taara

megallaanik taaron ke megh mein ek taare ka janm.
bhoomi se sameep ka taara soorya.

taare (Stars) svayanprakaashit (self-luminous) ushn gas ki dravyamaatra se bharpoor vishaal, khagoleeya pind hain. inka niji gurutvaakarshan (gravitation) inke dravya ko sanghatit rakhata hai. megharahit aakaash mein raatri ke samay prakaash ke binduon ki tarah bikhre hue, timtimaate prakaashavaale bahut se taare dikhlaai dete hain.

anukram

taaron ke naam

kuchh chamakate taaron ke samooh aakaash ko vibhinn bhaagon mein baaaint dete hain. in taaron ke samooh ko taaraamandal (constellations) kehte hain. poore aakaash ko 88 taaraamandalon mein vibhkt karke un taaraamandalon ke naam rakh diye gaye hain. raashichkr ke taaraamandal bahut prasiddh hain, inki sanjnyaa mesh, vrush aadi hai. kisi ek taaraamandal ke taaron ko unke drushya (visual) kaantimaan (magnitude) ke avaroh kram mein chun liya jaata hai. fir taaraamandal ke naam ke aage greek bhaasha ke akshar rakhakar taaron ka naamakaran kiya jaata hai, jaise mesh raashi ke sabse chamakeele taare ka naamakaran elfaatareej kiya gaya hai. kuchh taaraamandalon mein taaron ki sankhya itni adhik hai ki greek varnamaala ke aksharon ki sankhya unke liye kam pad jaati hai. aise taaron ke naamakaran ke liye taaraamandal ke poorv laitin akshar tatha aavashyakta padne par sankhyaaeain likh dete hain. kuchh taare atiprakaashit hone ke kaaran atiprasiddh hain tatha unke naam taaraamandalon ke sandarbh ke bina bhi jaane ja sakte hein, jaise lubdhak (Sirius), magha (Regulus), chitra (Spica) aadi. is prakaar ke naamakaran se taaron ko pahachaanane mein sahaayata milti hai.

taaron ke kaantimaan (Steller Magnitudes)

khaali aaainkhon se dekhne par kuchh taare adhik chamakeele tatha kuchh kam chamakeele dikhaai dete hain. inki kaanti (luminosity) ke yoonaadhikya ke anusaar ham taaron ko kai kaantimaanon mein vargit kar lete hain. taare hamse bahut adhik doori par sthit hain. doori ke badhne se kam chamakeele taare ham dikhaai naheen dete. bina yantr ki sahaayata ke hamaari aaainkhein chhathe kaantimaan tak ke taare dekh sakti hain. kaantimaanon ka vargeekaran is prakaar hai kijo taare sabse adhik chamakeele dikhlaai padte hain, unka kaantimaan nyoonatam sankhya maana jaata hai, usase kam chamakeele taaron ka usase adhik ityaadi. kaantimaan ke taare ki apeksha use poorvavarti kaantimaan taare ki chamak athva 2.512 guna adhik hoti hai. is prakaar pratham kaantimaan ka taara dviteeya kaantimaan ke taare se 2.512 guna chamakeela tatha dviteeya kaantimaan ka taara truteeya kaantimaan ke taare se 2.512 guna chamakeela hota hai. yadi ham chhathe kaantimaan ke taare ki chamak 1 maan lein, to pratham kaantimaan se chhathe kaantimaan tak ke taaron ki chamak 100:39.82:15.85:6:31 : 2:51 : 1 anupaat mein hogi. is drushya kaantimaan ke maapan mein soorya ki kaantimaan - 26.72, chandrama ka - 12.5 tatha lubdhak taare kar kaantimaan - 1.5 hai. mount paalomaar vedhashaala ke 200 inch vyaas ke (vartamaan kaal ke vishaalatam) paraavarti (reflector) dooradarshi se ham 23 kaantimaan tak ke taare dekh sakte hain.

kaantimaan ka maapan

kaantimaan maapan ka arth hai taare ke prakaash ki teevrata ka maapan. pehle yeh kaarya vishesh prakaar ke fotomeetaron ki sahaayata se aaainkhon dvaara kiya jaata tha. is prakaar gyaat kiye gaye kaantimaan ko drushya kaantimaan (Visual magnitude) kehte hain. aaainkhein peele prakaash ki sugraahi (sensitive) hain, at: drushyakaantimaan peele aur hare rang ke prakaash ke maapak hain. baad mein kaantimaapan fotograafi ki pleton ki sahaayata se kiya jaane laga. is prakaar se gyaat kaantikaan ko fotograafeeya kaantimaan kehte hain. fotograafeeya kaantimaan neele rang ke prakaash ke maapak hain. taare kai rangon ke prakaash vikeern (emit) karte hain. at: taaron ke kaantimaan gyaat karne ke liye vibhinn rangon ki sugraahi pleton ke dvaara tatha varnashodhakon (filters) ke upayog se unke prakaash ki teevrata aaainki jaati hai. peele rang ki sugraahi pleton par peele rangashodhakon se fotograafeeya (neele) tatha drushya (peele) kaantimaanon ke antar ko varn soochak (Colour index) kehte hain. isse taaron ka taap gyaat hota hai. kaantimaan fotograahi selon par prakaash ko grahan kar tatha use bahugunit kar prakaash ki teevrata maapi jaati hai. kaantimaan ko maapate samay hamein vaayumandal ke prabhaav tatha taaron ki antarvarti dhool tatha gaison ke prabhaav ko bhi drushti mein rakhana padta hai. kaantimaan ke yathaarth gyaan se hamein taaron ki dooriyaaain tatha bahut se bhautik padaartho ko jaanane mein sahaayata milti hai.

nirpeksh (Absolute) kaantimaan

bahut se taaron ka niji prakaash bahut adhik hai, kintu atyaadhik doori par sthir hone ke kaaran unka drushya kaantimaan adhik dikhlaai padta hai. yathaarth kaantimaan to tabhi gyaat ho sakta hai, jab ve upamaatr se samaan doori par sthit hon. samast taaron ko 10 paarasek ki doori par kalpit karke gyaat kiye gaye kaantimaan ko nirpeksh kaantimaan kehte hain. yadi hamein taare ka drushya kaantimaan gyaat ho tatha usaki doori gyaat ho to ham nimnalikhit sootr se nirpeksh kaantimaan jaan sakte hain:

nirpekshakaantimaan drushyakaantimaan 5 - 5 laghuganak doori, paarasekon mein hai. vilomat: yadi hamein nirpeksh kaantimaan gyaat ho to ham taaron ki dooriyaaain bhi jaan sakte hain. soorya ka nirpeksh kaantimaan 4.7 hai.

saapeksh kaanti (Relative luminosity)

kisi taare ki soorya ke saapeksh kaanti ko saapeksh kaanti kehte hain. ismein soorya ki kaanti 1 maan li jaati hai. is prakaar ke adhyayan se ham taaron se praapt honevaali oorja (energy) ka adhyayan karte hain, jisse unki bhautik sthitiyon (physical conditions) ke adhyayan mein sahaayata milti hai. na8n

taaron ki sankhya

poornataya nirmal aakaash mein hamein drushti sahaayak yantron ke 3,200 se adhik taare naheen dikhlaai padte. chooainki ham aakaash ke keval aadhe hisse ko hi dekh paate hain at: chakshudrushya taaron ki sankhya 6,500 (2x3,200+100) ke lagbhag hai. inmein

1,5 kaantimaan se adhik chamakeele 20 taare

2 kaantimaan tak chamakeele 50 taare hain

3 kaantimaan tak chamakeele 150 taare hain

4 kaantimaan tak chamakeele 500 taare hain

taara 5 kaantimaan tak chamakeele 1500 taare hain

shesh chakshudrushya taare chhathe kaantimaan ke hai. yadi ham apni drushti ko 10 guni antarmukhi kar lein to drushya taaron ki sankhya 1000 guna badh jaaegi, arthaat‌ yadi taaron ko samaroop se faila hua maan liya jaae to unki sankhya unki doori ki chhah guni badh jaaegi. yeh sambandh adhik chamakeele taaron tak hi seemit hai. kam galaxy mein vishaalatam dooradarshi dvaara gyaat taaron ki sankhya lagbhag 1,00,00,00,00,000 (ek kharab) hai.

taaron ki gatiyaaain (Steller motions)

taare ki vaastavik gati tatha gamanadisha gyaat karne ke liye ham usaki gati ko do bhaagon mein baaaint lete hain. drushtisootr par lanb disha ki gati ke koneeya maan ko taare ki niji gati (proper motion) kehte hain. taaron ki niji gatiyaaain kam hoteen hain. unhein gyaat karne ke liye hamein bahut dooravarti kaalon mein liye gaye taaron ke fotograafon ki tulana karni padti hai. jo taare hamaare nikat hain, ve dooravarti taaron ke saapeksh aage peechhe hat jaate hain. is koneeya maan ko kaal ke antaraal se bhaag dene par niji gati gyaat ho jaati hain. is koneeya drushtisootr ki disha ki taarak gati ko traijya veg (Radial velocity) kehte hain. traijya veg jaanane ke liye ham varnakramadarshi (spectrograph) ki sahaayata se taare ka varnakram (spectrum) le lete hain. yadi varnakram rekhaaeain neele chhor ki taraf hati hon, to ham daupalar sidvaant ki sahaayata se jaan lete hain ki taara hamaari or aa raha hai tatha, yadi varnakram rekhaaeain laal chhor ki or hati hon, to ham se door ja raha hai. rekhaaon ka sthaanaantaran (shift) unke traijyaveg ka anukramaanupaati (directly proportional) hota hai. banaard ne ofiyookas (sarpadhar) taaraamandal ke ek dashm kaantimaan‌ ke taare ki niji gati 10.3 prati varsh gyaat ki hai, jo vishaalatam hai. niji gati ka gyaan taaraapunjon ke adhyayan mein sahaayak hota hai tatha isse ham yeh bhi jaan jaate hain ki adhik neeli gati ke taare apekshaakrut hamaare nikat hain. traijya veg ka soorya ke saapeksh gyaan karne ke liye, hamein pruthvi ki gati ko bhi dhyaan mein rakhana padta hai. niji gati tatha traijya veg ke gyaan se bal-samaantar-chaturbhuj ke siddhaant dvaara vaastavik gati tatha usaki disha gyaat ho jaati hai.

