subrahmanya bhaarati

subrahmanya bhaarati
சaaுaaபaa்aaபaaிaaரaaமaaணaaிaaய பaaாaaரaaதaaி
janm 11 December 1882
ettaayaapuram, Bhaarat
mrutyu sitmbar 11, 1921(1921-09-11) (umr 38)
Madras, Bhaarat
anya naam mahaakavi bharatiyaar[1]
raajaneetik aandolan bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam

subrahmanya bhaarati (tamil: சaaுaaபaa்aaபaaிaaரaaமaaணaaிaaய பaaாaaரaaதaaி, 11 December 1882 - 11 sitmbar 1921) ek tamil kavi the. unako 'mahaakavi bharatiyaar' ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. unki kavitaaon mein raashtrabhakti koot-koot kar bhari hui hai. vah ek kavi hone ke saath-saath bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein shaamil senaani, samaaj sudhaarak, patrakaar tatha uttar Bhaarat va dakshin Bhaarat ke madhya ekta ke setu samaan the.

anukram

jeevan

Tamil Nadu sarkaar ne ettayapuram sthit bhaarati ji ka Patrick gruh ka naveekaran karke janta ke liye khol diya hai.

bhaarati ji ka janm Bhaarat ke dakshini praant Tamil Nadu ke ek gaanv ettayapuram mein ek tamil braahman parivaar mein hua tha. unki praarambhik shiksha sthaaneeya vidyaalaya mein hi hui. medhaavi chhaatr hone ke naate vahaan ke raaja ne unhein 'bhaarati' ki upaadhi di. jab ve kishoraavastha mein hi the tabhi unke maata-pita ka nidhan ho gaya. unhonne san 1897 mein apni chacheri bahan chellamal ke saath vivaah kiya. ve baahari duniya ko dekhne ke bade utsuk the. vivaah ke baad san 1898 mein ve uchch shiksha ke liye banaaras chale gaye. agale chaar varsh unke jeevan mein ''khoj'' ke varsh the.

raashtreeya aandolan se judaav

1909 mein prakaashit 'vijaya' naamak patrika ka mukhaprushth ; yeh patrika pehle chennai se prakaashit hui aur baad mein paandicheri se.

banaaras pravaas ki avadhi mein unka hindu adhyaatm va raashtraprem se saakshaatkaar hua. san 1900 tak ve Bhaarat ke raashtreeya aandolan mein poori tarah jud chuke the aur unhone poore Bhaarat mein hone waali Congress ki sabhaaon mein bhaag lena aarambh kar diya tha. bhagini nivedita, aravind aur vande maataram ke geet ne bhaarati ke bheetar aajaadi ki bhaavana ko aur pallavit kiya. Congress ke ugravaadi tabake ke kareeb hone ke kaaran police unhein giraftaar karna chaahati thi.

bhaarati 1908 mein paandicheri gaye, jahaan das varsh vanavaasi ki tarah bitaae. isi dauraan unhonne kavita aur gadya ke jariye aajaadi ki baat kahi. 'saaptaahik India' ke dvaara aajaadi ki praapti, jaati bhed ko samaapt karne aur raashtreeya jeevan mein naari shakti ki pehchaan ke liye ve jute rahe. aajaadi ke aandolan mein 20 November 1918 ko ve jail gaye.

pramukh rachanaayein

'svadesh geetaangal' (svadesh geet ; 1908) tatha 'janmabhoomi' (1909) unke deshabhiktapoorn kaavya maane jaate hain, jinmein raashtraprem aur british saamraajya ke prati lalakaar ke bhaav maujood hain. aajaadi ki praapti aur usaki raksha ke liye teen cheejon ko ve mukhya maanate the - bachchon ke liye madarase, kal -kaarkhaanon ke liye aujaar aur akhbaar chhaapane ke liye kaagaj. ek kavita mein bhaarati ne 'Bhaarat ka jaap karo' ki salaah di hai.

tum swayam jyoti ho maan,
shaurya svaroopini ho tum maan,
du:kh aur kapat ki sanhaarika ho maan,
tumhaari anukampa ka praarthi hoon main maan.
(dau॰ bhaarati ki kavita 'mukti ka aahvaan' se)

'ek hone mein jeevan hai. agar hamaare beech aikya bhaav naheen raha to sabki avanati hai. ismein ham sabka samyak udghaar hona chaahiye. ukt gyaan ko praapt karne ke baad hamein aur kya chaahiye?'

ham gulaami roopi dhandhe ki sharan mein pakadkar beete hue dinon ke liye man mein lijjat hokar dvandvon evam nindaaon se nivrutt hone ke liye is gulaami ki sthiti ko (thoo kehkar) dhikkaarane ke liye 'vande maataram' kaheinge.

unki krutiyaaain nimnalikhit hain-

  • kuyil paattu
  • kannaऩ paattu (=shreekrushn gaan)
  • chuyacharitai (=sucharitm ; aatmakatha ; 1910)
  • techiya keetaङakal (deshbhakti geet)
  • paarati aऱaupattaaऱau
  • nyaaaऩaap paatalkal (taatvik geet)
  • tottirp paatalkal
  • vitutalaip paatalkal
  • vinaayakar naaऩamanimaalai
  • paaratiyaar pakavat keetai (=bhaaratiyaar ki bhagavat geeta)
  • patanyachaliyok choottirm (=patanyajali yogasootram)
  • navatantirkkataikal
  • uttam vaalkkai chutantirchchaङaku
  • hintu tarmam (kaanti upatechaङakal)
  • chiऩaऩaanyachiऱau kiliye
  • nyaaaऩ ratam (=gyaan ratham)
  • pakavat keetai (=bhagavat geeta)
  • chantirikaiyiऩ katai
  • paanyachaali chapatam (=paanyachaali shapatham)
  • putiya aattichooti
  • pॊऩ vaal nari
  • aaऱail ऒru paङaku

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain