taaitan (chandrama)

taaitan
Titan in natural color
kaisini-haayagans antariksh-yaan se taaitan ka drushya
khoj
khoj karta kristiyaan haayagans
khoj ki tithi 25 March 1655
upanaam
praavadhaanik naam saitarn shashtam
visheshan taaitainiyn
ardh mukhya aksh 12,21,870 ki.mi
vikendrata 0.0288
parikraman kaal 15.945 din
jhukaav 0.34854 ° (shani ki bhoomadhya rekha ko)
svaami grah shani
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 2,576±2 km (0.404 Earths)[2]
tal-kshetrafal 8.3×107 km2
dravyamaan 1.3452±0.0002×1023 kg (0.0225 Earths)[2]
maadhya ghanatv 1.8798±0.0044 g/cm3[2]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 1.352 m/s2 (0.14 g)
palaayan veg 2.639 km/s
ghoornan sinkronas
aksheeya naman shoonya
albedo 0.22[3]
taapamaan 93.7 K (−179.5 °aC)[4]
spasht parimaan 7.9
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 146.7 saaaincha:Convert/ScientificValue/LonAonSoff
sanghatan 98.4% nitrogen (N2)
1.6% methane (CH4)[5]

taaitan (uchchaaran sahaayata /ˈaataɪaatəaan/, ya praacheen yoonaani : Τaaῑaaτaaάaaν), ya shani shashtam, shani grah ka sabse bada chandrama hai. yeh vaataavaran sahit ekamaatr jnyaaatachandrama hai,[6] aur pruthvi ke alaava ekamaatr aisa khagoleeya pind hai jiske satahi taral sthaanon, jaise naharon, saagaron aadi ke thos pramaan upalabdh hon.[7]

Europeeya-ameriki ke kaaseeni antariksh yaan ke saath gaya usaka avataran yaan haayagans, 16 January 2004 ko, taaitan ke dharaatal par utara jahaan usane bhoore-naarangi rang mein range taaitan ke nadiyon-pahaadon aur jheelon-taalaabon vaale jo chitr bheje. taaitan ke bahut hi ghane vaayumandal ke kaaran isse pehle usaki oopari satah ko dekh ya uske chitr le paana sambhav hi naheen tha.[8]

2008 August ke madhya mein braajeel ki rajdhani Rio di janero mein antararaashtreeya khagol vigyaan sangh ke sammelan mein aise chitr dikhaaye gaye aur do aise shodhapatr prastut kiye gaye, jinse pruthvi ke saath taaitan ki samaanata spasht hoti hai. ye chitr aur adhyayan bhi mukhyat: kaaseeni aur hoyagans se mile aankadon par hi aadhaarit the.

anukram

vaataavaran

taaitan ka dhundhamaya vaataavaran
utari dhruv
mausami badlaav

yaan ke yahaan utarate samay chaaro taraf kaafi dhundh thi par vah itni paaradarshi thi ki hoyagans ke camere 40 kilometer ki oonchaai par se hi neeche ke drushya ke foto lene mein saksham ho paaye. vah kai paraton vaale vaayumandal se gujrata hua ek oobad- khaabad jagah par utara tha. vaayumandal mein use bijli kaundhane ke sanket bhi mile the. hoyagans abhiyaan prabandhak jaun piyer lebretaan ke anusaar is ka matlab hai ki taaitan ka vaayumandal bahut chanchal hai. vahaan us samay tej havaaen chal rahi theen. pairaashoot ke sahaare utarana kaafi jhooledaar raha hoga. hoyagans mein rakhe vishleshan upakaranon ne taaitan ki hava mein tairane vaale tatvon ka jo vishleshan kiya, usase pata chala ki uske baadal mukhyat: ithen aur methane gaison ke bane hote hain. in baadalon se mukhyat: taral methane ki barasaat hoti hai. hoyagans ko apni yaatra ke dauraan aisi koi barasaat naheen mili. is taral methane gas varsha se uske gas banane aur barasane ka chakr pruthvi par paani ki barasaat ke samaan hi hota hai. yaan ke neeche ki jameen bheegi hui ret jaisi drudh thi, fir bhi yaan is jameen mein lagbhag 10 seinteemeetar dhans gaya tha aur ek taraf ko halka sa jhuk gaya tha.

pruthvi aur shani grah ke is upagrah ke beech aur bhi kai samaanataaen hain. taaitan par jvaalaamukhi jaisi kriyaaen bhi dekhne mein aati hain aur yahaan khaaiyaan, nadiyon ke paat aur muhaane bhi dikhte hain, kintu bade pahaad naheen dikhe. bahut kam kretar-jaise golaakaar gaddhe hain aur kisi prakaar ka jeevan naheen hai. vaataavaran atyant thanda hai. taral methane taral paani ka kaam karti hai. hava mein pratidhvani bhi hoti hai, pruthvi ki tarah tarangein bhi paida hoti hain.


satah

pruthvi ki tulana mein taaitan ke ret ke teele

vaigyaanik jaunathan loonin ke anusaar hoyagans jahaan utara, vahaan neechi pahaadiyon aur unke beech samatal maidaanon waali drushyaavali thi. utarane se pehle vah ek pahaad ke oopar se hota hua gujra. usane nadiyon ki kataan se jameen par bani taaitan ki oopari satah par aakrutiyaan dekheen, jo ek samatal maidaan ki taraf ja rahi theen. is ilaake ko paar karta hua vah ek aisi jagah utara, jahaan pahaadiyon ke beech aas-paas badi-badi chattaanein bikhri hui theen. vah kankad-patthar aur barf ke tukadon waali ek samatal jagah par utara. ye cheejein shaayad paas ke pahaadon par se bah kar vahaan aayi theen.

jvaalaamukhi

yeh chandrama pruthvi ki apeksha behad thanda hai aur ausat taapamaan shoonya se bhi 180 degree celcius neeche hai, jo saaiberiya se bhi teen guna thanda hai. nadiyon aur jheelon mein paani ke badle taral methane gas bahti hai. jvaalaamukhi se barfeeli amoniya niklati hai. vaayumandal mein 98.4 pratishat naaitrojan gas hai aur shesh 1.6 pratishat anya gaisein hain jismein methane ka anupaat sarvaadhik hai. vaayumandal bahut saghan aur gurutvaakarshan bal kam hai. taaitan shani ka sabse bada upagrah hai. 5.150 kilometer vyaas wala ye chandrama pruthvi ke chandrama se 1.624 kilometer bada hai. usaka ghana vaayumandal pruthvi ke vaayumandal ke vipreet ek aisa vilom greenahaaus prabhaav paida karta hai ki soorya ki kirnein antariksh mein paraavartit ho jaati hain. is kaaran use jitna thanda hona chaahiye, usase kaheen adhik thanda hai.

sandarbh

  1. yadi anyatha na diya ho to: "JPL HORIZONS saur mandal aankade". solar system daayanamiks. naasa, jet propaljn pryogashaala. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi#top. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-19.
  2. a aa i R.A. Jacobson et al.. (2006). "The gravity field of the saturnian system from satellite observations and spacecraft tracking data". The Astronomical Journal 132 (6): 2520–2526. doi:10.1086/508812.
  3. D.R. Williams (August 21, 2008). "Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/saturniansatfact.html. abhigman tithi: 2000-04-18.
  4. G. Mitri et al. (2007). "Hydrocarbon Lakes on Titan" (PDF). Icarus 186 (2): 385–394. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.004. http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/~showman/publications/mitri-etal-2007-lakes.pdf.
  5. H. B. Niemann, et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe". Nature 438: 779–784. doi:10.1038/nature04122.
  6. "News Features: The Story of Saturn". Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan. NASA & JPL. http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/features/saturn-story/moons.cfm. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-08.
  7. Stofan, E. R.; Elachi, C.; et al. (January 4, 2007). "The lakes of Titan". Nature 445 (1): 61–64. doi:10.1038/nature05438.
  8. 4608136,00.html taaitan ki pruthvi se anokhi samaanata