taajikistaan

Ҷaaуaaмaaҳaaуaaрaaиaaи Тaaоaaҷaaиaaкaaиaaсaaтaaоaaн
jamhooriye taajikistaana‌

taajikistaan ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: surudi milli
rajdhani dushaanabe
38°a33′aN 68°a48′aE / 38.55°aN 68.8°aE / 38.55; 68.8
sabse bada nagar dushaanbe
raajabhaasha(eain) faarasi (taajik bhaasha)
sarkaar ekal raajya
- raashtrapati imomaali Rahman
- pradhaanamantri okil okilov
svatantr
- saamaani saamraajya ki sthaapana 875
- poorn 25 December 1991
kshetrafal
- kul 1,43,000 varg kilometer
55,251 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.3
janasankhya
- July 2007 janaganana 73,20,000১a1 (100vaaain1)
- 2000 janaganana 61,27,000
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2005 praakkalan
- kul $11.83 arab (136 vaaain)
- prati vyakti $1,756 (158 vaaain)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.607[1]
madhyam · 113vaaain
mudra somoni (TJS)
samay mandal TJT (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+5)
doorabhaash koot 992
Internet teeeladi .tj
1. Rank based on UN figures for 2005; estimate based on CIA figures for 2006.
antariksh se taajikistaan ka manjr

taajikistaan (taajik: Тaaоaaҷaaиaaкaaиaaсaaтaaоaaн, تaaاaaجaaیaaکaaسaaتaaاaaن, tojikiston) madhya Asia me sthit ek desh hai jo chaaron or se jameen se ghira (sthalaveshthit) hai. yeh pehle soviyt sangh ka hissa tha aur us desh ke vightan ke baad san 1991 mein ek svatantr desh bana. 1992-97 ke kaal mein gruhayuddhon ki maar jhel chuke is desh ki kootaneetik-bhaugolik sthiti bahut mahatvapoorn hai. yeh ujbekistaan, afgaanistaan, kirgijstaan tatha cheen ke madhya sthit hai. iske alaava Pakistan ke uttari ilaake se ise keval afgaanistaan ke badakhshaan praant ka patala-sa vaakhaan galiyaara hi alag karta hai.

taajikistaan ki rajdhani dushaanabe shahar hai aur yahaaain ki bhaasha ko taajik kaha jaata hai jo faarasi bhaasha ka ek roop maana jaata hai. is bhaasha ko seereelik aksharon mein likha jaata hai jismein roosi tatha kuchh anya bhaashaaeain bhi likhi jaati hain.

anukram

naam

taajikistaan ka matlab hai "taajikon ka vatan", jaisa ki is kshetr ke bahut anya deshon ke naamon ke saath "staan" lagta hai, masalan kirgijstaan, Hindustan, Pakistan, afgaanistaan vagaira. maana jaata hai ki 'taajikistaan' mein 'taaj' shabd paameer ki gaaainth ko 'taaj' ke roop me dekhkar rakha gaya hai, jis tarah kabhi-kabhi himaalaya ko Bhaarat ka 'himkireet' ('barf ka taaj') kaha jaata hai. 'taaj' mein samay ke saath 'k' shabd ko sundar banaane ke liye puraane kaal se joda jaata raha hai.

'taajik' shabd ka prayog iraaniyon (yaani aaryon) ko turkon se vibhkt karne ke liye prayog hota aa raha hai. sabon ko sambodhit karne ke liye 'taajik-O-turk' pad ka istemaal hota tha. itihaas mein taajikistaan ke logon ko 'taajik' hi kaha jaata raha hai, lekin ab is sambodhan par vivaad hai, kyonki yahaaain taajik logon ke alaava ujbek log aur roosi log bhi basate hain. unka mat hai ki taajikistaan ke logon ko taajik kehne ka matlab hai ki yeh keval 'taajik mool ke logon ka desh' hai jo unke liye sveekaarya naheen hai aur is desh ke sab logon ko 'taajikistaani' bulaaya jaana chaahiye.

itihaas

yahaaain par maanav basaav isa ke 4000 saal pehle se raha hai. mahaabhaarat tatha anya bhaarateeya granthon mein varnit mahaajanapad kamboj tatha param kamboj ka sthal yaheen maana jaata hai. Iran ke hakhaamani shaasan mein sammilit kiye jaane ke samay yahaaain bauddh dharm bhi aaya tha. isi samay bebeeloniya se kuchh yahoodi bhi yahaaain aakar base the. sikndar ke aakraman ke samay yeh pradesh bacha raha. cheen ke haan vansh se bhi inke kootaneetik sambandh the.

saataveen sadi mein arabon ne yahaaain par islaam ki neenv daali. Iran ke saamaani saamraajya ne arabon ko bhaga diya aur samarakand tatha bukhaara ki sthaapana ki. ye donon shahar ab ujbekistaan mein hain. terahaveen sadi mein mangolon ke madhya Asia par adhikaar hone mein taajik kshetr sabse pehle samarpan karne vaalon mein se ek tha. athaarahaveen sadi mein roosi saamraajya ka vistaar ho raha tha aur faarasi saamraajya ko peechhe dakshin ki or khiskana pada.

1991 mein soviyt roos se svaayattata milte hi ise gruhayuddhon ke daur se gujrana pada. 1992-97 tak yahaaain fitne (gruhayuddh) ki vajh se desh ki arthavyavastha chaupat ho gayi. 2008 mein I bhayankar sardi ne bhi desh ko bahut nuksaan pahuainchaaya.

jugaraafiya

taajikistaan chaaron taraf se khushki mein ghira hua hai aur rakabe ke lihaaj se madhya Asia ka sab se chhota mulk hai. silsila koh paameer is mulk ke beshatar hisse par faila hua hai aur mulk ka pachchaas feesad se jaayad ilaaka samundr-satah se 3 hajaar meter (takreeban 10 hajaar foot) se adhik ooncha hai. kam buland jameen ka vaahid ilaaka shumaal mein faragaana vaadi aur janoobi kaafrangain aur O-khash ki vaadeeyaan hain jo aamoo dariya ko tashakeel deti hain aur yahaan baarishein bhi zyaada hoti hain. rajdhani dushaanbe janoobi dhalaanon par vaadi kaafrangain ke oopar vaakia hai. aamoo dariya aur panj dariya afgaanistaan ke saath sarhad tashakeel dete hain. koh ismaail saamaani (7495 meter), koh aajaadi (7174 meter) aur koh iban sena (6974 meter) mulk ki teen badi chotiyaan hain.

prashaasanik vibhaag

mulk alag-alag subon mein takseem hai jinhein 'vilaayat' ya 'viloyat' (taajiki: вaaиaaлaaоaaяaaт, وaaلaaاaaیaaت) kaha jaata hai - dhyaan dein ki 'vilaayat' bahut se madhya Asiaee deshon mein 'praant' ke liye shabd hai.

1. sugd viloyat (khoknd)

2. ganatantr-adheen jile, dushaanbe ki kaumi hukoomat dvaara shaasit ilaaka

3. khtalon viloyat

4. koohistoni-badakhshaan mukhtor viloyat urf gorno-badakhshaan mukhtor viloyat

bairooni ilaake

taajikistaan ke teen bairooni ilaake (exclave) bhi hain jo vaadi faragaana mein vaakia hain jahaan kirgijstaan, taajikistaan aur ujbekistaan aapas mein milte hain. in bairooni ilaakon mein sab se bada varao-kh hai jis ki aabaadi 23 se 29 hajaar hai jis mein se 95 feesad taajik log aur 5 feesad kirgij log hain. ye ilaaka kirgij ilaake mein asafaaraa se 45 kilometer janoob mein darayaaai karafisheen ke kinaare vaakia hai. donon bairooni ilaaka kirgijstaan mein ka raagach ke railway station ke kreeb ek chhoti si aabaadi hai jabki aakhri saravaan ka kaavan hai jo ek jameen ka ek chhota sa ansh hai (15 kilometer taveel aur ek kilometer ereej) jo anagareen se khoknd ke daramyaani raaste par vaakia hai. taajikistaan mein kisi aur desh ka koi androoni ilaaka (enclave) naheen.

siyaasat

sadar imaam Ali rahamaanao-f

aajaadi ke fauran baad taajikistaan mukhtalif firkon ke daramyaan ladaai ke kaaran khaana jangi (gruhayuddh) ka shikaar ban gaya, jinhein Iran aur roos ki hamaayat haasil thi. khaana jangi ke dauraan tamaam 4 lakh roosi baashinde, sivaae 25 hajaar ke, is ilaake se roos chale gaye. 1997 mein khaana jangi khaatm hui aur 1999 mein par intakhaabaat ke jreeye marakaji hukoomat kaayam hui. taajikistaan ek jamahooreeya hai jahaan sadar aur sansad muntakhb karne ke liye intakhaabaat hote hain. aakhri intakhaabaat 2005 mein huai aur gujshata tamaam intakhaabaat ki tarah in intakhaabaat ko bhi antarraashtreeya sameekshakon ne gair munasifaana kraar diya.

hijb ikhatilaaf (vipaksh) ki kai aham jamaaton ne 6 November 2006 ko hone vaale intakhaabaat mein hissa liya, jin mein 23 hajaar araakeen par mushatamil islaami nashaat saaniya party bhi shaamil thi. taajikistaan is vakt tak madhya Asia ka vaahid mulk hai jahaan mutaharik hijb ikhatilaaf maujood hai. sansad mein hijb ikhatilaaf ke araakeen ka basa aukaat hukoomati araakeen se tasaadam hota rahata hai taaham is se bade paimaane par koi adam isatihkaam paida naheen hua.

maishat

taajikistaan ishataraaki ed hi se deegar riyaasaton ke mukaabalaai mein ek gareeb riyaasat thi aur aajaadi ke fauri baad khaana jangi ne is ki maishat ko lab guroo pahuncha diya. 2000 mein bahaali ke mansoobon ki madad ke ka sab se aham jreeya ben elaakvaami imadaad hi thi. ben elaakvaami imadaad ne khitte mein gijaai paidaavaar ki musalasal kami aur kahat ki sooratahaal se nimtane ke liye aham kirdaar ada kya. 21 August 2001 ko saleeb ahamar ne ailaan kya ki kahat taajikistaan ko nishaana bina raha hai aur taajikistaan aur ajbakasataan ke liye ben elaakvaami imadaad ka mutaalaba kya. khaana-jangi ke baad taajikistaan maishat teji se tarakki kar rahi hai. aalami bank ke aadaad O- shumaar ke mutaabik 2000 se 2004 ke daramyaan taajikistaan ke ji di pi mein 9.6 feesad saalaana ke hisaab se izaafa ho raha hai.

aadaad O- shumaar

taajikistaan ki aabaadi July 2006 ke andaajon ke mutaabik 7,320,815 hai. sab se bada nasli giroh taajik hai, jabki ajbak baashanadon ki badi taadaad bhi taajikistaan mein rihaaish pajeer hai. roosiyon ki thodi si aabaadi bhi yahaan rahati hai jo hijrat ke baais kam hoti ja rahi hai. mulk ki baajaabata jbaan taajik faarasi hai jabki kaarobaari-O-hukoomati maamalon mein roosi jbaan bhi bade paimaane par istemaal hoti hai. greebi ke baavajood taajikistaan mein saaksharata bahut zyaada hai aur takreeban 98 feesad aabaadi likhne or padhne ki salaaheeyat rakhati hai. mulk ki aksar aabaadi islaam ki pairavi karti hai jin mein sunni bahut badi aksareeyat mein hain jabki sheeya alpasankhyak hain. bukhaari yahoodi doosari sadi isa-poorv se is ilaake mein rahate hain taaham aaj in ki taadaad chand sau hi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.