svadeshi

svadeshi ka arth hai- 'apne desh ka' athva 'apne desh mein nirmit'. vruhad arth mein kisi bhaugolik kshetr mein janmi, nirmit ya kalpit vastuon, neetiyon, vichaaron ko svadeshi kehte hain. varsh 1905 ke bang-bhang virodhi janajaagaran se svadeshi aandolan ko bahut bal mila, yeh 1911 tak chala aur gaaaindhi ji ke Bhaarat mein padaarpan ke poorv sabhi safal andolanon mein se ek tha. aravind ghosh, raveendranaath thaakur, veer saavarakar, lokamaanya baal gangaadhar tilk aur laala laajapat rai svadeshi aandolan ke mukhya udghoshak the.[1] aage chalakar yahi svadeshi aandolan mahaatma Gandhi ke svatantrata aandolan ka bhi kendra-bindu ban gaya. unhonne ise "Swaraj ki aatma" kaha.

anukram

svadeshi ka aadhaar

hamein yeh samajhna hoga ki desh mein jo bhi vikaas abhi tak hua hai, vah vaastav mein svadeshi ke aadhaar par hi hua hai. kul poonji nivesh mein videshi poonji ka hissa 2 pratishat se bhi kam hai aur vah bhi gair jaroori kshetron mein videshi poonji nivesh jaata hai. aaj chikitsa ke kshetr mein Bhaarat duniya ka sirmaur desh ban chuka hai iske liye jimmedaar videshi poonji naheen, balki bhaarateeya doctoron ki utkrushtata hai. aaj antariksh ke kshetr mein bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan kendra jo poori tarah se bhaarateeya praudyogiki ke aadhaar par viksit hua hai, ne duniya mein apni kaamayaabi ke jhande gaad diye hain. aaj duniya ke jaane-maane desh bhi apne antariksh yaanon ko antariksh ki kaksha mein sthaapit karne ke liye bhaarateeya 'pi.S.L.vi.' ka sahaara lete hain. saamarik kshetr mein aanavik visfot kar Bhaarat pehle hi duniya ko achanbhit kar chuka hai. udhar agni prakshepapaastr ka nirmaan hamaare dushmanon ko dahala raha hai. duniyaabhar mein Bhaarat ke vaigyaaniko, doctoron aur injeeniyron ne apni dhaak jama rakhi hai. sarkaar ke tamaam daavon ke baavajood aayaaton par nirbharata badhne ke baavajood hamaare niryaaton mein vruddhi naheen ho rahi, lekin hamaare software injeeniyron ki athak mehnat ke kaaran hamaare software ke badhte niryaat sarkaar ki galat neetiyon ke baavajood desh ko laabhaanvit kar rahe hain.

in sabhi kshetron mein hamaari pragati kisi bhi drushtikon se videshi nivesh aur bhoomandaleekaran ke kaaran naheen, balki hamaare sansaadhanon, hamaare vaigyaaniko aur utkrusht maanav sansaadhanon ke kaaran ho rahi hai. abhi bhi samay hai ki sarkaar videshi nivesh ke moh ko tyaag kar, svadeshi yaani svedashi sansaadhan, svadeshi praudyogiki aur svadeshi maanav sansaadhanon ke aadhaar par vikaas karne ki maanasikta apanaae. aaj jab amareeka aur Europe sareekhe sabhi desh bhayankar aarthik sankat se gujar rahe hain, tab Bhaarat mein svadeshi ke aadhaar par aarthik vikaas hi ek maatr vikalp hai.

svadeshi aandolan aur hindi

mahaatma gaaaindhi ne sampark bhaasha ke roop mein hindi ke mahatva ko pratipaadit karte hue kaha tha–

mainne san 1915 mein Congress ke (ek ke alaava) sabhi adhiveshanon mein bhaag liya hai. in adhiveshanon ka mainne is abhipraaya se adhyayan kiya hai ki kaaryavaahi ko angreji ki apeksha hindustaani mein chalaane se kitni upayogita badh jaayegi. mainne saikadon pratinidhiyon aur hajaaron anya vyaktiyon se baatcheet ki hai aur mainne anya sabhi vyaktiyon se adhik vishaal kshetr ka daura kiya hai aur adhik shikshit tatha ashikshit logon se mila hooain– lokamaanya tilk aur shreemati aini besent se bhi adhik. main is drudh nishchaya par pahuaincha hooain ki hindustaani ke alaava sambhavat: koi aisi bhaasha naheen hai, jo vichaar vinimay ya raashtreeya kaaryavaahi ke liye raashtreeya maadhyam ban sake.[2]

yahaaain yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki san 1905 E. tak Congress ke adhiveshanon mein bhaag lene vaale sadasya adhiktar angreji veshabhoosha mein rahate the aur apne bhaashan angreji mein hi diya karte the lekin san 1906 E. ke baad 'svaraajya', 'svadeshi' ne itna jor pakada ki 'svabhaasha' aur hindi bhaasha ke liye maarg prashast ho gaya. lokamaanya tilk ne 'hind kesari' ke maadhyam se hindi ko prachaarit–prasaarit karne ka prayaas kiya. Punjab mein laala laajapat rai ne shikshan sansthaaon mein hindi ki padhaai ko anivaarya banaane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. pandit madanamohan maalaveeya ne kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana karke evam paathyakram mein hindi ek vishay ke roop mein sammilit karke tatha 'abhyudaya', 'maryaada', 'Hindustan' aadi patron ko praarambh evam sampaadan karke hindi ka prachaar–prasaar kiya. raajarshi purushottamadaas Tandon, kaaka kaalelakar aadi ne hindi ko saarvadeshik banaakar jan–jaagruti laane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai.

jaahir hai svaadheenata aandolan ki safalta ke liye yeh aavashyak tha ki use saarvadeshik aur akhil bhaarateeya banaaya jaae kyonki san 1857 ke pratham sangharsh mein hamein isliye asafal hona pada kyonki vah akhil desheeya naheen ho saka tha. us pratham svaadheenata sangraam ko akhil bhaarateeya naheen banaaye ja sakane ke anek kaaranon mein ek kaaran raashtravyaapi bhaasha ka abhaav bhi tha. ek akhil desheeya bhaasha ke abhaav mein sampoorn desh ko naheen jodkar rakha ja saka aur vah aandolan maatr hindi pradeshon tak hi seemit hokar rah gaya tha. anya pradeshon mein chhitput ghatanaaeain avashya ghatit huin lekin koi saarthak parinaam nahi nikla. 1857 ka pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam asafal jaroor hua lekin yeh sikha gaya ki akhil bhaarateeya star par sangathit hue bina aajaadi ka svapn dekhna vyarth hai. isliye yeh jaroori samjha gaya ki vibhinn bhaasha–bhaashiyon ke beech ek sampark bhaasha hi raashtravyaapi bhaasha ho taaki yojanaaon ka sahi kriyaanvayan ho sake aur sampoorn desh ko jodkar rakha ja sake. ab prashn yeh tha ki raashtravyaapi bhaasha kaun ho sakti hai? yadyapi us samay akhil bhaarateeya star par sanskrut, faarasi aur angreji jaisi bhaashaaeain theen lekin inmein se koi bhi aisi naheen thi jo janta ki bhaasha ban sake. vaise to angreji ke maadhyam se us samay sampark–kaarya chal raha tha lekin jab baat svadeshi, svaadheenata, svaabhimaan aur svabhaasha ki ho tab kisi videshi bhaasha ko sampark bhaasha ya raashtrabhaasha ke roop mein apanaana uchit naheen tha. isliye desh ki ek darjan se bhi adhik bhaashaaon mein se ek ko raashtreeya sandesh ki vaahika ya antar praanteeya vyavahaar ke liye chunana tha. saralata, sahajata, svaabhaavikta aur bolne vaalon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par hindi ko raashtra bhaasha aur sampark bhaasha ke roop mein apnaane ki jordaar vakaalat ki gayi.

sandarbh

  1. kraant, madanalaal varma (2006) (Hindi mein) svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas 1 (1 san॰) nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan pa॰ 84 aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-119-4 http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218
  2. hindi ka vaishvik paridrushya dau॰ pandit banne, prushth sankhya 26

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain