svar

yeh lekh sangeet se sambandhit 'svar' ke baare mein hai. maanav evam anya stanaposhi praaniyon ke aavaaj ke baare mein jaankaari ke liye dekhein - svar (maanav ka)


sangeet mein vah shabd jiska koi nishchit roop ho aur jiski komalata ya teevrata athva utaar-chadhaav aadi ka, sunate hi, sahaj mein anumaan ho sake, svar kahalaata hai. bhaarateeya sangeet mein saat svar (notes of the scale) hain, jinke naam hain - shadj, rishabh, gaandhaar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat va nishaad.

yon to svaron ki koi sankhya batalaai hi naheen ja sakti, parantu fir bhi suvidha ke liye sabhi deshon aur sabhi kaalon mein saat svar niyat kiye gaye hain. Bhaarat mein in saaton svaron ke naam kram se shadj, rishabh, gaandhaar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat aur nishaad rakhe gaye hain jinke sankshipt roop sa, re g, m, p, dh aur ni hain.

vaigyaaniko ne pareeksha karke siddh kiya hai ki kisi padaarth mein 256 baar kanp hone par shadj, 298 2/3 baar kanp hone par rishabh, 320 baar kanp hone par gaandhaar svar utpann hota hai; aur isi prakaar badhte badhte 480 baar kanp hone par nishaad svar niklata hai. taatparya yeh ki kanpan jitna hi adhik aur jaldi jaldi hota hai, svar bhi utana hi ooaincha chadhta jaata hai. is kram ke anusaar shadj se nishaad tak saaton svaron ke samooh ko saptak kehte hain. ek saptak ke uparaant doosra saptak chalta hai, jiske svaron ki kanpanasankhya is sankhya se dooni hoti hai. isi prakaar teesara aur chautha saptak bhi hota hai. yadi pratyek svar ki kapanasankhya niyat se aadhi ho, to svar baraabar neeche hote jaayainge aur un svaron ka samooh neeche ka saptak kahalaaega.

Bhaarat mein yeh bhi maana gaya hai ki ye saaton svar kramash: mor, gau, bakari, kraunch, koyal, ghode aur haathi ke svar se liye gaye hain, arthaat ye sab praani kramash: inheen svaron mein bolte hain; aur inheen ke anukaran par svaron ki yeh sankhya niyat ki gayi hai. bhinn bhinn svaron ke uchchaaran sthaan bhi bhinn bhinn kahe gaye hain. jaise,—anaasa, kanth, ur, taalu, jeebh aur daaaint in chhah sthaanon mein utpann hone ke kaaran pehla svar shadj kahalaata hai. jis svar ki gati naabhi se sir tak pahuainche, vah rishabh kahalaata hai, aadi. ye sab svar gale se to nikalte hi hain, par baajon se bhi usi prakaar nikalte hai. in saaton mein se sa aur p to shuddh svar kahalate hain, kyonki inka koi bhed naheen hota; par shesh paachon svar do prakaar ke hote hain - komal aur teevr. pratyek svar do do, teen teen bhaagon mein banta rahata hain, jinmein se pratyek bhaag 'shruti' kahalaata hai.

anukram

parichay

vidvaanon ne maana hai ki jo dhvaniyaaain nishchit taal aur laya mein hoti hain vaheen sangeet paida karti hain. dhvaniyon ke mote taur par do prakaar 'aahat' aur 'anaahat' dhvaniyaaain sangeet ke liye upayogi naheen hoteen, inka anubhav dhyaan ki paraavastha mein hota hai at: 'aahat' naad se hi sangeet ka janm hota hai. yeh naad do vastuon ko aapas mein ragadne, gharshan ya ek par doosari vastu ke prahaar mein paida hota hai. 'aahat' naad ham tak kanpan ke maadhyam se pahuainchata hai. dhvani apni tarangon se hava mein halachal paida karti hai. dhvani tarangon ki chaudaai aur lambaai par dhvani ka ooaincha ya neecha hona tay hota hai. sangeet ke saat svaron mein 're' ka naad 'sa' ke naad se ooaincha hai. isi tarah 'g' ka naad 're' se ooaincha hai. yeh bhi kah sakte hain ki 'g' ki dhvani mein tarangon ki lambaai 're' ki dhvani–tarangon se kam hai aur kampanon ki sankhya 're' ki tulana mein jyaada hai. iske alaava dhvani se sambandhit aur bhi kai siddhaant hain jo dhvani ka bhaari ya patala hona, der ya kam der tak sunaai dena nishchit karte hain. inheen gunon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue sangeet ke liye mukhyat: saat svar nishchit kiye gaye. shadj, gaandhaar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat va nishaad svar-naamon ke pehle akshar lekar inhein sa, re g, m, p, dh aur ni kaha gaya. ye sab shuddh svar hai. inmein 'sa' aur 'p' achal maane gaye hain kyonki ye apni jagah se jara bhi naheen hatate. baaki paaainch svaron ko vikrut ya vikaari svar bhi kehte hain, kyonki inmein apne sthaan se hatne ki gunjaaish hoti hai. koi svar apne niyat sthaan se thoda neeche khiskata hai to vah komal svar kahalaata hai. aur oopar khiskata hai to teevr svar ho jaata hai. fir apne sthaan par laut aane par ye svar shuddh kahe jaate hain. re, g, dh, ni jab neeche khiskate hain tab ve komal ban jaate hain aur 'm' oopar pahuainchakar teevr ban jaata hai. is tarah saat shuddh svar, chaar komal aur ek teevr milkar baarah svar taiyaar hote hain.

saat svaron ko 'saptak' kaha gaya hai, lekin dhvani ki ooainchaai aur neechaai ke aadhaar par sangeet mein teen tarah ke saptak maane gaye. saadhaaran dhvani ko 'madhya', madhya se oopar ki dhvani ko 'taar' aur madhya se neeche ki dhvani ko 'mandr' saptak kaha jaata hai. 'taar saptak' mein taaloo, 'madhya saptak' mein gala aur 'mandr saptak' mein hrudaya par jor padta hai. sangeet ke aadhunik-kaal ke mahaan sangeetajnyaon pandit vishnu digmbar paluskar aur pandit vishnunaaraayan bhaatakhande ne bhaarateeya sangeet parampara ko likhne ki paddhit viksit ki. bhaatakhande ji ne saptakon ke svaron ko likhne ke liye bindu ka prayog kiya. svar ke oopar bindu taar saptak, svar ke neeche bindu mandr saptak aur bindu rahit svar madhya saptak darshaate hain. in saptakon mein komal aur teevr svar bhi gaaye jaate hain, jinhein bhaatakhande lipi mein svaron ke oopar khadi pai (m) lagaakar teevr tatha svaron ke neeche pat pai (g) lagaakar komal darshaaya jaata hai. in svaron ki dhvani ka keval star badalta hai. inki komalata aur teevrata bani rahati hai.

sangeet mein svar ko laya mein nibddh hona padta hai. laya bhi saptakon ki tarah teen star se gujarati hai jaise saamaanya laya ko 'madhya laya,' saamaanya se tej laya ko 'drut laya' tatha saamaanya se kam ko 'vilimbit laya' kaha jaata hai. sangeet mein samay ko baraabar maatraaon mein baaaintane par 'taal' banta hai. 'taal' baar-baar doharaaya jaata hai aur har baar apne antim tukde ko poora kar samay ke jis tukade se shuroo hua tha usi par aakar milta hai. har tukade ko 'maatra' kaha jaata hai. sangeet mein samay ko maatra se maapa jaata hai. teen taal mein samay ya laya ke 16 tukadein ya maatraaeain hoti hain. har tukade ko ek naam diya jaata hai, jise 'bol' kehte hain. inheen bolon ko jab vaadya par bajaaya jaata hai to unhein 'theka' kehte hain. 'taal' ki maatraaon ko vibhinn bhaagon mein baaainta jaata hai, jisse gaane ya bajaane vaale ko yeh maaloom rahe ki vah kaun si maatra par hai aur kitni maatraaon ke baad vah 'sam' par pahuainchega. taalon mein bolon ke chhand ke hisaab se unke vibhaag kiye jaate hain. jahaaain se chakr dobaara shuroo hota hai use 'sam' kaha jaata hai. 'taal' mein 'khaali' 'bhari' do mahattvapoorn shabd hain. 'taal' ke us bhaag ko bhari kehte hain jis par bol ke hisaab se adhik bal dena hai. 'bhari par taali di jaati hain. 'taal' mein khaali um bhaag ko kehte hain jis par taali naheen di jaati aur jisse gaayak ko sam ke aane ka aabhaas ho jaata hai. taal laya ko gaaainthata hai aur use apne niyantran mein rakhata hai.

raag

jab 12 svar khoj liye gaye honge tab unhein istemaal karne ke tareeke dhooaindhe gaye. 12 svaron ke mel se hi kai raag banaae gaye. unamein se kai raagon mein samaanata bhi thi. kavi lochan ne 'raag-tarangini' granth mein 16 hajaar raagon ka ullekh kiya hai, lekin itne saare raagon mein se chalan mein keval 16 raag hi the. raag us svar samooh ko kaha gaya jismein svaron ke utaar-chadhaav aur unke mel mein banane waali rachana sunane vaale ko mugdh kar sake. yeh jaroori naheen ki kisi bhi raag mein saaton svar lagein. yeh to bahut pehle hi tay kar diya gaya tha ki kisi bhi raag mein kam se kam paaainch svaron ka hona jaroori hai. aise aur bhi niyam banaaye gaye the jaise shadj yaani 'sa' ka har raag mein hona bahut hi jaroori hai kyonki vahi to har raag ka aadhaar hai. kuchh svar jo raag mein baar-baar aate hain unhein 'vaadi' kehte hain aur aise svar do 'vaadi' svar se kam lekin anya svaron se adhik baar aaeain unhein 'sanvaadi' kehte hain. lochan kavi ne 16 hajaar raagon mein se kai raagon mein samaanata pai to unhein alag-alag vargon mein rakha. unhonne 12 varg taiyaar kiye jinmein se har varg mein kuchh-kuchh samaan svar vaale raag shaamil the. in vargon ko 'mel' ya 'thaat' kaha gaya. 'thaat' mein 7 svar arthaat 'sa', 're,' 'g', 'm', 'p','dh', 'ni', hone aavashyak hai. yeh baat aur hai ki kisi 'thaat' mein komal aur kisi mein teevr svar honge ya mile-jule svar honge. in 'thaaton' mein vahi raag rakhe gaye jinke svar milte-julate the. iske baad satrahaveen shataabdi mein dakshin ke vidvaan pandit shreenivaas ne socha ki raagon ko unke svaron ki sankhya ke sihaab se 'mel' mein rakha jaaye yaani jin raagon mein 5 svar hon ve ek 'mel' mein, chh: svar vaale doosare aur 7 svar vaale teesare 'mel' mein. kai vidvaanon mein is baat ko lekar charcha hoti rahi ki raagon ka vargeekaran 'melon' mein kaise kiya jaaye. dakshin ke hi ek anya vidvaan vyankatamakhi ne ganit ka sahaara lekar kul 72 'mel' bataae. unhonne dakshin ke raagon ke liye inmein se 19 'mel' chune. idhar uttar Bhaarat mein vidvaanon ne sabhi raagon ke liye 32 'mel' chune. antat: bhaatakhandeji ne yeh tay kiya ki uttar bhaarateeya sangeet ke sabhi raag 10 'melon' mein sama sakte hain. ye 'mel'. kaun-kaun se hain inhein yaad rakhane ke liye 'chatur pandit' ne ek kavita banaai. chatur pandit koi aur naheen swayam pandit bhaatakhande hi the. inhonne kai rachanaaeain 'manjareekaar' aur 'vishnu sharma' naam se bhi rachi hai.

yaman, bilaaval aur khamaaji, bhairav pooravi maarav kaafi.
aasa bhairavi todi bakhaane, dashamit thaat chatur guni maanein..

uttar bhaarateeya sangeet mein 'kalyaan thaat' ya 'yaman thaat' se bhoopaali, hindol, yaman, hameer, kedaar, chhaayaanat va gaudsaarang, 'bilaavat thaat' se bihaag, dekhakaar, bilaaval, pahaadi, durga va shankara, 'khamaaj thaat' se jhijhoti, tilang, khamaaj, raageshvari, sorath, desh, jayajayavanti va tilk kaamod, 'bhairav thaat' se aheer bhairav, gunakali, bhairav, jogiya va megharanjani, 'poorvi thaat' se pooriyaadhanaashri, vasant va poorvi, 'kaafi thaat' se bheemapalaasi, peeloo, kaafi, baageshvari, bahaar, vrundaavani saarang, shuddh mallaah, megh va miyaan ki malhaar, 'aasaavari thaat' se jaunapuri, darabaari kaanhada, aasaavari va adaana, 'bhairavi thaat' se maalakauns, bilaasakhaani todi va bhairavi, 'todi thaat' se 14 prakaar ki todi va multaani aur 'maarava thaat' se bhatiyaar, vibhaas, maarava, lalit va sohani aagi raag paida hue. aaj bhi sangeetajnya inheen das ''thaaton' ki madad se naye-naye raag bana rahe hain. yahaaain yeh baat dhyaan dene yogya hai ki har 'thaat' ka naam usase paida hone vaale kisi vishesh raag ke naam par hi diya jaata hai. is raag ko 'aashray raag' kehte hain kyonki baaki raagon mein is raag ka thoda-bahut ansh to dikhaai hi deta hai.

'raag' shabd sanskrut ki dhaatu 'ranj' se bana hai. ranj ka arth hai - rangana. jis tarah ek chitrakaar tasveer mein rang bharakar use sundar banaata hai, usi tarah sangeetajnya man aur shareer ko sangeet ke suron se rangata hi to hain. rang mein rang jaana muhaavare ka arth hi hai ki sab kuchh bhulaakar magan ho jaana ya leen ho jaana. sangeet ka bhi yahi asar hota hai. jo rachana manushya ke man ko aanand ke rang se rang de vahi kaag kahalaati hai. har raag ka apna ek roop, ek vyaktitv hota hai jo usamein lagne vaale svaron aur laya par nirbhar karta hai. kisi raag ki jaati is baat se nirdhaarit hoti hain ki usamein kitne svar hain. aaroh ka arth hai chadhana aur avaroh ka utarana. sangeet mein svaron ko kram unki ooainchaai-nichaai ke aadhaar par tay kiya gaya hai. 'sa' se ooainchi dhvani 're' ki, 're' se ooainchi dhvani 'g' ki aur 'ni' ki dhvani sabse adhik ooainchi hoti hai. jis tarah ham ek ke baad ek seedhiyaaain chadhte hue kisi makaan ki oopari manjil tak pahuainchate hain usi tarah gaayak sa-re-g-m-p-dh-ni-saan ka safar tay karte hain. isi ko 'aaroh' kehte hain. iske vipreet oopar se neeche aane ko 'avaroh' kehte hain. tab svaron ka kram ooainchi dhvani se neechi dhvani ki or hota hai jaise saan-ni-dh-p-m-g-re-sa. aaroh-avaroh mein saaton svar hone par raag 'sampoorn jaati' ka kahalaata hai. paaainch svar lagne par raag 'audav' aur chhah svar lagne par 'shaadav' raag kahalaata hai. yadi aaroh mein saat aur avaroh mein paaainch svar hain to raag 'sampoorn audav' kahalaaega. is tarah kul 9 jaatiyaaain taiyaar ho sakti hain jinhein raag ki upajaatiyaaain bhi kehte hain. saadhaaran ganit ke hisaab se dekhein to ek 'thaat' ke saat svaron mein 484 raag taiyaar ho sakte hain. lekin kul milaakar koi dedh sau raag hi prachalit hain. maamala bahut pecheeda lagta hai lekin yeh keval saadhaaran ganit ki baat hai. aaroh mein 7 aur avaroh mein bhi 7 svar hone par 'sampoorn-sampoorn jaati' banti hai jisse keval ek hi raag ban sakta hai. vaheen aaroh mein 7 aur avarog mein 6 svar hone par 'sampoorn shaadav jaati' banti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain