Lightning) ya "aakaasheeya bijli" vaayumandal mein vidyut aavesh ka dischaarj hona (ek vastu se doosari par sthaanaantaran) aur usase utpann kadkadaahat (thunder) ko tadit kehte hain. sansaar mein prativrsh lagbhag 1 karod 60 lakh tadit paida hote hain.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon mein tadit ki baarambaarata

sambhavat: anya kisi bhi praakrutik ghatna ne itna bhaya, romaanch aur aashcharya naheen utpann kiya hoga aur na aaj bhi karti hogi jitna taditpaat aur baadalon ki kadk se utpann hota hai. anaadi kaal se sansaar ke praaya: sabhi deshon mein yeh vishvaas prachalit tha ki tadit ishvar ka dand hai, jiska prahaar vah us praani athva vastu par karta hai jiske oopar vah kupit ho jaata hai. greek aur roman deshavaasi ise Bhagwan jupitr ka prahaaradand maan te the. aaj bhi bahut se log aisa hi samajhte hain aur tadit ke vaigyaanik kaaran ko samajhne ki cheshta karne ke badle chirposhit andhavishvaas par hi adhik bharosa karte hain. praacheen dharmagrathon mein varnit anek kathaaeain unke is andhavishvaas ko bal deti hain.

vidyut sambandhi jaankaariyon mein kuchh vruddhi hone par vaigyaaniko ki yeh dhaarana bani ki saadhaaran taur par tadit ki ghatna theek usi prakaar ki hoti hai jaisa sanghanitr (condenser) ko anaavisht (discharge) karte samay uske pleton ke beech vaayu mein se hokar sfulingon ka pravaah hota hai. is dhaarana ki pushti karne ke liye prayog karne ka saahas kisi ko naheen hota tha; kintu ant mein beinjaamin Franklin (Benjamin Franklin) ki prerana se France ke do vaigyaaniko, daalibaard (Dalibard) aur delaur (Delor), ne prayog karne ka nishchaya kiya. unhonne dhaatu ke do chhad liye. daalibaard ka chhad 40 foot tatha delaur ka chhad 99 foot ooaincha tha. donon hi chhadon se ve lagbhag dedh inch lanbaai tak ke sfulingon ka visrjan kara sakane mein safal hue. yeh prayog anyant khatarnaak tha aur aagein chalakar ek anya vaigyaanik ne yahi prayog duharaate samay apne praanon se haath dhauya.

fir bhi uparyukt prayog se yeh nishchaya na ho saka ki chhado mein utpann vidyut‌ baadalon se hi I hai, kyonki chhadon ki pahuainch baadalon tak naheen thi. isaliye beinjaamin Franklin ne apna patangavaala suvikhyaat prayog kiya. usane ek patang udaai aur use baadalon ke andar tak pahuainchaaya. jyonhi patang ki dor bheegi, patang aur dor donon hi tan gaye jisse yeh pata chala ki donon vidyut‌ aavesh yukt ho gaye hai. us dor mein frainkalin ne ek chaabhi baaaindh bhi di thi. chaabhi ke paas uaingali le jaane se donon ke chatachataahat ki aavaaj ke saath sfulingon ka visrjan hua. itna hi naheen, us chaabhi ka sparsh leedan jaar (Leyden Jar) se karaakar usane use aaveshit bhi kar liya. isse yeh nishchit ho gaya ki baadalon mein bhi vidyut‌ hoti hai. is vidyut‌ ke sfuling roop mein visrjan ko hi "tadit' kehte hain. yeh visrjan baadal aur baadal, athva baadal aur pruthvi, ke beech ho sakta hai.

tadit ki utpatti

tadit praaya: kapaaseevarshi (cumulonimbus) meghon mein utpann hoti hai. in meghon mein atyant prabal oordhvagaami pavanadhaaraaeain chalti hain, jo lagbhag 40,000 foot ki ooainchaai tak pahuainchati hain. inmein kuchh aisi kriyaaeain hoti hain jinke kaaran inmein vidyut‌ aaveshon ki utpatti tatha viyojan hota rahata hai.

in kriyaaon ke spashteekaran ke liye Wilson, sinpasan, sakrej (Scrase) aadi ne apne siddhaant prastut kiye hain, jo paraspar virodhi jaan padte hain, kintu itna to sabhi batalaate hain ki tadit ki jananaprakriya meghon mein hoti hai aur iske liye un meghon mein vidyamaan jalaseekar, athva himkan aadi avakshepan kan (precipitation particles), hi uttaradaayi hote hain. baadalon mein vidyudvitran ke sambandh mein bhi sabhi ekamat hain ki inke oopari star dhanaavisht tatha madhya aur nimnastar rinaavishti hotein hain. in aaveshon ka vibhaajan meghon ke andar shoonya degree sein0 taapavaale staron ke bhi kaafi oopar hota hai. isse yeh nishkarsh sahaj hi praapt hota hai ki aaveshavibhaajan meghon mein bananevaale himkanon tatha oordhvagaami pavanadhaaraaon se hi hota hai, jal ki booaindon se naheen. kabhi-kabhi nimn star mein bhi kaheen-kaheen dhanaaveshon ka ek kendra sa ban jaata hai.

baadalon ke nimn staron par rinavesh utpann ho jaane ke kaaran neeche pruthvi ke tal par preran dvaara dhanaavesh utpann ho jaate hain. baadalon ke aage badhne ke saath hi pruthvi par ke ye dhanaavesh bhi theek usi prakaar aage badhte jaate hain. rinaaveshon ke dvaara aakarshit hokar bhootal ke dhanaavesh pruthvi par khadi suchaalak ya ardhachaalak vastuon par oopar tak chadh jaate hain. is vidhi se jab meghon ka vidyuteekaran is seema tak pahuainch jaata hai ki padosi aaveshakeindron ke beech vibhv pravanata (potential gradient) vibhang maan tak pahuainch jaati hai, tab vidyut‌ ka visrjan deergh sfuling ke roop mein hota hai. ise tadit kehte hain. pruthvi ki or aanevaali tadit kai kramon mein hokar pahuainchati hai. baadalon se ilektraanon ka ek hillol 1 micro second (1x10E-6 second) mein 50 meter neeche aata hai aur ruk jaata hai. lagbhag 50 maa0 se0 ke pashchaat‌ doosra kram aarambh hota hai aur isi prakaar kai kramon me hokar ant mein yeh tarang pruthvi tak pahuainchati hai. ise pramukh aaghaat (Leader stroke) kehte hain. apne udgamasthal se pruthvi tak pahuainchane mein ise kul 0.002 second tak ka samay lagta hai.

uparyukt tathya shaunalaind (Schonland) tatha unke sahayogiyon dvaara atyant sugraahi camere ki sahaayata se liye gaye photo chitr se prakat hue the. usi photo pattika par yeh bhi dikhlaai pada ki pramukh kram (step leader) ke pruthvi par pahuainchane ke kshan hi ek atyant teekshan jyoti pruthvi se meghon ki or unheen kramon mein hokar gayi jinse hokar pramukh kram aaya tha. ise pratigaami aapaat (Return stroke) kehte hain. jahaaain pramukh kram ka ausat veg 105 meter prati second hota hai vaheen pratigaami aadhaat (return stroke) ka veg 107 meter prati second hota hai, kyonki usaka maarg pehle se hi aayanit (ionized) hone ke kaaran prashast rahata hai.

uparyukt pramukh aur pratigaami aaghaaton ke baad bhi kai aaghaat kramash:- neeche aur oopar ki or aate-jaate dikhlaai padte hain. ye dviteeyak aaghaat (Secondary strokes) kahalaate hain. neeche aanevaale ye dviteeyak aaghat pramukh aaghaat ki bhaaainti kramon mein naheen aate.

baadalon ke vibhv aur taditdhaaraaeain

see0 efa0 vaagnar (C.F. Wagner) aur jee0 dee0 maikakain (G. D. Mc. Cann) ne batalaaya hai ki baadalon ke vibhv praaya: do karod volt ki koti ke hote hai. sinpasan aur skrej ne prayogon dvaara yeh nishkarsh praapt kiya ki 10,000 foot ki ooainchaai par sthit baadalon ke vibhv ka praaya: 50 se 100 volt prati seinmee0 ki dar se patan hota hai. tadit prakriya ke beech mein vidyuddhaara ka maan do lakh se pandrah hajaar enpiyr ke beech rahata hai. is prachand dhaara ke kaaran tadit ke path mein vidyapaan vaayu ke anu aur parmaanu aayanit ho jaate hain aur prakaash utpann karte hain. yahi chamak hamein Damini ke roop mein dikhlaai padti hai.

yeh spasht hai ki vaayu se hokar baadalon aur pruthvi ke beech vidyudvisrjan vaheen adhik sanbhaavya hoga jahaaain vidyut‌ ko vaayu ka pratirodh kam se kam paar karna padega. isaliye ooainchi meenaaron, ooainche bhavanon, ekaaki vruksh (chaahe maidaan mein ho ya pahaadi par) tatha pataakaadand ityaadi par taditpaat adhiktar hota hai iska ek kaaran yeh bhi hai ki koi vastu baadal se jitni hi adhki nikat hogi, usapar utana hi adhik prarit aavesh utpann hoga. iske atirikt sapaat maidaan ki apeksha meenaaron, vrukshon ki chotiyon aadi ke nukeele hone ke kaaran un par vidyut aavesh adhik maatra mein ekatr hota hai.

taditaaghaatajanit vidyuddhaara ekadish hoti hai. aaghaat ke lagabhaag paaainch maaikrosekand ki avadhi mein hi iska maan ghaateeya (exponential) kram se badhta hua adhiktam ho jaata hai aur lagbhag 25 maaikrosekand ke andar ghatkar aadha maatr rah jaata hai. yeh prabal dhaara praaya: 100 maaikrosekand tak rahati hai. iske pashchaat‌ kramash: ghatati hui kuchh sahastr enpiyr tak pahuainch jaati hai aur kuchh sahasraashan second (milisekand) tak aisi hi bani rahati hai. yadi taditaaghaat ki punaraavruti naheen hui to kam hote hote yeh dhaara nishesh ho jaati hai.

tadit ke prakaar

saamaanyataya tadit teen prakaar ki hoti hai:

(1) vistrut (Sheet) tadit kaafi vistrut kshetr par hoti hai aur iska avirl prakaash baadalon par kaafi door tak fail jaata hai.

(2) dhaareedaar ya rekhaavarn (Streak) tadit aksar dikhlaai padti hai. ismein ek ya adhik prakaasharekhaaeain, seedhi ya tedhi idhar-udhar daudti hui drushtigochar hoti hain. ismein vidyudvisrjan baadal se baadal mein, baadal se dharati mein athva baadal se vaayumandal ke beech hota. yeh tadit swayam teen prakaar ki ho sakti:

  • (a) manakaamaya (Beaded), jismein tadit ke poore maarg mein prakaash kaheen kam rahata hai aur kaheen-kaheen saghan prakaash ke kedr ban jaate hain aur ghundiyon saghsh dikhlaai padte hain,
  • (b) dvishaakhit (Forked), jismein do shaakhaaeain vibhinn dishaaon ko jaati hui dikhlaai padti hain aur
  • (s) ushma tadit, jo bahut door par honevaala vidyudvisrjan hai, jahaaain se aavaaj naheen pahuainch paati.

(3) kanduk (Ball) tadit ek jyotirmaya geind ki bhaaainti pruthvi ki aur aati hui dikhlaai padti hai. iska ausat vyaas 20 seinmee0 hota hai. jyon-jyon vah pruthvi ki or agrasar hoti hai, iska veg ghatata jaata hai. lagbhag teen se paaainch second tak dikhlaai padne ke uparaant vah atyant prachand dhvani ke saath visfotit ho jaati hai. yeh bahut hi kam dikhlaai padti hai aur iski utpatti ka kaaran agyaat hai.

tadit se raksha

bhavanon ko tadit ke seedhe aaghaat se bachaane ke liye beinjaamin Franklin dvaara viksit tadit dand (Lightning rod) vyavastha sarvaadhik shreshth hai. lohe ka ek chhad, jiska oopari sira bhaale ki bhaaainti nukeela hota hai aur bhavan ke kaafi oopar tak nikla rahata hai, bhavan ke paarshv se hota hua bhoomi ke andar kaafi gaharaai tak gada rahata hai. nichla sira bhoomi mein taaainbe ki ek pattika mein laga hota hai. yeh tadit dand baadal mein vidyamaan tadit ke liye nyoonatam pratirodh ka maarg hi naheen prashast karta, pratyut yeh bhavan par utpann prerit vidyudaaveshon ko tatkaal pruthvi ke andar pahuaincha deta hai. is prakaar yeh baadalon aur bhavan ke beech aaveshon ke paarasparik aakarshan ki sambhaavana bhi paryaapt ghata deta hai. ateet se hi vidyut‌ jhanjhaaon ke dinon mein, naavik apne jalayaanonke mastoolon se is prakaar baadalon ke vidyut‌ ka ksharan dekhte chale aa rahe hain. yeh ksharan raat ko adhik spasht dikhlaai padta hai. ise Europeeya naavik sant elmo ki agni (St. Elmo's Fire) kehte hain.

aajkal taditniyantran sambandhi anek prayog kiye ja rahe hain. ek manoranjak prayog motarakaar mein ek vyakti ko baithaakar aur us motor par krutrim tadit oopar se neeche ki or bhejkar kiya gaya. chooainki tadit mein vidyamaan ilektraanon mein, samaan aaveshayukt hone ke kaaran, paraspar vikrshan hota hai, isaliye motarakaar ki chhat par girte hi ve bikhr gaye aur usaki deevaaron se hote hue neeche pruthvi mein chale gaye. isse motor ke andar unki paith na ho saki aur vah vyakti sarvatha surakshit rah gaya. is prayog se yeh nishchaya ho jaata hai ki aadhunik dhaatu ke dhaaainchevaale bhavanon mein, jinki neenv kaafi gahari hoti hai, baitha hua vyakti tadit ke prahaar se atyant niraapad hota hai. yadi aise bhavan, athva taditchaalakayukt bhavan, na mil sakein to aise vishaal bhavan mein aashray lena chaahiye jo kaafi vistrut ho. tadityukt aaaindhi toofaan ke samay aaingeethiyon (fire places), stov tatha vidyut ke anya suchaalakon se swayam ko yathaashakti door hi rakhana chaahiye. baahar rahanevaalon ko pahaadiyon ke oopar, puaal ityaadi ke dher par, ekaaki vrukshon ke neeche, pataakaadandon (flag poles) ke paas, athva kisi prakaar ki dhaatunirmit vastu ke sameep, kabhi na rahana chaahiye, na dhaatu se bani kisi vastu ko hi haath mein liye rahana chaahiye. pahaadon ki kandaraaon mein, ghane vanon athva kisi dhaaloo pahaadi ke neeche rahana sarvatha niraapad hota hai.

tadit nirodhak (Lightning Arrester)

yeh aisi vyavastha hoti hai jismein apne oopar aaropit vibhv ko tatkshan ghata dene ka vishesh gun hota hai. saath hi yeh apne andar se pravaahit hone waali taditdhaara ki prabalata mein vruddhi ko rokata hai. ismein saadhaaranataya ek aantar vyavastha (gap arrangement) hoti hai, jo ek pratirodhak (resister) se shreneekram mein sambaddh hoti hai. iska pratirodh ismein pravaahit vidyutaddhaara ke maan mein vruddhi hone ke saath ghatata hai. antar yukti (gap device) ka kaarya yeh hota hai ki vah araikhik pratirodhak (nonlinear resistor) ko pratyaavarti dhaara ke shaktipripth (A.C. power circuit) se sthoolat: pruthak‌ rakhati hai. in donon mein sampark tabhi ho paata hai jab itna ooaincha vibhv utpann ho jaata hai jo khaali sthaan (gap) ki vaayu ko bhi suchaalak bana deta hai. is prakaar tadit dhaara pratyaavarti dhaara ke shakti paripth ko kshati pahuainchaae bina nirodhak (arrester) se hokar pruthvi ke andar sakushal pahuainchaati hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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