svaami vivekaanand

svaami vivekaanand


svaami vivekaanand Chicago (1893) mein

chitr mein svaami vivekaanand ne baaaingla evam angreji bhaasha mein likha hai: "ek aseemit, pavitra, shuddh soch evam gunon se paripoorn us paramaatma ko main natamastak hooain." isi chitr mein doosari or svaami vivekaanand ke hastaakshar hain.[1]
janm nareindranaath datt
12 January 1863
Calcutta
(ab Kolkata)
mrutyu 4 July 1902(1902-07-04) (umr 39)
beloor math, Bengal riyaasat, british raaj
(ab beloor, pashchim Bengal mein)
guru/shikshak shri raamakrushn paramahans
darshan aadhunik vedaant,[2][3] raaj yog[3]
saahityik kaarya raaj yog, karm yog, bhakti yog, gyaan yog, maai master
kathan "utho, jaago aur tab tak naheen ruko jab tak manjil praapt na ho jaaye"[4]
hastaakshar

svaami vivekaanand( baangla: সaa্aaবaaাaaমaaী বaaিaaবaaেaaকaaাaaনaaনaa্aaদ) (janm: 12 January,1863 - mrutyu: 4 July,1902) vedaant ke vikhyaat aur prabhaavashaali aadhyaatmik guru the. unka vaastavik naam Narendra naath datt tha. unhonne America sthit Chicago mein san 1893 mein aayojit vishv dharm mahaasabha mein Bhaarat ki or se sanaatan dharm ka pratinidhitv kiya tha. Bhaarat ka aadhyaatmikta se paripoorn vedaant darshan America aur Europe ke har ek desh mein svaami vivekaanand ki vaktruta ke kaaran hi pahuaincha. unhonne raamakrushn mission ki sthaapana ki thi jo aaj bhi apna kaam kar raha hai. ve raamakrushn paramahans ke suyogya shishya the. unhein pramukh roop se unke bhaashan ki shuruaat "mere Amreeki bhaaiyo evam bahanon" ke saath karne ke liye jaana jaata hai.[5] unke sambodhan ke is pratham vaakya ne sabka dil jeet liya tha.

Calcutta ke ek kuleen bangaali parivaar mein janme, vivekaanand aadhyaatmikta ki or jhuke hue the. ve apne guru raamakrushn Dave se kaafi prabhaavit the jinse unhonne seekha ki saare jeev swayam paramaatma ka hi ek avataar hain; isliye maanav jaati ki seva dvaara paramaatma ki bhi seva ki ja sakti hai. raamakrushn ki mrutyu ke baad vivekaanand ne bade paimaane par bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ka daura kiya aur british Bhaarat mein maujooda sthitiyon ka pehle haath gyaan haasil kiya. baad mein vishv dharm sansad 1893 mein Bhaarat ka pratinidhitv karne, sanyukt raajya America ke liye kooch ki. vivekaanand ke sanyukt raajya America, England aur Europe mein hindu darshan ke siddhaanton ka prasaar kiya , saikadon saarvajanik aur niji vyaakhyaanon ka aayojan kiya. Bhaarat mein, vivekaanand ko ek deshbhakti sant ke roop mein maana jaata hai aur inke janmadin ko raashtreeya yuva diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan (1863-88)

janm evam bachapan

gaud mohan mukharji street Kolkata sthit svaami vivekaanand ka mool janmasthaan jiska punaruddhaar karke ab saanskrutik kendra ka roop de diya gaya hai

svaami vivekaanand ka janm 12 January san 1863 (vidvaanon ke anusaar makar sankraanti sanvat 1920)[6] ko Calcutta mein ek kaayasth parivaar mein hua tha. unke bachapan ka naam narendranaath datt tha.[7] pita vishvanaath datt Calcutta High Court ke ek prasiddh vakeel the.[8][9] durgaacharan datta, (Narendra ke daada) sanskrut aur faarasi ke vidvaan the unhonne apne parivaar ko 25 ki umr mein chhod diya aur ek saadhu ban gaye.[10] unki maata bhuvaneshvari devi dhaarmik vichaaron ki mahila theen.[10]unka adhikaansh samay Bhagwan Shiv ki pooja-archana mein vyateet hota tha. Narendra ke pita aur unki maaain ke dhaarmik, pragatisheel va tarkasangat ravaiya ne unki soch aur vyaktitv ko aakaar dene mein madad ki.[11][12]

maaain bhuvaneshvari devi (1841-1911) ka ek chitr

bachapan se hi Narendra atyant kushaagr buddhi ke to the hi natakhat bhi the. apne saathi bachchon ke saath ve khoob sharaarat karte aur mauka milne par apne adhyaapakon ke saath bhi sharaarat karne se naheen chookate the. unke ghar mein niymapoorvak roj pooja-paath hota tha dhaarmik pravrutti ki hone ke kaaran maata bhuvaneshvari devi ko puraan,raamaayan, mahaabhaarat aadi ki katha sunane ka bahut shauk tha.[12] kathaavaachak baraabar inke ghar aate rahate the. niyamit roop se bhajan-keertan bhi hota rahata tha. parivaar ke dhaarmik evam aadhyaatmik vaataavaran ke prabhaav se baalak Narendra ke man mein bachapan se hi dharm evam adhyaatm ke sanskaar gahre hote gaye. maata-pita ke sanskaaron aur dhaarmik vaataavaran ke kaaran baalak ke man mein bachapan se hi ishvar ko jaanane aur use praapt karne ki laalasa dikhaayi dene lagi thi. ishvar ke baare mein jaanane ki utsukata mein kabhi-kabhi ve aise prashn poochh baithate the ki inke maata-pita aur kathaavaachak panditji tak chakkar mein pad jaate the.[13]

shiksha

san 1871 mein, aath saal ki umr mein, nareindranaath ne ishvar chandra vidyaasaagar ke metropolitan sansthaan mein daakhila liya jahaaain ve school gaye.[14] 1877 mein unka parivaar Raipur chala gaya. 1879 mein, Calcutta mein apne parivaar ki vaapasi ke baad, vah ekamaatr chhaatr the jinhonne preseedeinsi college pravesh pareeksha mein pratham diveejan ank praapt kiye.[15]

ve darshan, dharm, itihaas, saamaajik vigyaan, kala aur saahitya sahit vishyon ke ek utsaahi paathak the.[16] inki ved, upanishd, Bhagwad geeta, raamaayan, mahaabhaarat aur puraanon ke atirikt anek hindu shaastron mein gahan roochi thi. Narendra ko bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet mein prashikshit kiya gaya tha,[17]aur ye niyamit roop se shaareerik vyaayaam mein va khelon mein bhaag liya karte the. Narendra ne pashchimi tark, pashchimi darshan aur Europeeya itihaas ka adhyayan general assembly institooshan (ab skautish church college) mein kiya.[18] 1881 mein inhonne lalit kala ki pareeksha utteern ki, aur 1884 mein kala snaatak ki degree poori kar li.[19][20]

Narendra ne David hyoom, imainuel can't, johaan gotalib Fitch, baarook spinoja, jorj dabloo H hejel, aarthar skoopainhaar , ogast kaumte, John stuart mil aur Charles daarvin ke kaamon ka adhyan kiya.[21][22] unhonne speinsar ki kitaab education (1861) ka bangaali mein anuvaad kiya. [23][24] ye harbart speinsar ke vikaasavaad se kaafi mohit the.[25] pashchim daarshanikon ke adhyan ke saath hi inhonne sanskrut granthon aur bangaali saahitya ko bhi seekha.[22] William hesti (mahaasabha sanstha ke principle) ne likha, "Narendra vaastav mein ek jeeniys hai. mainne kaafi vistrut aur bade ilaakon mein yaatra ki hai lekin unki jaisi pratibha wala ka ek bhi baalak kaheen naheen dekha yahaaain tak ki jarman vishvavidyaalayon ke daarshanik chhaatron mein bhi naheen." anek baar inhein shrutidhr( vilkshan smruti wala ek vyakti) bhi kaha gaya hai.

