spektroskopi

spektramiki ka sabse saral udaaharan : shvet prakaash ko prijm hokar le jaane par vah saat rangon mein bant jaati hai.

spektramiki, bhautiki vigyaan ki ek shaakha hai jismein padaarthon dvaara utsarjit ya avashoshit vidyut chunbakeeya vikirnon ke spektramon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai aur is adhyayan se padaarthon ki aantarik rachana ka gyaan praapt kiya jaata hai. is shaakha mein mukhya roop se varnakram ka hi adhyayan hota hai at: ise spektramiki ya spektramavijnyaaan (Spectroscopy) kehte hain.

moolat: vikirn evam padaarth ke beech antarakriya (interaction) ke adhyayan ko spektramiki ya spektroskopi (Spectroscopy) kaha jaata tha. vastut: aitihaasik roop se drushya prakaash ka kisi prijm se gujarane par alag-alag aavruttiyon ka alag-alag raaste par jaana hi spektroskopi kahalaata tha.

baad mein 'spektroskopi' shabad ke arth ka vistaar hua. ab tarangadairdhya (ya aavrutti) ke falan ke roop mein kisi bhi raashi ka maapan spektroskopi kahalaati hai. iski paribhaasha ka aur vistaar tab mila jab urja (E) ko char raashi ke roop mein sammilit kar liya gaya (kyonki pata chala ki urja aur aavrutti mein seedha sambandh hai : E = hν)

kisi raashi ka aavrutti ke falan ke roop mein aalekh (plaut) varnakram (spectrum) kahalaata hai. kisi padaarth ke kisi dravyamaan mein aayanon, paramaanuon ya anuon ki upasthiti ki saghanata (concentration) ka maapan spektrometri kahalaata hai. jo upakaran spektrometri mein sahaayak hote hain ve spektromeetar, spektrofotomeetar ya spektrograaf aadi naamon se jaane jaate hain. spektrskopi/spektrometri ka upayog bhautik evam vaishleshik rasaayan vigyaan mein bahudha kiya jaata hai. iska upayog khagol vigyaan evam sudoor sanvedan (remote sensing) mein bhi hota hai.

anukram

itihaas

alkohal ki jvaala tatha iska varnakram (spectrum)
pradeept-batti (florisent laimp) se utsarjit 'prakaash' ka spectrum - ismein paara ke sangat chotiyaaain darshaneeya hain.

spektramiki ki neenv aaijek nyootan ne san 1666 E. mein daali thi. unhonne ek band kamre mein khidki ke chhidr se aate hue saur kirnapunj (beam of light) ko ek prijm se hokar parde par jaane diya. parde par saat rangon par baingani rang tha. patti mein saato rang - laal, naarangi, peela, hara, aasamaani, neela aur baingani - isi kram mein dikhaai padte the. nyootan ne is patti ko "spectrum" kaha. is prayog se unhonne yeh siddh kiya ki soorya ka shvet prakaash vaastav mein saat rangon ka mishran hai.

bahut samay tak "spectrum" ka arth isi satarangi patti se hi lagaaya jaata tha. baad mein vaigyaaniko ne yeh dekha ki saur spectrum ke baingani rang se neeche bhi kuchh rashmiyaaain pai jaati hain jo aaainkh se naheen dikhaai padti hain parantu fotoplet par prabhaav daalati hain aur unka photo liya ja sakta hai. in kirnon ko paraabaingani kirnein (Ultraviolet rays) kaha jaata hai. isi prakaar laal rang se oopar avarakt kirnein pai jaati hain. vaastav mein sabhi varn ki rashmiyaaain vidyut chunbakeeya tarangein hoti hain. rangeen prakaash, avarakt, paraabaingani prakaash, ex-kiran, gaama-kiran, micro tarangein tatha radio tarangein - ye sabhi vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangein hain. in sabka spectrum hota hai. paare ko uttejit karne se jo hare rang ki kirnein niklati hain unka tarangadairghya 5461 engstraum hota hai. at: ab vibhinn varn ki rashmiyon ka vibhaajan rang ke aadhaar par naheen varan tarangadairghya ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai aur spectrum ka arth bahut vyaapak ho gaya hai - tarangadairghya ke anusaar rashmiyon ki suvyavastha ko spectrum kaha jaata hai.

spektramavijnyaaan ka sambandh praaya: sabhi prakaar ki vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangon se hai. sookshm tarang spektramiki, infraared-spektramiki, drushya kshetr spektramiki, ex kirnaspektramiki aur nyookliyr-spektramiki aadi sabhi vibhaag spektramiki ke hi ang hain kintu prachalit arth mein spektramiki ke antargat avarakt, drushya tatha paraabaingani kirnon ke spectrum ka adhyayan hi aata hai.

nyootan ne soorya ki kirnon se jo "spectrum" praapt kiya tha vah shuddh naheen tha arthaat sabhi rang paasavaale rang se poornat: pruthak naheen the; ek rang doosare se mila tha. iska kaaran yeh tha ki unhonne kirnon ko ek gol chhed se lekar prijm par daala tha. san 1802 E. mein volaastan (W. H. Wollaston) ne gol chhidr ke sthaan par sainkari jhirri (Slit) ka prayog karke shuddh spectrum praapt kiya. aage chalakar josef fraaunahofar (Fraunhofer) ne prijm ki sahaayata se shuddh spectrum praapt kiya aur samatal greting ka aavishkaar kiya. greting ek doosra upakaran hai jo vibhinn varn ki rashmiyon ko parikshepit (Disperse) kar deta hai. spektramiki ki pragati mein fraaunahofar ka kaarya vishisht mahatva rakhata hai. san 1859 E. mein kirkhaaf aur bunashan (G. R. Kirchhoff and Bunsen) ne bahut se shuddh tattvon ka spectrum liya aur yeh bataaya ki ve ek doosare se sarvatha bhinn hote hain. kirkhauf aur bunashan ne yeh bhi siddh kiya ki koi padaarth uttejit hone par jis varn ki rashmiyaaain de sakta hai, kam taap par keval usi varn ki rashmiyaaain de sakta hai, kam taap par keval usi varn ki rashmiyon ko avashoshit bhi kar sakta hai. in tatvon ki jaankaari ke baad spektramiki ki pragati badi teevrata se hui. is vigyaan ne anu paramaanuon ki rachana ka gyaan praapt karaane mein mahattam yogadaan kiya hai.

kisi padaarth ko vidyut ya ooshma dekar uttejit kiya jaata hai tab usase prakaash nikalne lagta hai. us padaarth se niklanevaali rashmiyon ka spectrum usaki aantarik rachana par nirbhar karta hai. kisi thos padaarth ko itna garam kiya jaae ki vah teevr chamak dene lage to usase jo spectrum praapt hota hai use satat spectrum (continuous spectrum) kehte hain kyonki ismein vibhinn varn ki pattiyaaain ek doosari se mili juli rahati hain, unki koi seema naheen pai jaati hai. bijli ke balb tatha soorya se aisa hi spectrum praapt hota hai. iske vipreet yadi kisi padaarth ko itni adhik oorja di jaae ki use parmaanu uttejit ho jaaeain to usase rekheeya spectrum milta hai. ismein vibhinn varn ki teekshn rekhaaeain pai jaati hain. vidyut aark tatha kuchh taaron (Stars) se bhi rekheeya spectrum praapt hota hai. spectrum ki ek teesari shreni bhi hoti hai. yadi kisi gas mein kam dabaav par vidyut visrjan kiya jaae to ve gaisein uttejit hokar sapatt spectrum deti hain. is spectrum mein ek doosare se pruthak bahut se patt paae jaate hain jinka ek sira teekshn aur doosra kramash: dhoomil hota hai. ye sabhi spectrum utsarjit (Emission) spectrum kahe jaate hain.

