sukaraat

sukaraat (angreji mein -'Socrates')
A bust of Socrates
A bust of Socrates in the Louvre
janm 470/469 isa poorv
Deme Alopece, Athens
nidhan 399 isa poorv(umr kareeb 71)
Athens, yunaan
raashtriyta yoonaani
yug praacheen darshan
kshetr paashchaatya darshan
School Classical Greek
abhiruchi jnyaaanameemaansa (Epistemology), neetishaastr (ethics)
ullekhaneeya vichaar Socratic method, Socratic irony

sukaraat ko soofiyon ki bhaaainti maulik shiksha aur aachaar dvaara udaaharan dena hi pasand tha. vastut: uske samasaamayik bhi use soofi samajhte the. soofiyon ki bhaaainti saadhaaran shiksha tatha maanav sadaachaar par vah jor deta tha aur unheen ki tarah puraani roodhiyon par prahaar karta tha. vah kehta tha, ""sachcha gyaan sambhav hai basharte uske liye theek taur par prayatn kiya jaae; jo baatein hamaari samajh mein aati hain ya hamaare saamane I hain, unhein tatsanbandhi ghatnaaon par ham parakhein, is tarah anek parakhon ke baad ham ek sachaai par pahuainch sakte hain. gyaan ke samaan pavitratam koi vastu naheen hain.'

buddh ki bhaaainti sukaraat ne koi granth naheen likha. buddh ke shishyon ne unke jeevanakaal mein hi upadeshon ko kanthasth karna shuru kiya tha jisse ham unke upadeshon ko bahut kuchh seedhe taur par jaan sakte hain; kintu sukaraat ke upadeshon ke baare mein yeh bhi suvidha naheen. sukaraat ka kya jeevanadarshan tha yeh uske aacharan se hi maaloom hota hai, lekin usaki vyaakhya bhinn-bhinn lekhak bhinn-bhinn dhang se karte hain. kuchh lekhak sukraat ki prasannamukhata aur maryaadit jeevanayopabhog ko dikhlaakar kehte hain ki vah bhogi tha. doosare lekhak shaareerik kashton ki or se usaki beparvaahi tatha aavashyakta padne par jeevanasukh ko bhi chhodne ke liye taiyaar rahane ko dikhlaakar use saada jeevan ka pakshapaati batalaate hain. sukaraat ko havaai bahas pasand na thi. vah athens ke bahut hi gareeb ghar mein paida hua tha. gambhir vidvaan aur khyaatipraapt ho jaane par bhi usane vaivaahik jeevan ki laalasa naheen rakhi. gyaan ka sangrah aur prasaar, ye hi uske jeevan ke mukhya lakshya the. uske adhoore kaarya ko uske shishya afalaatoon aur arastoo ne poora kiya. iske darshan ko do bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai, pehla sukraat ka guru-shishya-yathaarthavaad aur doosra arastoo ka prayogavaad.

tarunon ko bigaadne, devaninda aur naastik hone ka jhootha dosh usapar lagaaya gaya tha aur uske liye use jahar dekar maarane ka dand mila tha.

sukaraat ne jahar ka pyaala khushi-khushi piya aur jaan de di. use kaaraagaar se bhaag jaane ka aagrah use shishyon tatha snehiyon ne kiya kintu usane kaha-

bhaaiyo, tumhaare is prastaav ka main aadar karta hooain ki main yahaaain se bhaag jaaooain. pratyek vyakti ko jeevan aur praan ke prati moh hota hai. bhala praan dena kaun chaahata hai? kintu yeh un saadhaaran logon ke liye hai jo log is nashvar shareer ko hi sab kuchh maanate hain. aatma amar hai fir is shareer se kya darna? hamaare shareer mein jo nivaas karta hai kya usaka koi kuchh bigaad sakta hai? aatma aise shareer ko baar baar dhaaran karti hai at: is kshanik shareer ki raksha ke liye bhaagna uchit naheen hai. kya mainne koi aparaadh kiya hai? jin logon ne ise aparaadh bataaya hai unki buddhi par ajnyaaan ka prakop hai. mainne us samay kaha tha-vishv kabhi bhi ek hi siddhaant ki paridhi mein naheen baaaindha ja sakta. maanav mastishk ki apni seemaaeain hain. vishv ko jaanane aur samajhne ke liye apne antas ke tam ko hata dena chaahiye. manushya yeh nashvar kaayaamaatr naheen, vah sajag aur chetan aatma mein nivaas karta hai. isliye hamein aatmaanusandhaan ki or hi mukhya roop se pravrutt hona chaahiye. yeh aavashyak hai ki ham apne jeevan mein satya, nyaaya aur imaandaari ka avalanban karein. hamein yeh baat maankar hi aage badhna hai ki shareer nashvar hai. achha hai, nashvar shareer apni seema samaapt kar chuka. tahalate-tahalate thak chuka hooain. ab sansaar roopi raatri mein letakar aaraam kar raha hooain. sone ke baad mere oopar chaadar ud dena.

baahari kadiyaaain