svaayambhoov manu

manu jo ek dharmashaastrakaar the, dharmagranthon ke baad dharmaacharan ki shiksha dene ke liye aadipurush svayanbhuv manu ne smruti ki rachana ki jo manusmruti ke naam se vikhyaat hai. ye brahma ke maanas putron mein se the jinka vivaah brahma ke daahine bhaag se utpann shataroopa se hua tha. uttaanapaad jiske ghar mein dhruv paida hua tha, inheen ka putr tha. manu svaayanbhuv ka jyeshth putr priyvrat pruthvi ka pratham kshatriya maana jaata hai. inke dvaara praneet 'svaayanbhuv shaastr' ke anusaar pita ki sampatti mein putr aur putri ka samaan adhikaar hai. inko dharmashaastr ka aur praachetas manu arthashaastr ka aachaarya maana jaata hai. manusmruti ne sanaatan dharm ko aachaar sanhita se joda tha.

parichay

brahma ke maanas putr svaayanbhoov manu ka vivaah brahma ke hi putri shataroopa se hua. aayonij hone ke kaaran in dono ka vivaah anuchit naheen hai. inke do putr priyvrat tatha uttaanapaad hue tatha teen kanyaaeain aakooti, devahooti tatha prasooti huin. manu ki vistrut santati mein hi dhruv, ven ityaadi hue. ven se manugan bahut roosht the kyonki vah anaachaari tha. muniyon ne uske daahine haath ka manthan kiya, jisse raaja pruthu ka janm hua. ve raajasooya yagya karne vaale raajaaon mein sarvapratham tha. prajaaon ko jeevika dene ki ichha se usane pruthvi se ann tatha doodh ka dohan aarambh kiya. sake saath-saath raakshas, pitr, devata, apsara, naag ityaadi sab is karm mein lag gaye. kaalaantar mein uske do putr hue antardhaan tatha paatin. antardhaan se shikhandini ne havirdhaan ko janm diya. agni ki putri ghishna se havirdhaan ne chhah putron ko janm diya- praacheenavarhis, shukr, gaya, Krishna, braj aur ajin. praacheenavarhis ne ghor tap karke samudra-kanya savarna se vivaah kiya. uske das putr hue jo ek hi dharm ka paalan karte the. ve pracheta naam se vikhyaat hue.[1]

brahma chintaatur the. 'sambhavat: Dave hi naheen chaahata ki srushti ka vistaar ho, anyatha itne prayatn ke uparaant bhi main srushti ka vistaar naheen kar pa raha hoon.' unke aisa sochate hi unka shareer 'k' kahalaata hai. at: donon bhaag kaaya (shareer) kahalaaye. unamein se ek manu (puroosh) tha, doosari shataroopa (stri) thi. svaayanbhuv manu ne shataroopa se paanch santaan praapt keen: do putr- priyvrat, uttaanapaad tatha teen kanyaaen- aakooti, devahooti tatha prasooti. manu ne brahma se poochha ki ve praja ke nivaas ke liye kaun-sa sthaan theek samajhte hain? brahma ne chintan aarambh kiya, at: jal mein doobi hui pruthvi ko jal ke oopar laane ka kaarya vishnu (baaraah) ne kiya.[2]


  • manu ka ullekh riagved kaal se hi maanav srushti ke aadi pravartak aur samast maanav jaati ke aadi-pita ke roop mein kiya jaata raha hai. inhein 'aadipuroosh' bhi kaha gaya hai. aarambh mein manu aur yam ka astitv abhinn tha. baad mein manu ko jeevit manushyon ka aur yam ko doosare lok mein, mrut manushyon ka aadipuroosh maana gaya.
  • shatapath braahman ke anusaar ek machhali ne manu se pralaya ki baat kahi thi aur baad mein inheen se srushti chali. anyatr ye viraat ke putr bataae gaye hain jinse prajaapatiyon ki utpatti hui. matsya puraan manu ko 'manusmruti' ka rachayita aur ek shaastr pravartak maanata hai. puraanon ke anusaar manu chaudah hue hain.
  • vaidik sanhitaaon mein manu ko[3] aitihaasik vyakti maana gaya hai. ye sarvapratham maanav tha jo maanav jaati ke pita tatha sabhi kshetron mein maanav jaati ke path pradarshak sveekrut hain. vaidik kaaleen jalaplaavan ki katha ke naayak manu hi hai <re>"(kaatha0 sanhita 11.2)" </ref>
  • manu ko vivsvaan[4] ya vaivasvat[5], vivsvant (soorya) ka putr; saavarni (savarna ka vanshaj) evam saanvarni[6] (sanvaran ka vanshaj) kehte hain. pratham naam pauraanik hai, jabki doosare naam aitihaasik hain. saavarni ko ludvig turvasuon ka raaja kehte hain, kintu yeh maanyata sandehapoorn hai.
  • puraanon mein manu ko maanav jaati ka guroo tatha pratyek manvantar mein sthit kaha gaya hai. ve jaati ke karttavyon (dharm) ke jnyaaata hai.
  • bhagavadgeeta (10.6) bhi manuon ka ullekh karti hai. manu naamak anek ullekhon se prateet hota hai ki yeh naam na hokar upaadhi hai. manu shabd ka mool man dhaatu (manan karna) se bhi yahi prateet hota hai. medhaatithi, jo manusmruti ke bhaashyakaar hain, manu ko us vyakti ki upaadhi kehte hain, jiska naam prajaapati hai. ve dharm ke prakrut roop ke jnyaaata the evam maanav jaati ko usaki shiksha dete the. is prakaar yeh vidit hota hai ki manu ek upaadhi hai.

manurachit 'maanav dharmashaastr' bhaarateeya dharmashaastr mein aadim va mukhya granth maana jaata hai. praacheen granthon mein jahaaain maanav dharmashaastr ke avataran aaye hain ve sootr roop mein hain aur prachalit manusmruti ke shlokon se naheen milte. vah sootragranth 'maanav dharmashaastr' abhi tak dekhne mein naheen aaya. vartamaan manusmruti ko unheen mool sootron ke aadhaar par likhi hui kaarika maan sakte hain. vartamaan sabhi smrutiyon mein yeh pradhaan samajhi jaati hai.

manvantaraadhikaari mahaapurushon ka varnan

har manu ke kaaryakaal mein anshaavataar alag hote hain. Indra, saptarshi aadi bhi bhinn hote hain. mareechi, atri, angira, pulah, kratu, pulastya tatha vasishth, ye manvantar ke adhikaari saptarshi hue. yeh saaton brahma ke maanas putr hain. anshaavataar ke roop mein Bhagwan yagya Dave ka avataar hua tatha ve hi Indra pad par aaseen hue. ek baar manu upanishdaadi ka paath karte raman kar rahe the tab kuchh raakshas unhein khaane ko daude. us samay Bhagwan yajnyaanaaraayan ne hi un raakshason ka sanhaar kar manu ki raksha ki. manu ke putr priyvrat tatha uttaanapaad the.[7]

sandarbh

  1. "brahm puraan,2. 1-33" Bhagwat
  2. "shreemad Bhagwat, truteeya skandh, 12. 52-56. 13"
  3. (rigved 1.80, 16;8.63,1;10.100,5) aadi; atharvaved 14.2,41; taitti0sanhita 1.5,1,3;7.5,15,3;6,7,1;3,3,2,1;5.4,10,5;6.6,6,1; shatapath braahman 1.1,4,14)
  4. "(rigved 8.52,1)"
  5. "(atharvaved 8.10,24)"
  6. "(rigved 8.51,1)"
  7. vishnu puraan