yadi kisi padaarth ke bheetar se sabhi varn (Colour) ki rashmiyaaain bheji jaaeain to vah un rashmiyon ko, jinhein swayam utsarjit kar sakta hai, avashoshit kar leta hai. bijli ke balv se drushyakshetr ki sabhi varn ki rashmiyaaain niklati hain. yadi kisi nali mein sodiym ki bhaap bhari ho aur uske bheetar se balb ka prakaash bhejkar bahirgat prakaash ka spectrum liya jaae to uske peele bhaag mein do kaali rekhaaeain pai jaati hain. iska kaaran yeh hai ki sodiym swayam uttejit hone par rekheeya spectrum deta hai. is spectrum mein do peelo rekhaaeain bhi hoti hain jinhein sodiym ki "di" rekhaaeain kaha jaata hai. jab balb ka prakaash sodiym ki bhaap se hokar jaata hai to sodiym di rekhaaon ke anukool varn ko avashoshit kar leta hai aur barhigt prakaash mein isi sthaan par do kaali rekhaaeain ban jaati hain. is spectrum ka avashoshan spectrum (Absorption spectrum) kehte hain. avashoshan spectrum bhi teen prakaar ke hote hain. jis avashoshan spectrum mein kaali rekhaaeain pai jaati hain unhein rekheeya avashoshan spectrum, jinmein kaale band paae jaate hain unhein band avashoshan spectrum aur jinmein spectrum ka thoda sa adhik satat kshetr hi avashoshit ho jaata hai unhein satat avashoshan spectrum kehte hain.

spektramadarshi

spectrum praapt karne ke liye jin upakaranon ka prayog kiya jaata hai unhein spektramadarshi, spektramamaapi aur spektramalekhi kehte hain. pratyek spektrolekhi spektrodarshi mein teen mukhya avayav (Components) hote hain. pehla bhaag srot se aanevaali rashmiyon ko uchit disha mein niyantrit karta hai, doosra bhaag vibhinn varnon ko pruthak karta arthaat mishrit rashmiyon ko parikshepit karta hai tatha teesara bhaag unhein alag alag ek naabhitl (focal surface) par focus karta hai. yadi upakaran mein keval spectrum dekhne maatr ki hi vyavastha ho to use spektrodarshi kehte hain, yadi uske teesare bhaag ko ghumaakar spectrum ke vibhinn varnon ka vichlan (Deviation) padhne ki vyavastha bhi ho to use spektromaapi kehte hain isse spectrum ka sthaayi chitr liya ja sakta hai. sabhi spektrolekhi banaavat mein lagbhag samaan hote hain kintu parikshepan ke liye do saadhan kaam mein laae jaate hain - prijm aur greting. iseeliye spektrolekhi bhi do prakaar ke hote hain - prijm spektrolekhi aur greting spektrolekhi.

spectrum ke vibhinn kshetr

adhyayan ki suvidha ke liye spectrum ko vibhinn kshetron mein baaaint liya gaya hai. yeh vibhaajan teen baaton ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai - rashmisrot, parikshepan vidhi aur abhilekhan (Recording). spektramiki vibhaag mein nimnaankit kshetron ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai - sudoor avaraktakirn drushyakshetr, paraabaingani kshetr aur nirvaat paraabaingani kshetr. vibhinn bhaagon mein vibhinn prakaar ke spektrolekhi kaam aate hain. saarani mein vibhinn kshetron ki seema, parikshepan yantr aur abhilekhan yantron ka sankshipt vivran diya gaya hai-

kshetr tarangadairdhya seema rashmisrot parikshepan sanyatr abhilekhan
sudoor infraared 1 myoo - 50 myoo tapt thos vakragreting taap-vidyut rikaardar
infraared 7000-30,000 A tapt thos kloraaid tatha floraait prijm vakr greting taap-vidyut rikaardar
drushyakshetr 4000 A - 7040 A tapt thos aark spaark vidyut visrjan kaaainch ke prijm tatha vakragreting photo plate aur film
altraavaayalet 4000 A - 2000 A aark spaark vidyut visrjan kvaarj prijm tatha vakr greting fotoplet tatha vidyut rikaardar
nirvaat altraavaayalet 2000 A - 200 A spaark vidyut visrjan falyooraaid prijm tatha visrjan vakr greting altraavaayalet vidyut prijm

rashmisrot

spectrum teen prakaar ke hote hain, - rekheeya, pattadaar tatha satat. rekheeya spectrum mein kel rekhaaeain pai jaati hain. pattadaar spectrum mein patt band (Band) paae jaate hain jinka ek kinaara teekshn aur doosra kramash: dhoomil hota hai. satat spectrum mein sabhi varn ki rashmiyaaain ek doosare se sanlagn rahati hain. vibhinn prakaar ke spectrum paane ke liye upayukt rashmisrot kaam mein laae jaate hain.

rekheeya spectrum ke srot

rekheeya spectrum uttejit paramaanuon dvaara praapt hota hai. inhein uttejit karne ke liye ooshma, vidyut ya atyadhik oorjaayukt vidyuchchunbakeeya rashmiyon ki aavashyakta hoti hai. saamaanyat: vidyut aark aur vidyut spaark upayog mein aate hain. jvaala (Flame), taap bhatthi tatha vidyut visrjan dvaara bhi paramaanuon ko uttejit kiya jaata hai.

vidyut aark - dhaatu ke do ilektrod ek vishesh prakaar ke stambh mein kas diye jaate hain kintu stambh se pruthagnyast rahate hain. ek skroohed ko ghumaakar ilektrodon ke beech ka rikt sthaan kam ya adhik kiya ja sakta hai. donon ilektrod ek parivrtaneeya avarodh tatha ek prerakatv (inductance) shreneekram mein jod diye jaate hain.

aark chalaane ke liye aarambh mein donon ilektrod sata diye jaate hain at: vidyut paripth poora ho jaata hai aur dhaara pravaahit hone lagti hai. jahaaain ilektrod satate hain us bindu par bheeshan ooshma ootpann hoti hai kyonki vahaaain avarodh atyant kam hone se sahasa hajaaron ainpeeyar ki dhaara pravaahit hoti hai. is ushma ke kaaran ilektrod ke agr bhaag vaashpit ho jaate hain aur unhein thoda vilg karne par bhi yeh bhaap vidyut paripth ko poora kiye rahati hai. is bhaag mein sthit anu-parmaanu uttejit hokar prakaash dene lagte hain. aark ka taapakram lagbhag 3500 sein. se 8000 sein. tak hota hai. mukhya taar aark chalaane ke poorv ilektrodon ke beech ka vibhvaantar main (Mains) ke vibhvaantar ke baraabar (220 volt) hota hai kintu aark chalte samay yeh ghat jaata hai. pratyaavarteedhaara se bhi aark chalaae jaate hain. aajkal kai prakaar ke sudhare hue aark upalabdh hain.

ilektrik sfuling - ki rachana lagbhag aark ki hi bhaaainti hoti hai kintu sfuling ke ilektrodon ka vibhvaantar aark ki apeksha kai sau guna adhik hota hai. yahi kaaran hai ki sfuling ka stambh (Stand) adhik surakshit tatha ilektrodon se bhali bhaaainti pruthagnyast rakha jaata hai. ilektrodon ko ek staipaap traansafaarmar ke sekandari siron (Secondary terminals) se jod diya jaata hai. sfuling rikt sthaan ka vibhvaantar 10,000 vo. se 50,000 volt tak hota hai; at: is srot mein anu-paramaanuon ko atyadhik uttejana milti hai. sfuling rikt sthaan ichhaanusaar ghataaya badhaaya ja sakta hai.

is srot mein uttejit honevaale anu paramaanuon ko bahut adhik oorja praapt hoti hai. at: ve aayanit ho jaate hain. parmaanu ya anu ke keindrak (nucleus) ke chaaron aur bahut se ilektraan ghoomate rahate hain. ye ilektraan nishchit niyam ke anusaar vibhinn kakshaaon mein bainte rahate hain. sabse baaharavaali kaksha ke ilektraanon ko "aaptikl ilektraan" kaha jaata hai. yadi kisi anu ya parmaanu mein se ek ya adhik aaptikl ilektraan nikaal diye jaaeain to vah "aayanit" kaha jaata hai. keval ek ilektraun nikal jaane par parmaanu pehli aayanit sthiti mein ho jaata hai. yadi doosare, teesare aadi ilektraan bhi nikal jaaeain to parmaanu kramash: doosari, teesari aadi aayanit sthiti mein chala jaata hai. in sthitiyon ke liye uttarottar adhik oorja deni hoti hai. atyant uchch vibhvaantar par chalanevaale sfuling se tin ki 23veen aayanit sthiti praapt ki ja chuki hai.

spektro raasaayanik vishleshan (Spectro Chemical analysis) ke liye vidyut sfuling mukhya roop se upayogi hota hai. sfuling ko sthir roop se der tak chalaane ke liye ismein vividh prakaar ke sudhaar kiye gaye hain.

pattadaar spectrum ke srot

padaarthon ko prajvalit karne ya bunasan jvaalk ki jvaala mein jalaane par pattadaar spectrum praapt hota hai. kuchh padaarthon ko vidyut aark mein prajvalit karne se bhi pattadaar spectrum praapt kiya ja sakta hai. gaison mein vidyut visrjan se pattadaar spectrum badi suvidha se praapt hote hain. vidyut visrjan ke liye gas ko bahut kam daab par ek nali mein bharakar uske siron ke beech kai hajaar volt ka vibhvaantar (Potential difference) dena padta hai. nion gas mein vidyut visrjan se rakt varn ki rashmiyaaain niklati hain. aajkal pradarshan aur prachaar ke liye aksharon aur chitron ke aakaar ki visrjan naliyaaain banaai jaati hain jinmein neeon gas bhari rahati hai. inhein nion sign (Neon sign) kehte hain.

satat spectrum ke srot

kisi thos padaarth ko itni ooshma di jaae ki vah laal hokar chamakane lage to usase satat rashmipunj niklata hai. bijli ke balv se drushyakshetr mein satat spectrum paane ke liye vishesh prakaar ke haaidrojan lainp, jeenaan aark lainp tatha paarad-vaashp visrjan kaam mein laae jaate hain.

spektrolekhi

vibhinn prakaar ke rashmisroton se jo rashmiyaaain niklati hain unka sthaayi spectrum praapt karne ke liye spektrolekhi kaam mein laae jaate hain. pratyek spektrolekhi mein laaya hua parikshepan sanyantr vibhinn varn ki mishrit rashmiyon ko pruthak kar deta hai. rashmiyon ka parikshepan teen reetiyon se hota hai:

(1) jab rashmiyaaain kisi prijm se hokar jaati hain tab apavartan ke kaaran pruthak ho jaati hain. ise apavartaneeya parikshepan kehte hain;

(2) yadi bahut si sainkari jhiriyon ko ek doosari ke samaantar paas paas rakhakar unamein se mishrit prakaashapunj bheja jaae to vivrtan ke kaaran rashmiyaaain alag alag ho jaati hain aur spectrum ban jaata hai. aise parikshepan ko vivrtaneeya parikshepan (Diffractive dispersion) kehte hain;

(3) rashmiyon ke vyatikran (Interference) dvaara bhi parikshepan utpann kiya jaata hai. pehli do reetiyaaain adhik prachalit hain.

prijm spektrolekhi

iske teen mukhya bhaag hote hain - kauleemetar, prijm aur camera. kauleemetar ek khokhali nali hoti hai jiske ek sire par patali jhiri aur doosare sire par leins laga hota hai. jhiri aur leins ki doori parivrtaneeya hoti hai tatha jhiri ki chaudaai bhi parivrtaneeya hoti hai tatha jhiri ki chaudaai bhi parivrtaneeya hoti hai. prijm ek drudh aadhaar par is prakaar rakha jaata hai. ki leins se aanevaala samaantar rashmipunj ispar pade. prijm se parikshepit rashmiyaaain camere mein jaati hain aur camera leins dvaara fotoplet par keindrit (Focus) ki jaati hain. poori vyavastha ek saath is prakaar dhaki rahati hai ki jhiri ke atirikt aur kaheen se bhi prakaash bheetar na ja sake.

saamaanyat: drushya aur paraabaingani kshetr mein kaam aanevaale spektrograaf aise hi hote hain. drushyakshetr mein kaam aanevaale spektrolekhi mein kaaainch ke leins aur prijm lage rahate hain. paraabaingani kshetr ke liye kvaartj, floraaid tatha floraaid ke prijm aur leins kaam aate hain. doorasth avarakt ke liye upayogi prijm naheen milte hain. vikshepan badhaane ke liye do ya teen prijm vaale spektrolekhi banaae gaye hain. nirvaat paraabaingani kshetr ke liye aise spektrograaf kaam aate hain jinse vaayu nikaal di jaati hai. inhein nirvaat spektrograaf kehte hain. ye bade moolyavaan hote hain.

avarakt ke liye vishesh prakaar ke spektromaapi kaam mein laae jaate hain. infraared spektromeetar se kisi padaarth ka shoshan varnakram praapt hota hai. satatavarni infraared rashmiyon ko padaarth se hokar jaane diya jaata hai. padaarth se nikalne ke baad inhein prijm ya greting se vikshepit kiya jaata hai. vikshepit rashmiyon ka abhilekh (Recording) taapavidyut rikaardaron dvaara kiya jaata hai. in spektromeetaron mein kloraaid tatha floraaid ke prijm lage rahate hain aur leinson ke sthaan par dhaatu ki kalaivaale darpan lagaae jaate hain.

greting spektrograaf (Grating Spectrograph)

kai sainkari jhiriyon ko samaanaantar rakhakar jo jhireesamooh banaaya jaata hai use greting kehte hain. yadi svachh paaradarshak kaaainch par samaantar rekhaaeain khurach di jaaeain to pratyak do rekhaaon ke beech ka paaradarshak sthaan jhiri ka kaam deta hai. aise sheeshe ko samatal paaragaami (plane transmission) greting kehte hain. inka upayog prijm ki hi bhaaainti seemit hai. yadi kisi vakratal par eluminiym ya chaaaindi ki kalai ki jaae aur isi par samaantar rekhaaeain khurach di jaaeain to yeh upakaran avatal paraavartak greting (Concave reflection grating) kaha jaata hai. pratyek do rekhaaon ke beech ka tal rashmiyon ko paraavartit kar deta hai, inheen paraavartit rashmiyon ke vivrtan (diffraction) se spectrum praapt hota hai. is prakaar ki greting sarvapratham henari rolaid (Henry Rowland) ne san 1882 E. mein banaai thi. rekhaaeain khurachane ke liye rolaind ne rooling machine bhi banaai thi jo sudhaare hue roop mein ab bhi prachalit hai.

vakr greting spektrolekhi mein leins ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai. rashmipunj ek sainkari jhiri se hokar greting par padta hai. paraavartit rashmiyaaain svat: ek vrutt par keindrit ho jaati hain. is vrutt ko "rolaind vrutt" kehte hain. jis vakratal par rekhaaeain khurachi jaati hain use "greting black" kehte hain. rolaind vrutt ka ardhavyaas "black" ke vakrataardhavyaas ka aadha hota hai. yeh vrutt greting ko us sthaan par sparsh karta hai jahaaain iska vyaas-greting par abhilanb hota hai. isi abhilanb ke doosare sire par jhiri ka pratyaksh binb banta hai. ise shoonya koti ka spectrum kehte hain. iske donon or rolaind vrutt par jo sarvapratham spectrum paae jaate hain unhein pratham koti ka spectrum kaha jaata hai. isi vrutt par aur aage kramash: kam teevrata ke kai spectrum milte hain. inhein kramash: dviteeya, truteeya aadi koti ka spectrum kaha jaata hai.

spektrolekhi ki upayogita do baaton par nirbhar karti hai. pehli usaki parikshepan kshamata aur doosari vibhedan kshamata (Resolving power) hai. kisi spektrolekhi mein parikshepak sanyantr se nikalne par vibhinn tarangadairghya ki rashmiyaaain ek doosari se jitna hi adhik pruthak ho jaati hain us spektrolekhi ki parikshepan kshamata utana hi adhik hoti hai. isi prakaar do atyant sameepavarti tarangadairghya ki rekhaaon ko ek doosari se theek theek alag dikhaane ki kshamata ko vibhedanakshamata kehte hain. yadi kisi spectrum mein do aisi rekhaaeain li jaaeain jinmein ek ka tarangadairdhya aur doosari ka + ho to adhik vibhedanakshamataavaale spektrolekhi mein donon rekhaaeain ek doosari se alag dikhaai deti hain kintu kam vibhedak spektrolekhi mein donon milkar keval ek hi rekha dikhaai padti hai. vibhedanakshamata ko nimnalikhit anupaat dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai.

rashmiyon ka abhilekhan

spektrolekhi mein parikshepit rashmiyon ka photo utaar liya jaata hai. ise spektrolekhi kehte hain. jahaaain photo naheen utaara ja sakta hai vahaaain rashmiyon ka abhilekhan (Recording) kiya jaata hai. photo utaarane tatha abhilekhan ke liye jo upakaran kaam aate hain unhein "diktetar" kaha jaata hai. spektraamiki ke vibhinn kshetron mein vibhinn prakaar ke diktetar kaam mein laae jaate hain.

tarangadairghya ki maap

kisi ekavarn rashmi ka tarangadairghya atyant shuddhataapoorvak gyaat karne ke liye vyatikranamaapi (Interferometer) kaam mein laae jaate hain. fevareepero intaraferomeetar aur maaikelsan intaraferomeetar is kaarya ke liye atyadhik upayogi hote hain.

sabhi rekhaaon ka tarangadairghya vyaktikranamaapi se hi gyaat karna kathin aur bahudha asanbhaav hai at: kisi tatv ki teekshn aur prakhar rekha ko praathamik maanak (Primary standard) maan liya jaata hai aur iski sahaayata se anya rekhaaon ke tarangadairghya gyaat kiye jaate hain. kaidagiym tatv ki jaal rekha ka tarangadairghya 6438.4696 A ko praathamik maanak maana gaya hai. haal hi mein (1958-59 E.) bahut se vaigyaaniko ne heeliym gas ki rekha 5015.6784 (A°) ko praathamik maanak maanane ka nirnaya kiya hai. shuddh lauh tatha virl gaison ke tarangadairdhya gaun maadak (Secondary standard) maane jaate hain. kisi spectrum ka photo lete samay fotoplet ko yathaasthaan rakhakar mukhya spectrum ke saath-saath lohe ya taaainbe ke vidyutaark ka spectrum bhi le liya jaata hai aur iski rekhaaon se tulana karke, sootron ki sahaayata se, spectrum ki rekhaaon ya baindasheershon ka tarangadairdhya gyaat kar liya jaata hai. rekhaaon ki paarasparik dooriyaaain kainparetar naamak upakaran ka sahaayata se maapi jaati hain.

spektramon ki utpatti ka siddhaant

pratyek parmaanu mein ek naabhik (nucleus) hota hai. iske chaaron or kai ilektraan niyat kakshaaon mein ghoomate rahate hain. ilektronon ki kul sankhya naabhik ke potaanon ki sankhya ke baraabar hoti hai. bhinn-bhinn kakshaaon mein ilektraanon ki sankhya bhi niyat hoti hai. koi bhi ilektraan kisi niyat kaksha mein hi rah sakta hai. vaastav mein ye kakshaaeain parmaanu ki urjaasthiti ki dyotak hoti hain. yadi koi ilektraan kisi anya rikt kaksha mein chala jaae to parmaanu ki oorjaasthiti badal jaati hain. bheetari kakshaaon ke ilektraanon ka hatna praaya: sambhav naheen hota hai kintu antim kaksha ka ilektraan baahari ooshma ya vidyut shakti se uttejit hone par agali kaksha mein ja sakta hai. yadi pehli kaksha mein usase sambaddh oorja ka1 aur usase theek agali kaksha mein ka2 hai to pehli se doosari uchchatar oorjaasthiti mein jaane ke liye ilektraan keval ka2 - ka1 oorja hi le sakta hai. uttejit star par jaane ke baad hi vah pun: poorvasthiti mein vaapas aata hai aur ka2 - ka1 oorja utsarjit karta hai. is utsarjit ya avashoshit oorja ka maan hn hi hota hai arthaat ilektraan ek oorjaastar se theek agale oorjaastar mein jaane ya vaapas aane mein nishchit oorja nd arg hi le sakta hai ya de sakta hai. isse kam oorja ka aadaan-pradaan naheen ho sakta hai. h ek sthir sankhya hai aur n utsarjit rashmi ki aavrutti (frequency) hai. h n arg oorja ka ek packet ya "kvaantam" kaha jaata hai. isi prakaar jab ilektraan anya oorjaastaron mein sankraman karta hai to bhinn-bhinn aavrutti ki rashmiyaaain praapt hoti hain aur spectrum mein tadanukool bahut si rekhaaeain ban jaati hain. anu, paramaanuon mein ilektraanon ki vyavastha ke anusaar kai ilektraanik oorjaastar paae jaate hain aur ilektraanik sankraman ke kaaran vibhinn prakaar ke spectrum praapt hote hain. paramaanuon mein keval ilektraanik oorjaasthitiyaaain hi pai jaati hain. at: ilektraanon ke sankraman (transition) se nishchit tarangadairdhya ki rashmiyaaain niklati hain aur rekheeya spectrum praapt hota hai. anuon mein teen prakaar ki oorja hoti hai - ilektraanik, kanpanajanya (vibrational) aur ghoornanajanya (rotational). ilektraanik oorja ka maan aur bhi kam hota hai. jis prakaar ilektraanik oorjaasthitiyaaain niyat hain usi prakaar kanpanajanya aur ghoornanajanya oorja ki sthitiyaaain bhi niyat hain. at: kanpanajanya sankraman se patt ya band praapt hota hai. pratyek baid mein ghoornanajanya sankraman se rekhaaeain praapt hoti hain. ye bahut paas paas hoti hain at: chhote spektrodarshi se alag-alag naheen dikhaai padti hain aur spectrum mein vibhinn varn ke band hi dikhaai padte hain. adhik parikshepan tatha vibhedanakshamataavaale spektrodarshi se in rekhaaon ko dekha ja sakta hai. do se adhik paramaanuvaale anuon ki ghoonan rekhaaeain aur bhi paas-paas hoti hain at: unhein dekhna kathin hota hai. bahuparamaanuk anuon ki ghoornanarekhaaon ko dekhna ab tak sambhav naheen hua hai.

spektramadarshi ke upayog

  • (1) spektrami raasaayanik vishleshan : aark ya sfuling dvaara kisi padaarth ko uttejit karke uske spectrum dvaara yeh jaana ja sakta hai ki ukt padaarth kin-kin tatvon se bana hai tatha ismein unka anupaat kya hai. aise vishleshan se kisi tatv ki atyant sookshm maatra ka anupaat gyaat kiya ja sakta hai. kisi dhaatu mein doosari dhaatveeya ashuddhi yadi 0.0010% tak hai tab bhi iska pata lagaaya ja sakta hai. raasaayanik reetiyon se yeh sambhav naheen hai.
  • (2) anu-paramaanuon ki aantarik rachana gyaat ki jaati hai.
  • (3) naabhikeeya bhrami (Nuclear spin) aur samasthaanikon ka pata suvidhaapoorvak lagaaya ja sakta hai.
  • (4) dvipramaanuk padaarthon ke chunbakeeya gunon ka pata lagaaya jaata hai.
  • (5) jahaaain seedhi reetiyon se taap gyaat karna sambhav naheen hai vahaaain spektramadarshi ki reeti atyant upayogi siddh hui hai. spectrum ki rekhaaon ki deepti naapakar unke srot ka taap bataaya ja sakta hai.
  • (6) padaarthon ke ooshmaagatik (Thermodynamical) gunon ki ganana bhi spektramadarshi ki reeti se ki ja sakti hai.
  • (7) bahut se aise "redikl" ya paramaanusamooh, jinka banana raasaayanik kriyaaon dvaara asambhav hai aur jo mukt roop mein naheen ban sakte, unka adhyayan bhi spektramadarshi mein bahudha atyant saral hai. k g aur gr kt moolak svatantr roop mein kabhi naheen paae jaate hain par spektrodarshi ki reetiyon se inka yathesht adhyayan kiya gaya hai. taaron ka taap aur unki banaavat ka gyaan bhi spektramadarshi ki vidhiyon se hi praapt kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • ex-kiran spektramiki (ex-re spekstroskopi)

baahari kadiyaaain