taaron ki dooriyaaain

taaron ki dooriyaaain gyaat karne ke liye trikonamiteeya vidhiyon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. hamse ati sameep taara bhi itni doori par hai ki yadi ham pruthvi ke vyaas ko aadhaar maankar usaki dishaaon ko dekhein to ve samaantar prateet hoteen hain, arthaat‌ taare ka lanban (parallax) shoonya hi aata hai. at: taaron ke lanban ko gyaat karne ke liye hamein bade aadhaar ki aavashyakta padti hai. at: pruthvi ki kaksha (orbit) ke vyaas ko ham aadhaar banaate hain. yadi ham kisi taare ki disha ke ek vedh ke chh: maheene baad usaka vegh karein to hamein pruthvi ki kaksha ke vyaas (2 x 6,30,00,000 meal ke lagbhag) ka aadhaar mil jaata hai. is prakaar ke vedh se sameepasth taare doorasth taaron ke saapeksh (jinka hamein unki niji gati ke adhyayan se gyaan hai) thoda dik‌ parivartan dikhlaate hain. ise nikaalate samay hamein taare ki niji gati ke prabhaav par bhi vichaar karna padta hai. to bhi yeh itna kam hai ki niktatam taare ka lanban 76 hai. yadi kisi taare ka lanban 1 ho to vah pruthvi se pruthvi ki kaksha ki trijya se 2,06,265 guni doori par hota hai. is doori ko ek paarasek (paaralaiks second ka sankshipt roop) kehte hai. doori maapane ke liye jis anya ikaai ka prayog kiya jaata hai, vah hai prakaashavarsh (light year). prakaash ka veg 1,86,000 meal prati second hai. is veg se prakaash ek varsh mein jitni doori tak jaata hai utani doori ko ek prakaash varsh kehte hain yeh doori lagbhag 60,00,00,00,00,000 meal hoti hai. ek paarasek lagbhag 3.26 prakaash varsh ke tulya hota hai. trikonamiteeya vidhi se ham keval atyant sameepasth taaron ki dooriyaaain hi gyaat kar sakte hain. at: dooravarti taaron ki dooriyaaain gyaat karne ke liye hamein anya vidhiyon ka aashray lena padta hai. yadi ham kisi prakaar taaron ke nirpeksh kaantimaan ko jaan sakein, to ham nirpeksh kaantimaan sheershak mein diye gaye sootr ki sahaayata se unki dooriyaaain gyaat kar sakte hain. saubhaagya se hamein sefiid (Cepheid) tatha laaira (Lyra) varg ke taare upalabdh hain, jinke nirpeksh kaantimaan ham gyaat kar sakte hain.

taaron ke lanbanon ko gyaat karne ki nimnalikhit anya vidhiyaaain hain:

  • soorya ki niji gati se lanban gyaat karna -
  • paarikaalpanik lanban (Hypothetical parallax);

vargeekaran

  • rachana tatha aakaaragat vargeekaran
  • galaxy ki sarpil bhujaaon (spiral arms) tatha naabhik (nucleus) mein upalabdh taare;
  • taaron ka varnakrameeya (spectroscopic) vargeekaran;
  • prakaash ke ghatne badhne ke kaaran taaron ka vargeekaran -- chal taare (variable stars);
  • punrjo (clusters) mein upalabdh taare;
  • dvik (double) tatha bahusankhyak (multiple) taare aadi.

in vargeekaranon ka niji mahatva hai aur inse hamein taaron ke vishleshan mein vishesh sahaayata milti hai. in vargeekaranon ka sankshipt parichay nimnalikhit hai:

rachana tatha aakaaragat vargeekaran

soorya hamaara niktatam taara hai, jiska ham bahut achhi tarah adhyayan kar sakte hain. taaron ke tatvon ke adhyayan se hamein adhikaansh taare aise upalabdh hote hai, jinka janm lagbhag usi samay hua jis samay hamaare soorya ka. ye taare taap, aakaar tatha kaanti ke avaroh anukram mein hain. is varg ko mukhya anukram (main sequence) kehte hain. ismein atyaadhik taap ke taaron ka aakaar soorya ke aakaar se lagbhag 10 guna tatha nimn taap ke taaron ka aakaar soorya ke aakaar se lagbhag 10 guna tatha nimn taap ke taaron ka aakaar soorya ke aakaar ka lagbhag dashamaansh hoga. soorya isi anukram ka ek majhole aakaar ka taara hai, jiski dravyamaatra tatha taap ausat se kam hai. mukhya anukram ke vakr mein oopar (adhik taap ke chhor) ki or taare atyant virl hain. is anukram ke adhikaansh taare soorya se chhote tatha kam taap ke hain. inmein upalabdh tatvon ki maatra soorya jaisi hai. soorya ke adhyayan se ham is varg ke atirikt taaron ke do aur mukhya varg hai: daanavaakaar taaron ke teen mukhya bhed hain. daanavaakaar (giants), tatha vaamanaakaar (dwarfs) taare. daanavaakaar taaron ke teen mukhya bhed - daanavakaar, ati daanavaakaar (supergiants) tatha upadaanavaakaar (subgiants). atidaanavaakaar taare aakaar mein bahut vishaal hote hain. udaaharanaarth, jyeshtha (Antares) ka vyaas soorya ke vyaas ka lagbhag 300 guna hai. daanavaakaar taaron mein khagaashv ke dviteeya beeta pigaasi (Beta-pegasi) ka vyaas soorya ke vyaas se 170 guna tatha brahmahrudaya (Capella) ka, soorya ke vyaas se, 12 guna hai. upadaanavaakaar taare mukhya anukram tatha daanav varg ke taaraan ke beech sthit hain. vaamanaakaar taaron ke bhi vaaman, upavaaman (Subdwarfs), laalarang vaaman (Red dwarfs) tatha shvet-vaaman (White dwarfs) bhed hain. in vargon mein shvet vaamanaakaar taare apna vishesh mahatva rakhate hain. inki visheshata yeh hai ki inki dravyamaatra madhya shreni ki tatha kaanti kam hoti hai, kintu inka aakaar bahut chhota tatha inka ghanatv atyant adhik hota hai.

sarpil bhujaaon tatha naabhikon ke taare

hamein jitne taare dikhaai dete hain, unamein atyadhik maatra mein ve taare hain, jo hamaari galaxy (galaxy) ke sadasya hain. hamaari galaxy apne mein ek vishv (universe) hai. iska aakaar sarpil (spiral) hai. bahut se anya taaraavishv bhi hain, jinka aakaar sarpil hai. unki rachana tatha aakruti ka adhyayan karne ke liye hamein apni aakaashganga ke kuchh vishesh prakaar ke taaron ke adhyayan se sahaayata milti hai. in taaron ke gukhyat: do varg hain. kuchh taare sada galaxy ki sarpil bhujaaon mein upalabdh hote hain tatha anya galaxy ke naabhik ke nikat paae jaate hain. inmein pratham varg ke taare hamaare soorya ke nikat padosi hain tatha doosare varg ke taare soorya se door hain. vaaltar vaade ne pratham varg ke taaron ka naam pratham taara shreni, athva paupuleshan pratham, tatha doosare varg ke taaron ka naam dviteeya taara shreni, athva paupuleshan dviteeya rakha hai. in donon prakaar ke taaraavargo ke varnakram-kaanti-vakron mein bhinnata hoti hai. pratham taaraashreni ke atyant chamakeele taare neele rang ke hote hain tatha unka nirpeksh kaantimaan 7 athva 8 hota hai, jabki dviteeya taaraashreni ke atyant chamakeele taare laal rang ke hote hain tatha unka nirpeksh kaantimaan - 3 ya usase adhik hota hai. pratham taaraashreni ke taaron mein taaron ki antarvarti (interstellar) gas tatha dhool atyadhik maatra mein hai, jabki dviteeya taaraashreni ke taaron mein yeh atyant kam maatra mein hai. in taaraashreniyon ke adhyayan se hame gailekseeon ki sarpil bhujaaon tatha naabhikon ko nishchit karne maatr ke hi liye naheen, kintu inse hamein taaron ki utpatti tatha vikaas (evolution) ki sthiti ka adhyayan karne mein bhi sahaayata milti hai.

varnakrameeya (Spectroscopic) vargeekaran

taaron ki dravyamaatra ke anu, jo moolaavastha mein udaaseen (in a neutral state) rahate hain, taap mein uttarotar vruddhi hone ke kaaran aayaneekrut (ionized) hokar apne rin vidyut‌aakanon (electron) ko adhikaadhik maatra mein khone lagte hain. iske prabhaav se aise taaron ke varnakram (spectrum) mein bananevaali chamakeeli aur kaali rekhaaon mein vibhinnata aa jaati hai. doosare shabdon mein rekhaaeain taaron ke prakaash vikeern (radiating) karanevaale anuon ke taap ki vibhinn avasthaaon ki dyotak hain. is prakaar taaron ke varnakramon ke adhyayan se unke mukhya 10 bhed kiye gaye hain, jinhein roman lipi ke bade aksharon O (O), bi (B), A (A), ef (F), ji (G), ke (K), M (M), aar (R), N (N), tatha S (S) se vyakt karte hain. chooainki varnakram vargeekaran ka taap se sambandh hai, at: ek hi varg ke taaraan ke taap mein uttarottar hraas bataane ki liye O (O) varnakram ke taaron ke liye O (O) ke baad angraji varnamaala ke chhote A (a) se i (e) tak ke varn rakh diye jaate hain tatha O (O), oba (Ob) aadi. isi prakaar ke abhipraaya ko vyakt karne ke liye bi (B) se M (M) ke varnakram ke taaron ke liye unke soochak aksharon ke baad 0 se lekar 9 tak ke ank rakhe jaate hain.

O (O) varnakrameeya taare

ye aayaneekrut heeliym vaale taare hain. inke varnakramon mein aayaneekrut heeliym tatha dohare tihre aayaneekrut okseejan tatha naaitrojan ki rekhaaeain praapt hoteen hain. is aayaneekrut avastha ke anusaar iska prushtheeya taap 30,0000 se lekar 40,0000 sein0 tak athva isse bhi adhik hona chaahiye. O (O) varnakram ke gyaat taaron ki sankhya sau se adhik naheen hai, jinmein adhikaash nangi aaainkhon se naheen dekhe ja sakte. is varg ke teen taare, gaama beloram oe, (Gamma Velorum, Oa), jeeta pappis oe (Zeta Puppis, Oa) tatha jeetaaoraayan, oi5 (Zeta Orion, Oi5) chakshu drukshya hain.

bi (B), varnakrameeya taare

ye udaaseen heeliym vaale taare hain. inka prushtheeya taap 25,000° se 12,000° sein0 tak rahata hai. yeh taap yadyapi heeliym ko aayaneekrut karne mein asamarth hai, tathaapi iske varnakram mein aayaneekrut okseejan rekhaaeain upalabdh hoteen hain. bee5 (B5) taare se lekar nimnatar taap ke taaron mein heeliym tatha aayaneekrut okseejan rekhaaeain kam hone lagti hain aur varnakram ke baigani bhaag ki aur haaidrojan rekhaaeain tatha haaidrojan ki chaudi kaali avashoshan rekhaaeain ubhar aati hai. hamaari taaraasoochiyon mein bi (B) taare bahut hain.

A (A) varnakrameeya taare

ye haaidrojan pramukh taare hain. inka prushtheeya taap 12,000° se lekar 8,000° sein0 tak hai. inki sankhya atyaadhik hai.

ef (F) varnakrameeya taare

kuchh jyotishi inhe kailsiym taare kehte the. inka prushtheeya taap 8,000° se lekar 6,000° se0 tak hota hai.

ji (G) vanakrameeya taare

ye soorya ki shreni ke taare hain. inke varnakram mein aayaneekrut (ionized) kailsiym ki rekhaaeain khoob ubhari rahati hain. inka prushtheeya taap 6,000° se lekar 4,000° sein0 tak hai. 12,000° ji (G) varnakrameeya taare pahachaane ja chuke hain.

ke (K) varnakrameeya taare

inka prushtheeya taap 5,000° se lekar 3,5000 sein° tak hota hai. pehle ye sooryakalank taaron ke naam se prasiddh the.

M (M) varnakrameeya taare

teetoniym oraaid taare. inka prushtheeya taap 3,500° se lekar 2,000° sein0 tak hai.

S (S) varnakrameeya taare

inmein praaya: sabhi chal taare hain, jinmein keval chakshudrushya koi naheen hai.

aan-N (R-N) taare

inka prushtheeya taap 3,000° se lekar 5,000° ain0 tak hai. ye sabhi daanavaakaar tatha adhikaanshat: chal taare hain. ye bahut kam sankhya mein hain. inmein se koi bhi taara keval chakshu se saralataapoorvak drushya naheen hai.

chal taare (Variable Stars)

kuchh taare aise hain, jinki kaanti badhti ghatati rahati hai. inhein chal taare kehte hain. chal taaron ka spasht nirdesh karne liye taaraamandal ke aage angreji varnamaala ke bade akshar aar (R), S (S), ti (T) aadi rakh diye jaate hain, yatha aar seti (R Ceti) aadi. inki sankhya badhne ke saath ek akshar ke sthaan par do athva teen akshar bhi rakhane pad sakte hain, yatha aar aar laaira (R R Lyra) aadi. lagbhag 20,000 chal taare gyaat hain tatha unka niyamit roop se vegh kiya jaata hai. taaron ke do vishaal varg hain: pehla baahyahetuk chal tatha doosra svat: chal. baahyahetuk chal taare grahanakaari yugm taare (eclipsing binaries) hote hain. inmein alagool taara prasiddh hai. iska saamaanya kaantimaan 2.2 hain, kintu yeh 3.4 tak ho jaata hai. svat: chal taare teen shreniyon mein rakhe ja sakte hain: sapandanasheel (pulsating) chal, visfotak chal (exploding) tatha anya chal taare.

sapandanasheel taare =

inmein kuchh taaron ka aavartan kaal ek din se bhi kam hota hai. aise taare aar aar laaira (R R Lyra) varg ke hain. kuchh ka aavartan kaal 1 se lekar 50 din tak ka hai. aise taare sefiid varg ke taare hain. kuchh taaron ka aavartanakaal 100 se lekar 1000 din tak ka hai. inhein deerdh aavartakaalik (long period) taare kehte hain. is varg ke taare laal rang ke daanavaakaar taare hote hain. kuchh taare arddhaniymit chal (Semi regular variables) hain, inka chakr 40 se lekar 150 din tak ka hai. ye taare bhi laal rang ke daanavaakaar taare hote hain. inmein aar aar laaira tatha sefiid (Cpheid) taare atyant mahatvapoorn hain. aar laaira taaron ka yeh naam isliye pada ki ye sab gunon mein laaira taaraamandal mein varnit us chal taare ke samaan hain, jiska naam aar aar laaira rakha gaya. naam se yeh na samajhna chaahiye ki aise taare keval laaira taaraamandal mein hi hote hain, kintu is shreni ke taare hamaari galaxy tatha anya taaraapranaaliyon aadi mein sarvatr hain. in taaron ki mahatta ki kaaran hai inka dooreesoochak hona. aar aar laaira varg ke taaron mein aavartanakaal ke badhne par par bhi unke nirpeksh kaantimaan mein antar naheen padta. iska arth yeh hai ki kisi ek taaraaguchh taaraapranaali (galaxy) mein aar aar laaira taare hon, to ve samaan nirpeksh kaantimaan ke honge aur yeh samaan nirpeksh kaantimaan lagbhag shoonya ke tulya hai. aisi avastha mein unke drushya kaantimaan ke gyaan se unki doori nimnalikhit sootr dvaara gyaat ho sakti hai.

nirpeksh kaantimaan = drushya kaantimaan + 5 - 5 laghuganak doori

sefiid taare

inka yeh naam isliye pada ki inki prakruti delta sefiys, athva chartuth kapish, ki tarah ki hai. chaturth kapish sefiyd varg ka sarvaadhik chamakeela taara hai, jise chakshu se dekha ja sakta hai. sefiyd taaron ka aavartanakaal ek din se kuchh adhik se lekar 45 din se kuchh adhik hai. hamaari galaxy ke sefiid taaron mein 7 din ka aavartanakaal praaya: hota hai. sefiid taaron ki sabse badi visheshata hai inka aavartanakaal-kaanti-saahacharya niyam (period luminosity relationship) se sangat hona. iska arth hai ki sefiid taaron ke aavartan kaal mein jaise jaise vruddhi hoti hai vaise vaise unke nirpeksh kaantimaan mein vruddhi hoti jaati hai. yeh sambandh atyant mahatvapoorn hai. iski sahaayata se sefiid taaron ka nirpeksh kaantimaan jaanakar poorv sootr dvaara inki doori gyaat ki ja sakti hai. sefiid taaron ki sahaayata se taaraaguchhon tatha taaraapaddhatiyon ki doori gyaat ki jaati hain. taapajanit rang ke parivartan ka kaaran saamaanyat: spandan (Plusation) siddhaant kalpit kiya gaya hai, jiska aashay hai ki sefiid taaron ke tal mein aavartan se vruddhi tatha hraas hota hai, jisse taara kramaanusaar failata tatha sikudta rahata hai. vastut: spandan siddhaant sabhi sthitiyon ka yathaarth uttar naheen deta. at: aajkal jyotishi samajhne lage hain ki sefiid taaron ki vibhinn sthitiyaaain inke taap ke parivartan ke kaaran hain, jiska svaya ek punaraavruti chakr hai. 1,000 se adhik sefiid taare gyaat hai.

visfotak taare

aise taaron mein niyamit athva aniyamit roop se visfot hota hai. ye taare saamaanyat: atyant dhuaindhale hote hain, kintu visfot hone ke baad inki kaanti atyant asaadhaaran roop se badh jaati hai. yeh sthiti kuchh din rahane ke baad taare apni ki si saamaanya kaanti mein aa jaate hain. is prakaar ke taaron ko navataara (Nova) kehte hain. 1918 i0 ke aikvila taaraapunj ke navataare ki chamak chaar hi din ke bheetar pehle se chaalees hajaar guna badh gayi thi. anya prasiddh navataare hain: parasyoos taaraamandal ka navataara, 1925 i0 viktoris navataara tatha 1934 i0 ka harakyoolees taaraamandal ka navataara. jo navataare visfot ke baad atyant asaadhaaran roop se chamakeele ho jaate hai, unhe atinvataara (Supernova) kehte hain. 1885 i0 ke aindromida neehaarika ke atinvataare ne chhah dinon mein itna adhik prakaash vikeern kiya ki soorya kadaachit‌ utane prakaash ko 10 lakh varsho mein vikeern kar paaega.

anya prakaar ke chal taare praaya: aniyamit aavartanakaal ke hain.

guchhon mein upalabdh taare

kisi svachh raatri mein aakaash mein kuchh dhuaindhale prakaash ke dhabbe se dikhaai dete hain. yadi ham inhein shaktishaali yantron se dekhein to inmein teen prakaar ki vastueain milti hain: taare ke guchhe (star clusters), neehaarikaaeain (nebulae) tatha gaileksiyaaain. neehaarikaaeain chamakeeli gaison se bani hain tatha aakashagangaaeain hamaari galaxy ki tarah svatantr taaraapranaaliyaaain hain. taaron ke guchhe do prakaar ke hain, ek to ve jo aakaashagangeeya samatal mein, ya aakaashagangeeya sarpil bhujaaon ke paas upalabdh hote hain. aise guchhe aakaashagangeeya guchhe (Galactic Clusters) kahalaate hain. inmein taaron ki sankhya apekshakrut kam rahati hain. is prakaar ke varg mein kruttika taara guchhe atyadhik chamakeela tatha bada hai. golaakaar taaraaguchh sarpil bhujaaon se door tatha naabhik ke paas hote hain. golaakaar (globular) taaraaguchhon mein apekshaakrut atyaadhik taare rahate hain. ye praaya: ghuaindhale se dikhaai dete hain. inhein dooradarshiyon se hi dekha jaata hai. omeinga seintaari (Omega Centauri) tatha 47 tukaane (47 Tucanae) panchal kaantimaan ke, chakshudrushya, golaakaar taaraaguchh ka paupuleshan dviteeya se sambandh hai. avashya hi inse taaron ke vikaas ki avasthaaon ka gyaan hota hai. in taaron mein vidyamaan aar aar laaira tatha sefiid taaron ki sahaayata se guchh ki doori gyaat ki jaati hai. inke adhyayan se galaxy ke svaroop ke adhyayan mein bahut sahaayata milti hai.

dohare (double) bahusankhyak (multiple) taare

adhikaash taare dohare, athva bahusankhyak (ati nikat dikhaai denevaale do athva adhik taare), hote hain, inmein kuchh taaron ki jodiyon mein paraspar kuchh bhi sambandh naheen hota, kintu ve ati sameep isliye dikhaai dete hain ki ve hamaari drushtirekha ki or sthit hain. aise taaron ko chaakshush, (optical) dohare taare kehte hain. aise taare kam hain. adhikaansh taare vastut: ek ya adhik taaron ke saath hain. do taare, jo paraspar aakarshan se ek nishicht prakaar ke deerdhavrutaakaar maarg mein bhraman karte hain, taara-yugm kahalaate hain. yeh nishchaya ho jaane par ki koi taara vastut: yugm hain, ham uske sambandh ki bahut si baatein gyaat kar sakte hain, kyonki usaki, athva uske saathi taara ki, gati vyaapak gurutvaakarshan niyam (Generalized Gravition Law) ka paalan karti hain. yugm taaron ki gati tatha dravyamaatra ko nishchit roop se gyaat kiya ja sakta hai. yugmataare mukhyataya teen prakaar ke hote hain: drushya (visual), grahanakaari (eclipsing) tatha varnakrameeya (spectroscopic). drushya yugmataaron ki kaksha ka gyaan karne ke liye unki doori tatha sthiti kon (position angle) ka vegh karna padta hai. adhikaansh drushya yugmataaron ka parikramanakaal (period of revolution) bahut lamba hota hai, jise gyaat karne ke liye saikadon varshon tak vegh ki aavashyakta hai. iseeliye yadyapi 25,000 se bhi adhik drushya yugmataare gyaat ho chuke hain, tathaapi 200 se adhik ki kaksha ka gyaan abhi tak naheen ho saka hai. grahanakaari yugmataare ke sahachar ki kaksha praaya: hamaari drushtirekha ki disha mein thode se jhukaav se rahati hai, jisse ek taara doosare ko poornataya ya khandash: dhak leta hai aur isse ek taare ka prakaash hamein dikhaai naheen padta. isse yugmataare ki pehchaan ho jaati hain, kyonki saamaanya sthiti mein is taare ka jitna prakaash rahata hai grahan ke samay pehle ki apeksha kam ho jaata hai. yeh grahan ki sthiti niyat samay se hoteen hain. is tarah ke taaron mein beeta parasyoos (Beta Persues), arthaat‌ alagool, ati prasiddh hai. saamaanya avastha mein iska kaantimaan 2.2 hota hai, ja grahan ke samay 3.4 rah jaata hai. grahan (eclipse) ke pashchaat‌ iska kaantimaan pun: 2.2 ho jaata hai. kuchh yugmataaron ke sahachar ki kaksha ka samatal pruthvi ke sameep se naheen jaata, at: ham uske grahan ki sthiti naheen dekh sakte hain. kintu uske varnakram ki rekhaaon ke parivartan se hamein pata chal jaata hai ki yeh taara kabhi hamaari or aata tatha kabhi hamse door jaata hai, jisse spasht hai ki yeh kisi adrushya taare ke chaaron or dhoom raha hai. aise taare varnakrameeya yugmataaron ka parikraman kaal kam hota hai. lagbhag 309 varnakrameeya taaron ki kakshaaeain gyaat ho chuki hain.

taaron ke aakaar

taaron ke aakaar praaya: teen vidhiyon se jaane jaate hain:

(1) nirpeksh kaantimaan tatha taap se,

(2) grahanakaari yugmataaron ke grahanakaal se tatha

(3) vyatikranamaapi (interferometer) se.

pratham vidhi plaink ke nimnalikhit sootr par aadhaarit hai:

drushya nirpeksh kaantimaan Mvis = (29500 / taap) - 5 log (r) - 0.08

jahaaain r = taare ki trijya hai.

grahanakaari taare ke grahan ke kaal ke vegh se usaki kaksha ke saapeksh usaki trijya gyaat ho jaati hai. vyaatikranamaapi se taare ka koneeya vyaas gyaat ho jaata hai tatha iski doori gyaat hone se iska saral rekhaatmak vyaas bhi gyaat ho jaata hai. taaron ke vyaas ke aadhaar par hi unke daanavaakaar tatha vaamanaakaar aadi naam pade hain.

dravyamaatra (mass) tatha ghanatv (density)

taaron ki dravyamaatra gyaat karne ki pratyaksh vidhi yugm taaron ke sahachaar ki gati ka adhyayan karne se praapt hoteen hain. vyaapak gurutvaakarshan niyam ki sahaayata se in taaron ki dravyamaatra gyaat ki jaati hai. kisi bhi vaaman taare (dwarf) ki dravyamaatra soorya ki dravyamaatra ke dashamaansh se kam naheen upalabdh hui hain, tatha soorya se 10 guni se adhik dravyamaatra ke taare bhi virl hi hain. kisi taare ka ghanatv = dravyamaatra/aayatan. is prakaar dekhne se pata chalta hai ki daanavaakaar taaron ka ghanatv atyant kam hota hai tatha vaamanaakaar taaron ka atyadhik. jyeshta jaise vishaal taare ka vyaas soorya ke vyaas ka 480 guna hai, to bhi iski dravyamaatra soorya ki dravyamaatra ke 20 gune se adhik naheen. parinaamat: iska ghanatv soorya ke ghanatv ke .00000002 se bhi kam hai. yeh saadhaaran hava ke ghanatv se bhi bahut kam hai. shvetaavaaman taare seeriym bi ka, jiski trijya soorya ki trijya ki .034 tatha dravyamaatra soorya ki dravyamaatra ki 86 hai, ghanatv itna adhik hai ki uske dravya ke ek ghan inch ka bhaar ek tan hoga.

prushth ka taap (Surface Temperature)

saamaanyata fotomeetar ki sahaayata se, taaron ke prakaash ke vibhinn rangon ke ghanatv ki prayogashaala mein pehle se gyaat taapon ke rangon ke ghanatv se tulana kar, taaron ke prushth ka taap gyaat kiya ja sakta hai. kintu iske nishchit roop se gyaat karne ki sarvottam vidhi hai, unke prakaash ka varnakrameeya vishleshan. isi ke aadhaar par taaron ka varnakrameeya vargeekaran hai, jo vastut: unke taap ka dyotak hai.

urja ka srot (Source of Energy)

taare apni oorja naabhikeeya abhikriya se praapt karte hain. taaron ke naabhik ke taap ke kaaran taaron ke haaidrojan ke parmaanu naabhikriya se heeliym ke paramaanuon mein parivrtit hote rahate hain. iske parinaam svaroop taaron mein atyadhik taap ki utpatti hoteen hain, jise ye prakaash ke roop mein vikeern karte rahate hain. bahut adhik oorja utpann karne ke liye inhein atyalp vidyutkan khone padte hain. ataev inki dravyamaatra mein koi bhaari kami naheen hoti tatha inka jeevan bhi karodon varshon ka ho jaata hai.

taaron ka vaayumandal (Steller Atmosphere)

taaron ke vaayumandal ka adhyayan bhi varnakram ki rekhaaon se kiya jaata hai. soorya ke vaayumandal ke adhyayan se hamein pata chala hai ki ismein haaidrojan atyadhik maatra mein hain. doosra sthaan heeliym ka hai. anya tatv kam maatra mein hain, tathaapi maigneeshiym aur okseejan ke parmaanu nishchit roop se vidyamaan hain. gyaat raasaayanik tatvon mein 61 tatv soorya ke vaayumandal mein pahachaane ja chuke hain. adhikaashan taaron ka vaayumandal soorya sareekha hai, tathaapi sabhi taaron ka vaayumandal bilkul ek sa naheen hai. inmein kaarban tatha okseejan ki maatraaon mein antar hai.

taaron ka mool tatv

taaron ke mool tatvon ko unke varnakram ki rekhaaon ke adhyayan se jaana jaata hai. prayogashala mein vibhinn mool tatvon ke varnakram le liye jaate hain tatha taaron ke varnakramon ka unase Milan karke taaron mein upalabadh mool tatvon ki pehchaan ki jaati hai. is prakaar ke adhyayan se pata chala hai ki ausat taaron mein lagbhag 70 heeaaidrojan, 28 heeliym, 1.5 kaarban, naaitrojan, okseejan tatha niaaainn aur 0.5 loh varg ke tatha anya bhaari tatv hote hain. bhaari tatv paupuleshan pratham ke taaron mein lagbhag 3 hote hain tatha paupuleshan dviteeya vaalon mein 1 se bhi kam.

taaron ka vikaas (Steller Evolution)

taaron ka janm taaron ke antarvarti gas tatha dhool ke kanon se hota hai. gas ke baadalon ke vidyut‌aakan saamaanyataya udaaseen avastha mein rahate hain, kintu jab koi atyadhik ushn taara inke sameep se jaata hai to ye aayaneekrut hokar gatisheel ho jaate hain tatha inmein ek naabhik (nuclues) ban jaata hai, jo aaspaas ke gas tatha dhool ke dravyakanon ko aakrusht karke vishaalaroop dhaaran karne lagta hai. gati tatha sankochan se naabhik ka taap badhne par, inmein naabhikeeya abhikriya (neclear reaction) praarambh ho jaati hai, jisse ye prakaash oorja (light energy) ko vikeern karne lagte tatha hamein nae taaron ke svaroop mein dikhlaai dene lagte hain. vibhinn prakaar ke taaron ki oorja vikeernata ke adhyayan se pata chala hai ki paupuleshan dviteeya ke taare bahut praacheen hain tatha paapuleshan pratham ke taare apekshaakrut baad mein nirmit hain.

taaron ka jeevan

taaron ke jeevan se taatparya unke prakaashamaya jeevan se hota hai. taaron ke prakaash ka aadhaar hai, unka haaidrojan ka bhandaar, jiski naabhikeeya abhikriya se ve ooshma oorja praapt karte hain. jo taare atyadhik chamakeele hain, svabhaavat: ve apne haaidrojan ke bhandaar ka adhikaadhik upabhog karke use adhik sheeghrata se heeliym mein parivrtit karte rahate hain. yadyapi haaidrojan ka bhandaar samaapt hone par bhi taare sankochan (contraction) dvaara apni ooshma urja ko bahut varshon tak praapt kar sakte hain, tathaapi unke jeevan ka mukhya aadhaar unke haaidrojan ke upabheg par hi nirbhar rahata hai. jo taare atyadhik chamakeele dikhlaai dete hain, unka jeevanakaal 109 varsh ke lagbhag tatha mukhya anukram ke dhuaindhale taaro ka jeevanakaal 1013 varsh ke lagbhag hota hai. soorya ka jeevanakaal lagbhag 1010 varsh hain.

apne chaaron or faile hue taaraamaya vishv ke rahasya ko jaanane ki hamaari ichha bahut puraani hai. taaron ke adhyayan se humne vishv ko galaxy jaisi anek taaraapranaaliyon (stellar system) poorn paaya hai. laal rang ki or rekhaaon ke sthaanaatarann (red shift) dvaara humne taaron ke varnakramon ke adhyayan se itna jaan liya hai ki hamaara vishv fail raha hai. tathaapi apne seemit saadhanon ke kaaran ham vishv ke vaastavik roop ko naheen jaan sake hain. hamaare vishv ka kitna vistaar hai failata hua vishv kis seema tak fail sakta hai vishv ki vakrata kaisi hai, tatha vakrata trijya kya hai ye sabhi prashan abhi tak vivaadaaspad hain tatha in vishyon mein hamaara koi nishchit sarvasammat siddhaant naheen hai. sabse bada mount paalomaar veghashaala ka, 200 inch vyaas ka hel dooradarshi ek arab paarasek, athva lagbhag 20,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00 meal ke lagbhag, dooriyon ke drushya tak hi pahuainch paaya hai. uske aage kya hai, ham naheen jaan sake. at: ab hamaara dhyaan radio dooradarshi chaakshush dooradarshiyon ki lagbhag seema tak pahuainch chuka hai. at: ab hamaara dhyaan radio dooradarshiyon ki or gaya hai. vaigyaanik vikaas ki vartamaan pragati mein hamein aasha hai ki rediyon dooradarshi hamein taaraavishv ke agyaat rahasyon tak pahuaincha sakeingein.

taaraapaat

vaigyaanik tathyon ke baavajood yeh aakaasheeya drushya anaadikaal se vishvavyaapi vishvaason mein mahatvapoorn raha hai. puraakathaaon, praacheen pauraanik tatha ardhaetihaasik vrutaanton aur lokakathaaon se is ghatna ke vishay mein prachalit vividh maanyataaon ka pata chalta hai. aakaash ki is vilkshan ghatna ka sabse adhik sambandh bhavishyasoochak vishvaasaparanpara se aabaddh falit jyotish se hai jismein iske falaafal ka vidhaan kiya jaata hai. varaahamihir krut bruhatsanhita mein kaha gaya hai ki ve log jo svarg mein apne sampoorn sukarmon ka fal bhog chukate hain, ulka ke roop mein gir padte hain. bhavishyavaani sambandhi vishvaason ke anusaar ulkaapaat kaheen shubhasoochak hai aur kaheen ashubhasoochak. kintu adhiktar bhavishya mein honevaali kisi durghatana ke daivi sanket ke roop se yeh ashubhasoochak hi samjha jaata hai. plini ke ullekhaanusaar 1200 i0 poo0 ke praacheen grees ke nagararaajya spaarta ke raajaniyantrak dandaadhikaari yadi aath varsh ki shaasanaavadhi ke baad, kisi chandraviheen svachh raatri mein ulkaapaat hote dekh lete the to shaasak ke paapaatma hone ka daivi sanket maankar use gaddi se utaar dete the.

nakshatron aur taaron ke sambandh mein yeh vilkshan andhavishvaas saamaanya roop se Asia, Europe, amareeka aur Africa ke vistrut kshetron mein prachalit hai ki aakaash ke pratyek taare se dharati ke alag alag manushya ya manushyon ke jeevan tatha bhaagya niyantrit hote hain. nakshatron ke roop, svabhaav, sthaan tatha gati ki kalpana ke aadhaar par janmapatri mein vyakti ke bhaavi jeevan ki vyaakhya ka aadhaar yahi vishvaas hai jise ek ganiteeya ya vaigyaanik paddhati pradaan ki gayi hai. bhaagya se inka sambandh ukt bhoobhaag ki abhivyakti mein prachalit 'taara' aur 'nakshatr' shabd ke arthon mein sugamataapoorvak khoja ja sakta hai. isi prakaar kisi taare ka rang aur tej bhi pruthvi ke kisi manushya ke svabhaav aur bhaagyaka pratinidhitv karta hai; saath hi, uske tootane ka arth hai sambandhit vyakti ka mrut hona. pyoon jaatiyon ki puraakatha ke anusaar jab sabhi taare toot chukegein tab maanaveeya srushti ka ant ho jaaega. kaheen kaheen iska arth nae janm ka sanket bhi hai kintu taaraapaat ki yeh shubhasthiti vishvaas jagat‌ mein atyant virl hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaan