surabhedi bhaasha

surabhedi bhaasha aisi bhaasha ko kaha jaata hai jismein aavaaj ke sur ke badlaav ke aadhaar par shabdon aur vaakyon ka arth badal jaata ho. cheeni bhaasha vishv ki sab se adhik logon dvaara boli jaane waali surabhedi bhaasha hai. Bhaarat mein punjabi aur dogari jaisi pashchimi pahaadi bhaashaaeain surabhedi hoti hain.[1][2] kuchh had tak har bhaasha mein suron ke jriye bhaavanaaon ko prakat kiya jaata hai (jaise ki gussa ya dukh) lekin ek hi varnon vaale shabdon ka arth suron ke saath keval surabhedi bhaashaaoain mein badalta hai.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

angreji mein surabhedi bhaashaaoain ko "tonal laingavejij" (tonal languages) kehte hain.

udahaaran

cheeni mein "ma" shabd ka arth sur ke badlaav par nirbhar karta hai -

  • oonche lekin bina kisi badlaav ke sur ke saath "ma" ka arth "maaain" hai
  • chadhte hue sur ke saath "ma" ka arth "bhaang" hai
  • gir kar fir chadhte hue sur ke saath "ma" ka arth "ghoda" hai
  • girte hue sur ke saath "ma" ka arth "daaaint" hai
  • saadhaaran bina badlaav ke sur ke saath "ma" ka matlab hai ke bolne wala ek prashn poochh raha hai

agar suron ke badlaav ko teeron se dikhaaya jaae (↑ uthata hua, ↓ girta hua, ↔ bina badlaav ke, ↺ girkar uthata hua), to cheeni ki ek pankti is prakaar ho sakti hai -

  • cheeni mein - 妈aa妈aa骂aa马aa的aa麻aa吗?/媽aa媽aa罵aa馬aa的aa麻aa嗎?
  • suron ke saath - maamaa↔ ma↓ ma↺ de ma↑ ma?
  • arth - kya maaain ghode ki bhaang ko daaaint rahi hai?

agar kisi ko surabhedi bhaashaaoain ki aadat na ho to use is pankti mein sirf "maama ma ma de ma ma" ka aabhaas hoga. use lagega ke ek hi "ma" shabd baar-baar doharaaya ja raha hai jabki alag-alag suron ki vajah se vaastav mein yahaaain paanch alag shabd kahe ja rahe hain.

isi tarah punjabi mein bhi suron ka prayog hota hai -

  • "koda" bina kisi sur badlaav ke "koda" (yaani "chaabuk") ka arth rakhata hai
  • "koda" girkar fir uthate sur ke saath "ghoda" ka arth rakhata hai
  • "koda" uthate hue sur ke saath "kadva" ka arth rakhata hai

dhyaan rahe ke inhein punjabi ki donon (guramukhi aur shaahamukhi) lipiyon mein alag-alag likha jaata hai, lekin inka uchchaaran ek-sa hota hai.[3] punjabi mein puchha ja sakta hai "koda, koda ke koda?" - agar inke sur alag-alag theek se bole jaaeain to punjabi maatrubhaashiyon ko iska arth "ghoda, chaabuk, ya kadva?" samajh aa jaaega jabki sambhav hai ke gair-panjaabiyon ko lage ke ek hi shabd teen dafa kaha gaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi
  2. Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer."
  3. [1]