stariki

Argentina mein bhoovaijnyaaanik tabake
saaipras mein ek chattaan mein chaak ki paratein

starit shailavijnyaaan ya stariki (Stratigraphy) bhaumiki ki vah yeh shaakha hai jiske antargat pruthvi ke shailasamoohon, khanijon aur pruthvi par paae jaanevaale jeev-jantuon ka adhyayan hota hai. pruthvi ke dharaatal par uske janm se lekar ab tak hue vibhinn parivrtanon ke vishay mein starit shailavijnyaaan hamein jaankaari pradaan karta hai. shailon aur khanijon ke adhyayan ke liye stariki, shailavijnyaaan (petrology) ki sahaayata leta hai aur jeevaashm avasheshon ke adhyayan mein puraajeevavijnyaaan ki. starit shailavijnyaaan ke adhyayan ka dhyeya pruthvi ke vikaas aur itihaas ke vishay mein gyaan praapt karna hai. starit shailavijnyaaan na keval pruthvi ke dharaatal par paae jaanevaale shailasamoohon ke vishay mein gyaan pradaan karta hai, balki yeh puraatan bhoogol, jalavaayu aur jeev jantuon ki bhi ek jhalak pradaan karta hai aur ham starit shailavijnyaaan ko pruthvi ke itihaas ka ek vivran kah sakte hain.

starit shailavijnyaaan ko kabhi kabhi aitihaasik bhaumiki (historikl jioloji) bhi kehte hain jo vaastav mein starit shailavijnyaaan ki ek shaakha maatr hai. itihaas mein pichhli ghatnaaon ka ek kramavaar vivran hota hai; par starit shailavijnyaaan puraatan bhoogol aur vikaas par bhi prakaash daalata hai. praanivijnyaaani (Zoologist), jeevon ke poorvajon ke vishay mein starit shailavijnyaaan par nirbhar hain. vanaspativijnyaaani (Botanist) bhi puraane paudhon ke vishay mein apna gyaan starit shailavijnyaaan se praapt karte hain. yadi starit shailavijnyaaan na hota to bhooaakrutivijnyaaani (geomorphologists) ka gyaan bhi pruthvi ke aadhunik roop tak hi seemit rahata. shilpavaijnyaaanik (Technologists) ko bhi starit shailavijnyaaan ke gyaan ke bina aaindhere mein hi kadam uthaane padte.

is prakaar starit shailavijnyaaan bahut hi vistrut vigyaan hai jo shailon aur khanijon tak hi seemit naheen varan apni paridhi mein un sabhi vishyon ko samet leta hai jinka sambandh pruthvi se hai.

starit shailavijnyaaan ke do niyam

starit shailavijnyaaan ke do niyam hain jinko starit shailavijnyaaan ke niyam kehte hain.

  • (1) neechevaala shailastar apne ooparavaale se umr mein puraatan hota hai.
  • (2) pratyek shailasamooh mein ek vishisht prakaar ke jeevanikshep sangraheet hote hain.

vaastav mein ye niyam jo bahut varshon pehle banaae gaye the, starit shailavijnyaaan ke vishay mein sampoorn vivran dene mein asamarth hain. pruthvi ke vikaas ka itihaas manushya ke vikaas ki bhaaainti saral naheen hai. pruthvi ka itihaas manushya ke itihaas se kaheen jyaada ulajha hua hai. samay ne baar baar puraane pramaanon ko mita dene ki cheshta ki hai. samay ke saath saath aagneya kriya (igneous activity), kaayaantaran (metamorphism) aur shailasamoohon ke sthaanaantaran ne bhi pruthvi ke roop ko badal diya hai. is prakaar vartamaan pramaanon aur oopar diye niyamon ke aadhaar par pruthvi ka teen arab varsh puraana itihaas naheen likha ja sakta. pruthvi ka puraatan itihaas jaanane ke liye aur bahut si doosari baaton ka sahaara lena padta hai.

dhyeya

starit shailavijnyaaani ka mukhya dhyeya hai kisi sthaan par paae jaanevaale shailasamoohon ka vishleshan, naamakaran, vargeekaran aur vishv ke starashailon se unki samatulyata sthaapit karna. usako puraatan jeev, bhoogol aur jalavaayu ka bhi vistrut vivran dena hota hai. un sabhi ghatnaaon ka jo pruthvi ke janm se lekar ab tak ghatit hui hain ek kramavaar vivran prastut karna hi starit shailavijnyaaani ka lakshya hai.

pruthvi ke aaainchal mein ek vistrut pradesh nihit hai. isliye yeh svaabhaavik hai ki uske pratyek bhaag mein ek si dashaaeain naheen pai jaaeaingi. beete hue yug mein bahut se bhaumikeeya aur vaayumandaleeya parivartan hue hain. inheen kaaranon se kisi bhi pradesh mein pruthvi ka sampoorn itihaas sangraheet naheen hai. pratyek mahaadveep ke itihaas mein bahut si nyoonataaeain hain. iseeliye pratyek mahaadveep se milnevaale pramaanon ko ekatr karke unke aadhaar par pruthvi ka sampoorn itihaas nirmit kiya jaata hai. kintu yeh aisa dhang hai jiske oopar poorn vishvaas naheen kiya ja sakta aur iseeliye pruthvi ke vibhinn bhaagon mein paae jaanevaale shailasamoohon ke beech bilkul sahi samatulyata sthaapit karna sambhav naheen hai. inheen kathinaaiyon ko door karne ke liye starit shailavijnyaaani samatulyata ke badle samasthaanik (homotaxial) shabd prayog mein laate hain jiska arth hai vyavastha ki sadrushata.

puraatanayug mein jeevon ka vikaas ekaroopen aur samaan naheen tha. vaayumandaleeya dashaaeain bhi jeevavikaas ke kram mein parivartan laati hain. jo jeev samasheetoshn jalavaayu mein bahutaayat se paae jaate hain ve ooshn jalavaayu mein jeevit naheen rah paaeainge ya unki sankhya mein bhaari kami ho jaaegi. hamamein se kuchh ko registaani jalavaayu na bhaati ho lekin bahut se log isi jalavaayu mein rahate hain. is prakaar jeevavikaas pruthvi ke pratyek bhaag mein ek gati se naheen hua hai. aajkal Australia mein paae jaanevaale kuchh jeevon ke avashesh Europe ke madhyajeevakalp (Mesozoic Era) mein paae gaye hain. isliye yeh kehna uchit na hoga ki in donon ke pruthvi par avataran ka samay ek hai.

baahari kadiyaaain