aadhyaatmik shikshuta - brahm samaaj ka prabhaav

1880 mein Narendra, isaai se hindu dharm mein raamakrushn ke prabhaav se parivrtit keshav chandra sen ki nav vidhaan mein shaamil hue, Narendra 1884 se pehle kuchh bindu par, ek free masonari lodge aur saadhaaran brahm samaaj jo brahm samaaj ka hi ek alag gut tha aur jo keshav chandra sen aur deveindranaath Tagore ke netrutv mein tha. 1881-1884 ke dauraan ye sens band of hope mein bhi sakreeya rahe jo dhoomrapaan aur sharaab peene se yuvaaon ko hatotsaahit karta tha.

yeh Narendra ke parivesh ke kaaran pashchimi aadhyaatmikta ke saath parichit ho gaya tha. unke praarambhik vishvaason ko brahm samaaj ne jo ek niraakaar ishvar mein vishvaas aur moorti pooja ka prativaad karta tha, ne prabhaavit kiya aur suvyavasthit, yuktisangat, advaitavaadi avadhaaranaaon , dharmashaastr ,vedaant aur upanishdon ke ek chayanaatmak aur aadhunik dhang se adhyan par protsaahit kiya.

nishtha

ek baar kisi shishya ne gurudev ki seva mein ghruna aur nishkriyta dikhaate hue naak-bhaun sikodeen. yeh dekhkar vivekaanand ko krodh aa gaya. ve apne us guru bhaai ko seva ka paath padhaate aur gurudev ki pratyek vastu ke prati prem darshaate hue unke bistar ke paas rakt, kaf aadi se bhari thookadaani uthaakar feinkate the. guru ke prati aisi ananya bhakti aur nishtha ke prataap se hi ve apne guru ke shareer aur unke divyatam aadarshon ki uttam seva kar sake. gurudev ko samajh sake aur swayam ke astitv ko gurudev ke svaroop mein vileen kar sake. aur aage chalakar samagr vishv mein Bhaarat ke amoolya aadhyaatmik bhandaar ki mahak faila sake. aisi thi unke is mahaan vyaktitv ki neenv mein gurubhakti, guruseva aur guru ke prati ananya nishtha jiska parinaam saare sansaar ne dekha. svaami vivekaanand apna jeevan apne gurudev raamakrushn paramahans ko samarpit kar chuke the. unke gurudev ka shareer atyant rugn ho gaya tha. gurudev ke shareer-tyaag ke dinon mein apne ghar aur kutumb ki naajuk haalat va swayam ke bhojan ki chinta kiye bina ve guru ki seva mein satat sanlagn rahe.

vivekaanand bade s‍aavapna‍aadrush‍aata the. un‍aahonne ek aise samaaj ki kal‍aapana ki thi jismein dharm ya jaati ke aadhaar par manush‍aaya-manush‍aaya mein koi bhed na rahe. un‍aahonne vedaant ke siddhaanton ko isi roop mein rakha. adh‍aayaat‍aamavaad banaam bhautikvaad ke vivaad mein pade bina bhi yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki samata ke siddhaant ka jo aadhaar vivekaanan‍aad ne diya usase sabal bauddhik aadhaar shaayad hi dhooaindha ja sake. vivekaanan‍aad ko yuvakon se badi aashaaeain theen. aaj ke yuvakon ke liye is ojas‍aavi san‍aayaasi ka jeevan ek aadarsh hai. unke naana ji ka naam shri nandalaal Basu tha.

sammalen bhaashan

mere Amreeki bhaaiyo aur bahanon!

aapne jis sauhaard aur sneh ke saath ham logon ka svaagat kiya hain uske prati aabhaar prakat karne ke nimitt khade hote samay mera hrudaya avarnaneeya harsh se poorn ho raha hain. sansaar mein sannyaasiyon ki sabse praacheen parampara ki or se main aapko dhanyavaad deta hooain; dharmon ki maata ki or se dhanyavaad deta hooain; aur sabhi sampradaayon evam maton ke koti koti hinduon ki or se bhi dhanyavaad deta hooain.

main is manch par se bolne vaale un katipya vaktaaon ke prati bhi dhanyavaad jnyaaapit karta hooain jinhonne praachi ke pratinidhiyon ka ullekh karte samay aapko yeh batalaaya hai ki sudoor deshon ke ye log sahishnuta ka bhaav vividh deshon mein prachaarit karne ke gaurav ka daava kar sakte hain. main ek aise dharm ka anuyaayi hone mein garv ka anubhav karta hooain jisne sansaar ko sahishnuta tatha saarvabhaum sveekrut- donon ki hi shiksha di hain. ham log sab dharmon ke prati keval sahishnuta mein hi vishvaas naheen karte varan samast dharmon ko sachcha maan kar sveekaar karte hain. mujhe aise desh ka vyakti hone ka abhimaan hai jisne is pruthvi ke samast dharmon aur deshon ke utpeediton aur sharanaarthiyon ko aashray diya hai. mujhe aapko yeh batalaate hue garv hota hain ki humne apne vaksh mein un yahoodiyon ke vishuddhatam avashisht ko sthaan diya tha jinhonne dakshin Bhaarat aakar usi varsh sharan li thi jis varsh unka pavitra mandir roman jaati ke atyaachaar se dhool mein mila diya gaya tha. aise dharm ka anuyaayi hone mein main garv ka anubhav karta hooain jisne mahaan jarathusht jaati ke avashisht ansh ko sharan di aur jiska paalan vah ab tak kar raha hai. bhaaiyo main aap logon ko ek stotr ki kuchh panktiyaaain sunaata hooain jiski aavruti main bachapan se kar raha hooain aur jiski aavruti pratidin laakhon manushya kiya karte hain:

rucheenaan vaichitryaadrujukutilnaanaapathajushaam. nrunaameko gamyastvamasi payasaamarnav iv..

arthaat jaise vibhinn nadiyaaain bhinn bhinn sroton se nikalkar samudra mein mil jaati hain usi prakaar he prabho! bhinn bhinn ruchi ke anusaar vibhinn tedhe-medhe athva seedhe raaste se jaanevaale log ant mein tujhamein hi aakar mil jaate hain.

yeh sabha, jo abhi tak aayojit sarvashreshth pavitra sammelanon mein se ek hai svat: hi geeta ke is adbhut upadesh ka pratipaadan evam jagat ke prati usaki ghoshana karti hai:

ye yatha maan prapadyante taanstathaiv bhajaamyaham. mam vartmaanuvartante manushyaa: paarth sarvash:..

arthaat jo koi meri or aata hai-chaahe kisi prakaar se ho-main usako praapt hota hooain. log bhinn maarg dvaara prayatn karte hue ant mein meri hi or aate hain.

saampradaayikta, hathadharmita aur unki veebhats vanshadhar dharmaandhata is sundar pruthvi par bahut samay tak raajya kar chuki hain. ve pruthvi ko hinsa se bharati rahi hain va usako baarambaar maanavata ke rakt se nahalaati rahi hain, sabhyataaon ko dhvast karti hui poore ke poore deshon ko niraasha ke gart mein daalati rahi hain. yadi ye veebhats daanavi shaktiyaaain na hoteen to maanav samaaj aaj ki avastha se kaheen adhik unnat ho gaya hota. par ab unka samay aa gaya hain aur main aantarik roop se aasha karta hooain ki aaj subah is sabha ke sammaan mein jo ghanta dhvani hui hai vah samast dharmaandhata ka, talavaar ya lekhani ke dvaara honevaale sabhi utpeednon ka tatha ek hi lakshya ki or agrasar hone vaale maanavon ki paaraspaarik katuta ka mrutyu ninaad siddh ho.

yaatraaeain

svaami vivekaanand Chicago ke vishv dharm parishd mein baithe hue

25 varsh ki avastha mein Narendra ne geruaa vastr dhaaran kar liye the. tatpashchaat unhonne paidal hi poore bhaaratavarsh ki yaatra ki. san‌ 1893 mein Chicago (amareeka) mein vishv dharm parishd ho rahi thi. svaami vivekaanand usamein Bhaarat ke pratinidhi ke roop mein pahuainche. yorop-amareeka ke log us samay paraadheen bhaaratavaasiyon ko bahut heen drushti se dekhte the. vahaaain logon ne bahut prayatn kiya ki svaami vivekaanand ko sarvadharm parishd mein bolne ka samay hi na mile. parantu ek American professor ke prayaas se unhein thoda samay mila. us parishd mein unke vichaar sunakar sabhi vidvaan chakit ho gaye. fir to amareeka mein unka atyadhik svaagat hua. vahaaain unke bhakton ka ek bada samudaaya ban gaya. teen varsh ve amareeka mein rahe aur vahaaain ke logon ko bhaarateeya tatvajnyaaan ki adbhut jyoti pradaan ki. unki vaktrutv-shaili tatha gyaan ko dekhte hue vahaaain ke media ne unhein saaiklaunik hindu ka naam diya.[26] "adhyaatm-vidya aur bhaarateeya darshan ke bina vishv anaath ho jaayega" yeh svaami vivekaanand ka drudh vishvaas tha. amareeka mein unhonne raamakrushn mission ki anek shaakhaaeain sthaapit keen. anek Amreeki vidvaanon ne unka shishyatv grahan kiya. ve sada apne ko 'gareebon ka sevak' kehte the. Bhaarat ke gaurav ko desh-deshaantaron mein ujjval karne ka unhonne sada prayatn kiya.

vivekaanand ka yogadaan tatha mahatva

mumbai mein getave of indiya ke nikat sthit svaami vivekaanand ki pratimoorti

untaalees varsh ke sankshipt jeevanakaal mein svaami vivekaanand jo kaam kar gaye ve aane waali anek shataabdiyon tak peedhiyon ka maargadarshan karte raheinge.

tees varsh ki aayu mein svaami vivekaanand ne Chicago, America ke vishv dharm sammelan mein hindu dharm ka pratinidhitv kiya aur use saarvabhaumik pehchaan dilvaayi. gurudev raveendranaath thaakur ne ek baar kaha tha-"yadi aap Bhaarat ko jaanana chaahate hain to vivekaanand ko padhiye. unamein aap sab kuchh sakaaraatmak hi paayeinge, nakaaraatmak kuchh bhi naheen."

romaan rolaan ne unke baare mein kaha tha-"unke dviteeya hone ki kalpana karna bhi asambhav hai ve jahaaain bhi gaye, sarvapratham hi rahe. har koi unamein apne neta ka digdarshan karta tha. ve ishvar ke pratinidhi the aur sab par prabhutv praapt kar lena hi unki vishishtata thi. himaalaya pradesh mein ek baar ek anajaan yaatri unhein dekh thithk kar ruk gaya aur aashcharyapoorvak chilla utha-'Shiv!' yeh aisa hua maano us vyakti ke aaraadhya Dave ne apna naam unke maathe par likh diya ho."

ve keval sant hi naheen, ek mahaan deshbhakt, vakta, vichaarak, lekhak aur maanav-premi bhi the. America se lautakar unhonne deshvaasiyon ka aahvaan karte hue kaha tha-"naya Bhaarat nikal pade mochi ki dukaan se, bhadbhooainje ke bhaad se, kaarkhaane se, haat se, baajaar se; nikal pade jhaadiyon, jangalon, pahaadon, parvaton se." aur janta ne svaameeji ki pukaar ka uttar diya. vah garv ke saath nikal padi. gaandheeji ko aajaadi ki ladaai mein jo jan-samarthan mila, vah vivekaanand ke aahvaan ka hi fal tha. is prakaar ve bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke bhi ek pramukh prerana-srot bane. unka vishvaas tha ki pavitra bhaaratavarsh dharm evam darshan ki punyabhoomi hai. yaheen bade-bade mahaatmaaon va rishiyon ka janm hua, yahi sannyaas evam tyaag ki bhoomi hai tatha yaheen-keval yaheen-aadikaal se lekar aaj tak manushya ke liye jeevan ke sarvochch aadarsh evam mukti ka dwaar khula hua hai. unke kathan-"'utho, jaago, swayam jaagakar auron ko jagaao. apne nar-janm ko safal karo aur tab tak naheen ruko jab tak lakshya praapt na ho jaaye."

unneesavi sadi ke antim varshon mein liya gaya kraantikaari veshadhaari vivekaanand ka ek durlabh chitr. yeh chitr dekhkar unhonne kaha tha-"yeh chitr to daakuon ke kisi sardaar jaisa lagta hai."[27]

unneesaveen sadi ke aakhiri varshoain mein vivekaanand lagbhag sashastr ya hinsak kraanti ke jariye bhi desh ko aajaad karna chaahate the. parantu unhein jald hi yeh vishvaas ho gaya tha ki paristhitiyaaain un iraadon ke liye abhi paripakva naheen hain. iske baad hi vivekaanand ne 'ekala chalo' ki neeti ka paalan karte hue ek parivraajak ke roop mein Bhaarat aur duniya ko khangaal daala.

unhonne kaha tha ki mujhe bahut se yuva sannyaasi chaahiye jo Bhaarat ke graamon mein failakar deshvaasiyon ki seva mein khap jaayein. unka yeh sapana poora naheen hua. vivekaanand purohitvaad, dhaarmik aadambaron, kathamullaapan aur roodhiyon ke sakht khilaaf the. unhonne dharm ko manushya ki seva ke kendra mein rakhakar hi aadhyaatmik chintan kiya tha. unka hindu dharm atpata, lijlija aur vaayaveeya naheen tha. unhonne yeh vidrohi bayaan diya tha ki is desh ke taintees karod bhookhe, daridr aur kuposhan ke shikaar logon ko devi devataaon ki tarah mandiron mein sthaapit kar diya jaaye aur mandiron se devi devataaon ki moortiyon ko hata diya jaaye.

unka yeh kaalajayi aahvaan ikkeesaveen sadi ke pehle dashak ke ant mein ek bada prashnavaachak chinh khada karta hai. unke is aahvaan ko sunakar poore purohit varg ki ghigghi baindh gayi thi. aaj koi doosra saadhu to kya sarkaari machinery bhi kisi avaidh mandir ki moorti ko hataane ka jokhim naheen utha sakti. vivekaanand ke jeevan ki antarlaya yahi thi ki ve is baat se aashvast the ki dharati ki god mein yadi aisa koi desh hai jisne manushya ki har tarah ki behatari ke liye imaandaar koshishein ki hain, to vah Bhaarat hi hai.

unhonne purohitvaad, braahmanavaad, dhaarmik karmakaand aur roodhiyon ki khilli bhi udaayi aur lagbhag aakramanakaari bhaasha mein aisi visangatiyon ke khilaaf yuddh bhi kiya. unki drushti mein hindu dharm ke sarvashreshth chintakon ke vichaaron ka nichod poori duniya ke liye ab bhi irshya ka vishay hai. svaameeji ne sanket diya tha ki videshon mein bhautik samruddhi to hai aur usaki Bhaarat ko jaroorat bhi hai lekin hamein yaachak naheen banana chaahiye. hamaare paas usase jyaada bahut kuchh hai jo ham pashchim ko de sakte hain aur pashchim ko usaki besaakhta jaroorat hai.

yeh svaami vivekaanand ka apne desh ki dharohar ke liye dambh ya badbolaapan naheen tha. yeh ek vedaanti saadhu ki bhaarateeya sabhyata aur sanskruti ki tatasth, vastuparak aur moolyagat aalochna thi. beesaveen sadi ke itihaas ne baad mein usi par muhar lagaayi.

mrutyu

veloor math sthit svaami vivekaanand mandir

vivekaanand ojasvi aur saaragarbhit vyaakhyaanon ki prasiddhi vishv bhar mein hai. jeevan ke antim din unhonne shukl yajurved ki vyaakhya ki aur kaha-"ek aur vivekaanand chaahiye, yeh samajhne ke liye ki is vivekaanand ne ab tak kya kiya hai." unke shishyon ke anusaar jeevan ke antim din 4 July 1902 ko bhi unhonne apni dhyaan karne ki dincharya ko naheen badla aur praat: do teen ghante dhyaan kiya aur dhyaanaavastha mein hi apne brahmarandhr ko bhedakar mahaasamaadhi le li. beloor mein ganga tat par chandan ki chita par unki antyeshti ki gayi. isi ganga tat ke doosari or unke guru raamakrushn paramahans ka solah varsh poorv antim sanskaar hua tha.[28]

unke shishyon aur anuyaayiyon ne unki smruti mein vahaaain ek mandir banavaaya aur samooche vishv mein vivekaanand tatha unke guru raamakrushn ke sandeshon ke prachaar ke liye 130 se adhik kendron ki sthaapana ki.

vivekaanand ka shiksha-darshan

svaami vivekaanand maikaale dvaara pratipaadit aur us samay prachalit aeingreji shiksha vyavastha ke virodhi the, kyonki is shiksha ka uddeshya sirf baabuon ki sankhya badhaana tha. vah aisi shiksha chaahate the jisse baalak ka sarvaangeen vikaas ho sake. baalak ki shiksha ka uddeshya usako aatmanirbhar banaakar apne pairon par khada karna hai. svaami vivekaanand ne prachalit shiksha ko 'nishedhaatmak shiksha' ki sanjnyaa dete hue kaha hai ki aap us vyakti ko shikshit maanate hain jisne kuchh pareekshaaen utteern kar li hon tatha jo achhe bhaashan de sakta ho, par vaastavikta yeh hai ki jo shiksha janasaadhaaran ko jeevan sangharsh ke liye taiyaar naheen karti, jo charitra nirmaan naheen karti, jo samaaj seva ki bhaavana viksit naheen karti tatha jo sher jaisa saahas paida naheen kar sakti, aisi shiksha se kya laabh?

at: svaameeji saiddhaantik shiksha ke paksh mein naheen the, ve vyaavahaarik shiksha ko vyakti ke liye upayogi maanate the. vyakti ki shiksha hi use bhavishya ke liye taiyaar karti hai, isliye shiksha mein un tatvon ka hona aavashyak hai, jo uske bhavishya ke liye mahatvapoorn ho. svaami vivekaanand ke shabdon mein,

tumako kaarya ke sabhi kshetron mein vyaavahaarik banana padega. siddhaanton ke dheron ne sampoorn desh ka vinaash kar diya hai.

svaami ji shiksha dvaara laukik evam paaralaukik donon jeevan ke liye taiyaar karna chaahate hain . laukik drushti se shiksha ke sambandh mein unhonne kaha hai ki 'hamein aisi shiksha chaahiye, jisse charitra ka gathan ho, man ka bal badhe, buddhi ka vikaas ho aur vyakti svaavalambi bane.' paaralaukik drushti se unhonne kaha hai ki 'shiksha manushya ki antarnihit poornata ki abhivyakti hai.'

svaami vivekaanand ke shiksha darshan ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant

svaami vivekaanand ke shiksha darshan ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant nimnalikhit hain – 1. shiksha aisi ho jisse baalak ka shaareerik, maanasik evam aatmik vikaas ho sake.

2. shiksha aisi ho jisse baalak ke charitra ka nirmaan ho, man ka vikaas ho, buddhi viksit ho tatha baalak aatmanirbhan bane.

3. baalak evam baalikaaon donon ko samaan shiksha deni chaahiye.

4. dhaarmik shiksha, pustakon dvaara na dekar aacharan evam sanskaaron dvaara deni chaahiye.

5. paathyakram mein laukik evam paaralaukik donon prakaar ke vishyon ko sthaan dena chaahiye.

6. shiksha, guroo gruh mein praapt ki ja sakti hai.

7. shikshak evam chhaatr ka sambandh adhik se adhik nikat ka hona chaahiye.

8. sarvasaadhaaran mein shiksha ka prachaar evam prasaar kiya jaan chaahiye.

9. desh ki aarthik pragati ke liye takaneeki shiksha ki vyavastha ki jaaya.

10. maanaveeya evam raashtreeya shiksha parivaar se hi shuroo karni chaahiye.

mahattvapoorn tithiyaaain

12 January 1863 -- Calcutta mein janm

1879 -- preseedeinsi college Calcutta mein pravesh

1880 -- general assembly insteetyooshan mein pravesh

November 1881 -- raamakrushn paramahans se pratham bheint

1882-86 -- raamakrushn paramahans se sambaddh

1884 -- snaatak pareeksha utteern; pita ka svargavaas

1885 -- raamakrushn paramahans ki antim beemaari

16 August 1886 -- raamakrushn paramahans ka nidhan

1886 -- varaahanagar math ki sthaapana

January 1887 -- varaah nagar math mein sannyaas ki aupachaarik pratijnyaa

1890-93 -- parivraajak ke roop mein Bhaarat-bhraman

25 December 1892 -- kanyaakumaari mein

13 fravari 1893 -- pratham saarvajanik vyaakhyaan sikndaraabaad mein

31 May 1893 -- mumbai se amareeka ravaana

25 July 1893 -- vainkoovar, Canada pahuainche

30 July 1893 -- Chicago aagaman

August 1893 -- Harvard vishvavidyaalaya ke pro॰ John right se bheint

11 sitmbar 1893 -- vishv dharm sammelan, Chicago mein pratham vyaakhyaan

27 sitmbar 1893 -- vishv dharm sammelan, Chicago mein antim vyaakhyaan

16 May 1894 -- Harvard vishvavidyaalaya mein sanbhaashan

November 1894 -- New York mein vedaant samiti ki sthaapana

January 1895 -- New York mein dhaarmik kakshaaon ka sanchaalan aarambh

August 1895 -- peris mein

October 1895 -- landan mein vyaakhyaan

6 December 1895 -- vaapas New York

22-25 March 1896 -- fir landan

May-July 1896 -- Harvard vishvavidyaalaya mein vyaakhyaan

15 April 1896 -- vaapas landan

May-July 1896 -- London mein dhaarmik kakshaaeain

28 May 1896 -- Oxford mein maiksamoolar se bheint

30 December 1896 -- nepals se Bhaarat ki or ravaana

15 January 1897 -- Colombo, Sri Lanka aagaman

January, 1897 -- raamanaathapuram (raameshvaram) mein jordaar svaagat evam bhaashan

6-15 fravari 1897 -- Madras mein

19 fravari 1897 -- Calcutta aagaman

1 May 1897 -- raamakrushn mission ki sthaapana

May-December 1897 -- uttar Bhaarat ki yaatra

January 1898 -- Calcutta vaapasi

19 March 1899 -- maayaavati mein advait aashram ki sthaapana

20 June 1899 -- pashchimi deshon ki doosari yaatra

31 July 1899 -- New York aagaman

22 fravari 1900 -- sain Francisco mein vedaant samiti ki sthaapana

June 1900 -- New York mein antim kaksha

26 July 1900 -- yorop ravaana

24 October 1900 -- viyena, Hungary, kustunatuniya, grees, misr aadi deshon ki yaatra

26 November 1900 -- Bhaarat ravaana

9 December 1900 -- beloor math aagaman

10 January 1901 -- maayaavati ki yaatra

March-May 1901 -- poorvi Bengal aur asam ki teerthayaatra

January-February 1902 -- bodh gaya aur Varanasi ki yaatra

March 1902 -- beloor math mein vaapasi

4 July 1902 -- mahaasamaadhi

sandarbh

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  2. Bhajanāananda (2010), Four Basic Principles of Advaita Vedanta, p.3
  3. a aa Michelis 2005.
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  5. Dutt, Harshavardhan (2005), Immortal Speeches, New Delhi: Unicorn Books, p. 121, ISBN 978-81-7806-093-4
  6. kraant (2006) (Hindi mein). / svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas. 2. nai Delhi: praveen prakaashan. pa॰ 390. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7783-119-4. http://www.worldcat.org/title/svadhinata-sangrama-ke-krantikari-sahitya-ka-itihasa/oclc/271682218 /.
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  10. a aa Bhuyan 2003, pa॰ 4.
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  12. a aa Sen 2003, pa॰ 20.
  13. Banhatti 1995, pa॰ 2.
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  15. Banhatti 1995, pa॰ 4.
  16. Chakrabarti 2001, pp. 628–631.
  17. Sen 2003, pa॰ 21.
  18. Sen 2006, pp. 12–14.
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  20. Pangborn & Smith 1976, pa॰ 106.
  21. Dhar 1976, pa॰ 53.
  22. a aa Malagi & Naik 2003, pp. 36–37.
  23. Prabhananda 2003, pa॰ 233.
  24. Banhatti 1995, pp. 7–9.
  25. Chattopadhyaya 1999, pa॰ 31.
  26. The Cyclonic Swami - Vivekananda in the West
  27. VIVEKANANDA-A Biography in Pictures, Edition: 2005, Publishers: Advaita Ashrama (Publication Department) 5, Dehi Entally Road, Kolkata 700014, Page: 118, ISBN: 81-7505-080-02
  28. "Towards the end". www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info. http://www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info/vivekananda_biography/13_towards_the_end.htm. abhigman tithi: 4 July 2013.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain