taamas haabs

taamas haabs
Thomas Hobbes (portrait).jpg
janm 5 April 1588
Westport near Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England
nidhan 4 December 1679(1679-12-04) (umr 91)
Derbyshire, England
yug 17th-century philosophy
(Modern Philosophy)
kshetr Western Philosophers
School Social contract, classical realism, empiricism, determinism, materialism, ethical egoism
abhiruchi Political philosophy, history, ethics, geometry
ullekhaneeya vichaar Modern founder of the social contract tradition; life in the state of nature is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short"

taamas haavs (Thomas Hobbes ; 1588 i0 - 1679 i0) prasiddh ogl daarshanik evam raajaneetik vichaarak.

anukram

parichay

taamas haavs ka janm maamsabari mein hua tha. 91 varsh ki is deerghaayu mein haabs ne anek saamaajik raajaneetik viplav aur parivartan dekhe-madhyamavarg ka utthaan, stuart raajaaon or paarlameint ka sangharsh, Charles pratham ki faaainsi, kraamavel ka shaasan tatha restoreshan, apni sahaj bheeruta ke kaaran haabs shaanti aur suraksha ko atyadhik mahatva deta tha. inglaid ke gruhayuddh ne uske is vichaar ko aur bhi drudh kar diya ki paarasparik kalah aur yuddh sabhya jeevan ke liye ghaatak hai. yadyapi paarlameint aur raaja ke jhagade mein haabs ne raaja ka paksh liya, tathaapi uske tark aisi kisi bhi satta ka samarthan karte hain jo shaanti evam vyavastha sthaapit kar sake.

haabs ka darshan gaileeliyo, keplar, dekaart tatha gaiseindi jaise vaigyaaniko ki dhaaranaaon se anupraanit hai. kaha jaata hai ki sampoorn maanavajnyaaan ko ek sootr mein baaaindhakar vaigyaanik aadhaarashila par pratishthat karna hi usaka uddeshya tha. kintu haabs ke darshan aur tatkaaleen vigyaan mein vaastavik sambandh kya hai, yeh vivaadaaspad hai. lio straaus ka mat hai ki yadyapi haabs ka chintan vaigyaanik roop mein prastut kiya gaya hai, tathaapi usaka srot klaisikl maanavavaad hai, na ki aadhunik bhautikvaad. gaileeliyo aur keplar ki khoj ke poorv haabs par thyoomeedideej tatha arastoo ka amit prabhaav pad chuka tha. gaaikel ok shot ke anusaar haabs ke darshan ki mool prerana vaigyaanik bhautikvaad naheen, apitu daarshanik buddhivaad-darshan ke svaroop ke vishay mein ek vishesh dhaarana - hai. yeh dhaarana vigyaan aur darshan ko mitr maanati hai. haabs ka darshan buddhi ke darpan mein pratibinbit jagat hai. is darpan mein dekhne se vishv yantravat dikhaai deta hai chaahe, vah vastut: yantr na ho. iseeliye maanav samaaj ka bauddhik vivechan bhi use yantravat maankar hi kiya ja sakta hai.

haabs pradhaanat: raajaneetik vichaarak hai. parantu usaka raajashaastr uske saamaanya darshan ka ek ang hai. is darshan ki visheshata hai- jyaamiti ki nigmanaatmak pranaali. is pranaali ki maanyata buddhivaad hai. haabs ka buddhivaad pleto, seint taamas tatha spinoja ke buddhivaad se bhinn hai. yeh uttaramadhyayugeen naamavaadi (nominalist) parampara ke antargat hai. haabs ke darshan mein buddhi ka sthaan gaun hai, pradhaanata ichhaashakti tatha manobhaavon ki hai. buddhi ek kala athva saadhan hai jiske dvaara poorvanishchit pratijnyaaaon se sahi nishkarsh nikaale ja sakte hain. ye pratijnyaaaeain sarvatha svakalpit hoti hain. at: daarshanik gyaan ki doosari visheshata hai usaka kalpit (hypothetical) svaroop. darshan ko haabs kaarya kaaran-gyaan kehta hai aur karan ko poorvavarti gati (antecedent motion) maanata hai. sabhi gyaan gati ki vibhinnata se praapt hota hai. is prakaar sarvavyaapi gati hi sampoorn maanavajnyaaan ka saarvabhaum nimitt kaaran hai. jyaamiti ka sambandh binduon aur rekhaaon ki gati se hai, bhautik jagat paramaanuon ki gati hai; manovijnyaaan maanav shareer ke antargat snaayuspandan ka vivran hai tatha raajya vyaktiyon ke paarasparik aaghaat pratighaat se utpann sanshlisht gati ka parinaam hai. is prakaar uparyukt sabhi shaastr vibhinn roopon mein ek hi vishay ka adhyayan karte hain. haabs yeh spasht naheen karta ki bhautik tatha maanav jagat ki vyaakhya kalpit prameyon par aadhaarit jyaamiti ki nigmanaatmak pranaali par kaise ho sakti hai. uske raajashaastr ka uske yaantrik bhautikvaad aur uske bhautikvaad ka uske buddhivaad se koi taarkik sambandh naheen sthaapit ho paata.

raajya ko uske maulik tatvon mein vightit karne par praakrutik avastha praapt hoti hai. yeh avastha aitihaasik tathya naheen balki araajakata ki taarkik avadhaarana hai. baahya jagat mein vyaapt gati ke pratighaat se maanav shareer mein do prakaar ki gatiyaaain utpann hoti hain- aakarshan aur vikrshan. manovaigyaanik star par unhein ichha aur vidvesh kehte hain. jo vastueain jeevanaraksha mein sahaayak hoti hain, manushya unke prati aakrusht hota hai aur jinse jeevan nasht hota hai unase vah palaayan karta hai. vaanchhit vastueain shubh kahi jaati hain aur avaanchhit ashubh. chooainki jeevan ki raksha tatha sanvruddhi karanevaali vastueain seemit hai aur sabhi vyakti apni daihik tatha maanasik shaktiyon ko milaakar lagbhag samaan hain, at: vaanchhit vastuon ki praapti tatha usako sanchit rakhane ke liye pratidvandvit praarambh hoti hai jo sheegra hi gaurav tatha shakti ke liye sangharsh ke roop mein parint ho jaati hai. is sangharsh ka paryavasaan keval mrutyu mein hota hai kyonki shaktilipsa anant hoti hai. usamein vivek evam maryaada ke liye koi sthaan naheen hota. sadaiv atrupt vaasanaaon ki tushti mein sanlagn, madaandh tatha ek doosare ke prati sashank vyaktiyon ke nirantar yuddh ke parinaamasvaroop praakrutik avastha mein maanav jeevan ekaaki, tuchh, ghrunit, paashavik aur kshanik ho jaata hai. aisi paristhiti mein sabhyata, sanskruti tatha vyavasaaya ka sarvatha abhaav rahata hai. nyaaya anyaaya ka prashn hi naheen uthata. vyakti apni jeevanaraksha ke liye jo kuchh kar sakta hai vahi usaka praakrutik adhikaar hai. praakrutik adhikaar keval praakrutik shakti se hi seemit hote hain.

praakrutik avastha manushya ke aseem abhimaan, svaarth tatha aniyantrit bhaavaavesh ka parinaam hai. kintu is bhayaavah paristhiti se mukti dilaanevaali buddhi bhi usamein viddhamaan rahati hai. buddhi ke dvaara manushya praakrutik niyamon ki khoj karta hai jinse shaanti ki vyavastha hoti hai aur jeevanarekha ki sambhaavana badh jaati hai. praakrutik vidhaan yeh shiksha deta hai ki pratidvandvita aur hinsa aatmaraksha ke shatru hain, sahayog tatha shaanti hi uske vaastavik saadhan hain. at: pratyek vyakti ko shaanti dhooaindhne ka prayatn karna chaahiye. yadi anya vyakti bhi is baat ke liye taiyaar hon to use apne aseem praakrutik adhikaaron ko chhodne tatha doosaron ke viruddh utani hi svatantrata se santusht rahane ke liye tatpar hona chaahiye jitni vah apne viruddh doosaron ko dene ke liye udyat ho. manushya ko apne kiye hue vaadon ke anukool aacharan karna chaahiye kyonki paarasparik vishvaas aur prasanvida se hi samaaj ki sthaapana ki ja sakti hai.

praakrutik vidhaan raajya ke liye aavashyak hain kintu haabs apne ahanvaadi manovijnyaaan se unka saanmaajasya sthaapit naheen kar paata. yadi manushya buddhiyukt praani hai to praakrutik avastha ka yeh bhayaanak chitr asatya hai aur yadi yeh chitr vaastavik hai to aise praaniyon se samaaj mein rahane ki aasha karna vyarth hai. fir praakrutik vidhaan naitik vidhaan hai athva keval upayogita ke niyam, yeh spasht naheen hai. nissandeh ishvar athva samprabhu ke odash ka roop dhaaran kar lene par ve naitik roop se baadhya karte hain. kintu samprabhu se aadisht hote ke poorv unki baadhyata naitik hai athva keval bauddhik is vishay mein vidvanon mein matabhed hai. haabs yeh bhi kehta hai ki shakti ke bina prasanvida bekaar hai. at: naitik tatha bauddhik roop se baadhya hone par bhi vyakti ko raajya ka aajnyaaapaalan karne ke liye bhautik bandhan ki aavashyakta hai.

prasanvida ke dvaara pratyek vyakti apne aseem praakrutik adhikaaron ko ek anya vyakti, ya vyaktismooh, ko sthaanaantarit kar deta hai jo sabki shaanti aur suraksha ke liye uttaradaayi hota hai. prasanbida ka ang ne hone ke kaaran yeh vyakti, ya vyaktismooh, kisi bhi maanaveeya kaanoon se baadhya naheen hai. vah sabhi vyaktiyon ka pratinidhi hai. at: usaka virodh aatmavirodh hai. usamein sannihit samprabhuta avibhaajya, aseem adeya tatha sthaayi hai. church tatha anya samudaayon ka vah ekamaatr svaami hai. uske aadesh hi kaanoon hain aur jahaaain kaanoon maun hai, vaheen janta svatantr hai. samprabhu ki aajnyaa ki avhelna vyakti aatmaraksha hetu hi kar sakta hai. prasanvida ke atirikt raajya ki sthaapana vijay ke dvaara bhi ho sakti hai kintu donon mein koi taatvik antar naheen hai.

haabs aadhunik raajadarshan ka janmadaata kaha jaata hai. beintham ke upayogitaavaad tatha aastin ke samprabhuta siddhaant par usaka prabhaav spasht hai. yadyapi usane nirankush samprabhuta ka samarthan kiya, tathaapi vyaktivaad uske darshan ki aadhaarashila hai. samprabhu ki aseem adhikaar dete hue bhi vyakti ke jeevan mein raajya ke anaavashyak hastakshep ko vah avaanchhaneeya maanata hai. fir, vyakti ki raajabhakti ki aadhaar hai samprabhu ki suraksha tatha shaanti pradaan karne ki kshamata. yadi yeh aisa naheen kar sakta, to janta doosra shaasak chunane ke liye svatantr hai. samprabhu ko raajya karne ka daivi adhikaar naheen hai.

sandarbh granth

  • jaan baaule - haubs aind hij critics : A stadi in seveinteenth century kaanstichyooshanalijm, New York, 1952, * taamas haubs' mekenikl kanpapshan ov nechar, London, 1928;
  • stuart ema0 brown : haubs, the Taylor theesis' filaasofikl review, khand 68, 1959;
  • John lerd : haubs, London, 1934
  • starlig pi. laipret: haabs aind haubijm; richrd peetars, haabs baalteemor, 1956;
  • ema0 okashaut: leviyaathan (introduction) aaksaford;
  • M okashaatai: maural laaif in di raaitigj ov taumas haabs in reshanelijm in paulitiks, London, 1962
  • liyostraus : di politikl filaasaafi ov haubs, its vesis aind its jenesis, aaksaford 1936
  • ji. H. saibaair; A history ov politikl thyoori, truteeya sanskaran, London, 1963;
  • hovard vaarandar; di politikl filaasafi ov haubj; hij thyoori ov obligeshan, Oxford, 1957.

baahari kadiyaaain

haubs ki tippaniyaaain (aanalaain)

saamaanya krutiyaaain (aanalaain)

  • project gutenabarg par Thomas Hobbes ki rachanaaeain
  • The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; Now First Collected and Edited by Sir William Molesworth, Bart., (London: Bohn, 1839–45). 11 volumes. Can be found on the internet:-
  • TRIPOS ; in Three Discourses :
  • I. Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policy
  • II. De Corpore Politico, or the Elements of Law
  • III. Of Liberty and Necessity
  • An Answer to Bishop Bramhall's Book, called " The Catching of the Leviathan"
  • An Historical Narration concerning Heresy, and the Punishment thereof Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners, and Religion of Thomas Hobbes
  • Answer to Sir William Davenant's Preface before " Gondibert"
  • Letter to the Right Honourable Edward Howard
  • Volume 5. The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance, clearly stated and debated between Dr Bramhall Bishop of Derry and Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury.
  • Volume 6.
  • A Dialogue Between a Philosopher & a Student of the Common Laws of England
  • A Dialogue of the Common Law
  • Behemoth: the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England, and of the Counsels and Artifices By Which They Were Carried On From the Year 1640 to the Year 1660
  • The Art of Rhetoric Plainly Set Forth. With Pertinent Examples For the More Easy Understanding and Practice of the Same
  • The Art of Sophistry
  • Seven Philosophical Problems
  • Decameron Physiologicum
  • Proportion of a straight line to half the arc of a quadrant
  • Six lessons to the Savilian Professors of the Mathematics
  • ΣaaΤaaΙaaΓaaΜaaΑaaΙ, or Marks of the absurd Geometry etc. of Dr Wallis
  • Extract of a letter from Henry Stubbe
  • Three letters presented to the Royal Society against Dr Wallis
  • Considerations on the answer of Dr Wallis
  • Letters and other pieces
  • Volume 8 and 9. The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, translated into English by Hobbes.
  • Volume 10. The Iliad, and The Odyssey, translated by Hobbes into English
  • Volume 11. Index.
  • The Latin works can also be found
  • Volume I. Biographical and Elementorum Philosophiae I: De Corpore
  • Volume II. Elementorum Philosophiae II and III: De Homine and De Cive
  • Volume III. Latin version of Leviathan.
  • Volume IV. Various concerning mathematics, geometry and physics.
  • Volume V. Various short works.