surang

bhoomigat railway ki surang

bhoomi ke andar kshaitij maarg, jo oopari chattaan ya mitti hataae bina hi banaaya jaae, surang (Tunnel) kahalaata hai. koi chattaan ya bhookhand todne ke uddeshya se visfotak padaarth bharne ke liye koi chhed banaana bhi 'surang lagaana' kahalaata hai. praacheen kaal mein surang mukhyataya taatparya kisi bhi aise chhed ya maarg se hota tha jo jameen ke neeche ho, chaahe vah kisi bhi prakaar banaaya gaya ho, jaise koi naali khodakar usamein kisi prakaar ki daat ya chhat lagaakar oopari mitti se bhar dene se surang ban jaaya karti thi. kintu baad mein iske liye jalasetu (yadi vah paani le jaane ke liye hai), talamaarg ya chhaadit path naam adhik upayukt samajhe jaane lage. inke nirmaan ki kriya ko surang lagaana naheen, balki saamaanya khudaai aur bharaai hi kehte hain.

baad mein chaudi karke surang badi karne ke uddeshya se praarambh mein chhoti surang lagaana agrachaalan kahalaata hai. khaanon mein chhoti surangein gailariyaaain, deerghaaeain ya praveshikaaeain kahalaati hain. oopar se neeche surangon tak jaane ka maarg, yadi yeh oordhvaadhar hai to koopak aur yadi tirchha ho to dhaal ya dhaaloo koopak kahalaata hai.

praakrutik bani hui surangein bhi bahut dekhi jaati hain. bahudha daraaron se paani neeche jaata hai, jismein chattaan ka ansh bhi ghulata hai. is prakaar praakrutik koopak aur surangein ban jaati hain. anek nadiyaaain isi prakaar antabhaum bahti hain. anek jeev bhoomi mein bill banaakar rahate hain, jo chhote-chhote paimaane par surangein hi hain.

anukram

itihaas

prakruti mein is prakaar surangon ke prachur udaaharan dekhkar nissandeh yeh kalpana ki ja sakti hai ki manushya bhi surangein khodane ki disha mein ati praacheen kaal se hi agrasar hua hoga-sarvapratham shaayad nivaason aur makabaron ke liye, fir khanij padaarth nikaalne ke uddeshya se aur antat: jal pranaaliyon, naaliyon aadi sabhyata ki anya aavashyakataaon ke liye. Bhaarat mein ati praacheen gufa mandiron ke roop mein maanav dvaara vishaal paimaane par surangein lagaane ke udaaharan prachur parimaan mein milte hain. inmein se kuchh gufaaon ke mukhya dvaaron ki utkrusht vaastukala aadhunik surangon ke mukhyadvaaron ke aakalpan mein shilpiyon ka maargadarshan karne ki kshamata rakhati hai. ajanta, ilora aur eleefainta ki gufaaeain saare sansaar ke vaastukala vishaaradon ka dhyaan aakarshit kar chuki hain.

madhya poorv mein nimrod ke dakshini poorvi mahal ki daatadaar naali saadhaaran bhoomi ke bheetar surang lagaane ka praacheen udaaharan hai. itan ki daat lagi 4.5 mi aur 3.6 mi ek surang faraat nadi ke neeche mili hai. Algeria mein, Switzerland mein aur jahaaain kaheen bhi roman log gaye the, sadkon, naaliyon aur jal praaniyon ke liye bani hui surangon ke avashesh milte hain.

baarood ka aavishkaar hone se pehle surangein banaane ki praacheen vidhiyon mein koi mahatvapoorn pragati naheen hui thi. 17veen shati ke utkeern chitron mein surang banaane ki jo vidhiyaaain-pradarshit hain, unamein keval kudaali, chheni, hathaudi ka prayog aur agrachaalan ke liye naram chattaan todne ke uddeshya se lakadiyon ki aag jalaana hi dikhaaya gaya hai. sanvaatan ke liye aage ki or kapde hilaakar hava karne aur koopakon ke mukh par tirchhe takhte rakhane ka ullekh bhi milta hai. relon ke aagaman se pehle surangein praaya: naharon ke liye hi banaai jaati theen aur inmein se kuchh to bahut praacheen hain. relon ke aane par surangon ki aavashyakta aam ho gayi. sansaar bhar mein shaayad 5,000 se bhi adhik surangein relon ke liye hi khodi gayi hain. adhikaansh parvateeya relamaarg surangon mein hi hokar jaata hai. Mexico railway mein 105 kimi lambe relapath mein 21 surangein aur dakshini prashaant railway mein 32 kimi ki lanbaai mein hi 11 surangein hain, jinmein ek sarpil surang bhi hain. sansaar ki sabse lambi lagaataar surang New York mein 1917.24 E. mein kaitsakil jalasetu ke vistaar ke liye banaai gayi thi. yeh shandaken surang 288 kimi lambi hai. kaalaka Shimla relapath par saath meal lanbaai mein kai chhoti surangein hain, jinmein sabse badi ki lanbaai 1137 mi hai.

vishv ki pramukh surangein

vishv ki anya mahatvapoorn surangein mount senis 14 kimi (1857-71 E.), seint gothaard 15 kimi (1872-81 E.), lyootshabarg (1906-11 E.), Europe ke aalps parvat mein kanaat (1913-16 E.) Canada ke rogars darre mein mofat 10 kimi (1923-28 E.) evam nyookaisked (1925-28 E.) sanyukt raashtra amareeka ke parvaton mein hain. surang nirmaan ka bahut mahatvapoorn kaam Japan mein hua hai. vahaaain san‌ 1918-30 mein ataayo aur pisheema ke beech taana surang khodi hui, jo do parvaton aur ek ghaati ke neeche se hokar jaati hai. iski adhiktam gaharaai 395 mi aur ghaati ke neeche 182 mi hai. Bhaarat mein sadak ke liye banaai gayi surang Jammu-shreenagar sadak par banihaal darre par hai, jiski lanbaai 2790 mi hai. yeh samudratal se 2184 mi. oopar hai tatha duhari hai, jisse oopar aur neeche jaane waali gaadiyaaain alag-alag surang se ja sakein.

surang nirmaan

surang nirmaan ki aadhunik vidhiyon mein dhale lohe ki rokon ka aur sanpeedit vaayu ka prayog bahuprachalit hai. London mein relon ke liye lagbhag 144 kimi surangein bani hain, jinmein san‌ 1890 se hi dhol jaisi rokein dhale lohe ki hi deevaarein lagti rahi hai. pairis mein bhi lagbhag 96 kimi lambi surangein hain, kintu vahaaain keval oopari aadhe bhaag mein dhale lohe ki rokein lagi hain, jinke neeche chinaai ki deevaarein hain. praaya: oopari bhaag pehle kaat liya jaata hai aur vahaaain rokein lagaakar baad mein neeche ki or deevaarein bana di jaati hain.

jahaaain paani ke neeche se hokar surangein le jaani hoti hain, vahaaain pehle, se taiyaar kiye hue bade-bade nal rakhakar unhein gala diya jaata hai. apekshit gaharaai par pahuainch jaane par ve paraspar jod diye jaate hain. surang kesan bhi jalatal mein neeche hi banaae jaate hain. sanpeedit vaayu ke prayog dvaara paani door rakha jaata hai aur vaayumandal se teen chaar gune adhik dabaav mein aadmi kaam karte hain. ve baahar khuli jagah se bheetar dabaav mein jaate hue aur vahaaain se baahar aate hue paash kakshon mein se gujarte hain. ek aur vidhi hai, jismein jalasikt bhoomi mein thandhak pahuainchaakar paani jama diya jaata hai aur fir use chattaan ki bhaaainti kaat-kaatkar nikaal diya jaata hai. yeh vidhi koopak galaane ke liye achhi hai aur anek sthaanon mein safalataapoorvak prayukt hui hai, kintu surangon ke liye naheen aajamaai gayi.

jahaaain surang ke oopar chattaan ka parimaan bahut adhik ho, jaise kisi pahaad ke aar-paar kaatne mein, to shaayad yahi uchit athva anivaarya ho ki keval donon siron mein hi kaam aarambh kiya jaae aur beech mein kaheen bhi koopak galaakar vahaaain se kaam na chalaaya ja sake. vaastav mein samasya ke samaadhaan ke liye mukhya roop se yeh dekhna apekshit hai ki chattaan kaatne aur use nikaal baahar karne ke liye kya uchit hoga. vistrut anubhav aur aadhunik yaantrik yuktiyaaain, jaise sanpeedit vaayu dvaara chaalit barma aur malaba hataane aur laadne ki masheenein aadi, kaam jaldi aur kifaayat se karne mein sahaayak hoti hain.

surangon mein sanvaatan

surangon mein sanvaatan ki samasya atyant mahatvapoorn hoti hai. ise drushti se ojhal naheen kiya ja sakta. nirmaan ke samay kaam karne vaale vyaktiyon ke liye to asthaayi prabandh kiya ja sakta hai, kintu yadi surang rel ya sadak aadi ke liye hai, to uske andar upayukt sanvaatan ke liye sthaayi vyavastha honi aavashyak hai. iska saralatam upaaya to yeh hai ki poori surang ki chaudaai ke baraabar chaude aur 6-6 mi lambe khand lagbhag 150-150 mi antar se khule chhod diye jaaeain, jahaaain se soorya ka prakaash aur khuli hava bheetar pahuainch sake. kintu bahut lambi aur gahari surangon mein yeh sambhav naheen hota, unamein yaantrik saadhanon ka sahaara lena aavashyak hota hai. kabhi-kabhi apekshaakrut chhoti surangon mein bhi krutrim sanvaatan vyavastha aavashyak hoti hai. yadi surang dhaaloo hai, to dhuaaain aur gaisein dhaal ke oopar ki or chaleingi. surang mein koi engine teji se chal raha ho to usaki gati ke saath bhi dhuaaain bheetar hi khinchata chala jaaega. isliye jagah-jagah par sanvaati koopak banaane padte hain. bijli ke motaron ki apeksha bhaap ke engine chalte hon, to sanvaatan ki adhik aavashyakta hoti hai.

praakrutik sanvaatan ka aadhaar sanvaati koopak ke bheetar ki hava ke aur dharaatal par baahar ki hava ke taapamaan ka antar hai. sheet ritu mein koopak mein hava oopar ki or padti hai aur garmi mein neeche ki or utarati hai. vasant aur sharad rituon mein koopak ke bheetar aur baahar taapamaan ka antar naheen ke baraabar hota hai, isliye sanvaatan naheen ho paata.

yaantrik sanvaatan ka siddhaant yeh hai ki yathaasanbhav surang ke beechobeech se kisi koopak dvaara jiske muainh par pankha laga hota hai, gandi hava niklati rahe. marasi nadi ke neeche se jaane waali surang mein yeh sambhav na tha, kyonki oopar paani bhara tha. isliye ek sanvaati surang oopar se banaai gayi, jo nadi ke kinaaron par khulati hai aur beech mein mukhya surang se uske nimnatam bhaag mein milti hai.

sanvaatan ki gati kya ho, arthaat‌ kitni hava surang se bheetar jaani chaahiye, iska anumaan lagaane ke liye yeh pata lagaaya jaata hai ki surang mein se gujarane mein engine ko kitna samay lagega aur utane samay mein kitna koyala jalega. prati pound koyale mein se 29 ghan foot vishaili gaisein niklati hain aur hava 0.2 pratishat kaarbanadaaiaaksaaid rah sakti hai, is aadhaar par prati minute kitni hava surang mein pahuainchaai jaani chaahiye, iska pariklan kiya jaata hai.

baahari kadiyaaain