spaarta

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 37°a4′a55″aN 22°a25′a25″aE / 37.08194°aN 22.42361°aE / 37.08194; 22.42361

Σaaπaaάaaρaaτaaα
Sparta
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11th century BC – 195 BC Blank.png

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Location of Sparta
Territory of ancient Sparta
rajdhani Sparta
bhaasha(eain) Doric Greek
dharm Polytheism
sarkaar Oligarchy
aitihaasik yug Classical Antiquity
- sansthaapit 11th century BC
- Peloponnesian League 546-371 BC
- visansthaapit 195 BC

spaarta (dorik Σaaπaaάaaρaaτaaα; Attic Σaaπaaάaaρaaτaaη Spartē) athva laasademon, dakshin-poorvi peloponnes ke laikoniya mein yoorotas nadi (River Eurotas) ke tat par basa praacheen yoonaan ka pramukh nagar-raajya tha. 10veen sadi isa poorv ke aaspaas yeh ek raajaneetik ikaai ke roop mein us vakt ubhar kar saamane aaya, jab hamlaavar doriyans ne sthaaneeya gair-doriyn aabaadi ko apne kabje mein kar liya. si. se 650 isvi san poorv se praacheen yoonaan mein yeh prabhaavashaali jameeni sainya-shakti (sthal-sena) ban kar ubhara.

apni samaarik shreshthata ke kaaran, yoonaani-faarasi yuddhon ke dauraan spaarta ko sanyukt yoonaani sena-vaahini ke samagr neta ke roop mein maanyata mili. isa-poorv 431 aur 404 ke beech, peloponeshiyl yuddh ke dauraan spaarta ethens ka pradhaan shatru raha, jisse yeh mahaan vijeta bankar ubhara, haalaanki, kaafi kshati uthaani padi. isa poorv 371 mein leyukatra (Leuctra) ke yuddh mein spaarta ko thebes ke haathon haar sahani padi jisne yoonaan mein spaarta ki mahatta samaapt kar di. haalaanki isaapoorv 146 tak isne apni raajanaitik aajaadi barkaraar rakhi.

apni saamaajik vyavastha aur samvidhaan ke kaaran praacheen yoonaan mein spaarta bejod tha, jisne sainya-prashikshan aur utkrushtata par poori tarah apna dhyaan kendrit kiya. iske nivaasiyon ko spaarteeets (spaartan naagrikon, jinhein sampoorn adhikaar praapt the), mothaakes (gair-spaartan jo spaartan se hi svaadheen hokar baahar aae), periyoikoi (svaadheen kar diye gaye log), evam helataus (sarkaar ke adheen krushidaas, gulaab bana liye gaye gair-spaartan ki sthaaneeya aabaadi). spaarteeets ko sakht uttejit prashikshan aur shaikshanik shaasan-pranaali se hokar, gujarana padta tha tatha spaartan sipaahiyon ke sanghatit vyooh yuddhon mein Ajay samajhe jaate the. spaartan mahilaaen purushon ki tulana mein vishesharoop se adhik adhikaar aur samaanata upabhog karti thi jo ki sabhya sunskrut jagat mein kaheen bhi upalabdh naheen tha.

apne jamaane mein spaarta aakarshan ka vishay hua karta tha saath hi saath pashchim ne bhi saanskrutik (klaasikl) shiksha ke punaruddhaar ka anukaran karna aarambh kar diya. spaarta pashchimi sanskruti ko mohit karta raha, spaarta ke prati prashansa ko saaragarbhita (laikonofiliya) kaha jaata hai.

anukram

naam

praacheen yoonaaniyon dvaara spaartaako aamtaur par laisedemaun (Lacedaemon)(Λaaαaaκaaεaaδaaαaaίaaμaaωaaν) ke roop mein ullekh kiya jaata hai athva laasademoniya Lacedaemonia (Λaaαaaκaaεaaδaaαaaιaaμaaοaaνaaίaaα) ke roop mein, in naamon ka prayog saadhaaranataya homar aur etheniyn itihaasakaaron herodotas (Herodotus) evam thusaaidaaids (thusaaidaaids) ki rachanaaon mein kiya gaya hai. herodotas ne keval pehle vaale ka hi prayog kiya hai aur kuchh parichhedon mein to aisa lagta hai ki spaarta shahar ke nichle hisse ke vipreet, theraapan ke maisiniyn greek durg ko hi uddhrut karne ke liye hi kiya gaya hai. spaarta nagar ke kaafi kareebi anchal mein, taigetaus (Taygetos) pahaadon ke poorvi pathaar ko, aamtaur par lekoniya (Λaaαaaκaaωaaνaaίaaα) ke roop mein ullekh kiya jaata tha. kisi samay is shabd ka saadhaaranataya spaartan ke seedhe niyantran vaale sabhi kshetron (anchalon) ke liye prayog kiya jaata tha, jismein meseniya bhi shaamil tha. laisedemaun (Lacedaemon) ke sandarbh mein shurooaati shabd maaiseneiyan greek (Mycenaean Greek) ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo (ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo) tha, jiska shaabdik anuvaad "lainsi demoniyn" hua jise aaksharik lipi mein raikhik bi (Linear B) ke roop mein likha jaata tha.

yoonaani mithkashaastr mein (pauraanik kathaaon mein), laisidemaun sundari apsara taayget se janma jeeyas (yoonaani devaraaj) ka beta tha. usane spaarta se shaadi ki, jisse vah emiklaas (Amyclas), yuridaais (Eurydice) aur esin (Asine) ka pita bana. vah desh ka raaja bana jiska naamakaran usane apne hi naam par aur rajdhani ka naamakaran apni patni ke naam par kiya. aisa maanana hai ki usane hi chairetij ke abhayaaranya ka nirmaan kiya tha, jo spaarta aur emikle (Amyclae) ke madhya avasthit tha, tatha kleta (Cleta) evam fenna (Phaenna) naamak do devataaon ko pradaan kar diya gaya tha. theraapan (Therapne) ke pados mein hi ek pavitra samaadhi-sthal ka nirmaan kiya gaya.

aadhunik yoonaan mein laikoniyn ke prashaashak ke ek praant ka ab naya naam laisidemaun (Lacedaemon) hai.

bhoogol

spaarta dakshin poorvi peloponnes (Peloponnese) ke laikoniya kshetr mein avasthit hai. praacheen spaarta ki sthaapana laikoniya ki pramukh nadi, ivarotas rivr (Evrotas River) ke tat par ki gayi thi, jo ise shuddh jal ka srot muhaiya karaata tha. ivarotas ki ghaati ek praakrutik kila hai, jiska pashchimi hissa mount tegetas (Mt. Taygetus) aur poorvi hissa mount paranaun (Mt. Parnon) (1935 meter) se ghira hua hain. uttar mein, laikoniya aarkediya ki unchi pahaadi bhoomi se ghira hua hai jiski unchaai 1000 meter tak bhi pahunch jaati hai. in praakrutik suraksha ke gheron ne spaarta ko suvidhaajanak sthiti to pradaan ki hi hai saath-hi-saath spaarta ko kabhi naheen loote jaane mein bhi yogadaan kiya hai. jameen se ghire hone ke baavajood spaarta ke paas laikoniya ki khaadi mein, gethiyo naamak ek bandargaah bhi tha.

itihaas

praagitihaas

spaarta ke praagitihaas ko punargathit karna dushkar hai, kyonki ghatnaaon ke vivran ke lambe samayaantaraal se saahityik saakshya kabhi ke gaayab ho gaye hain aur lokakathaaon ki maukhik parampara ne satya ko tod-marod diya hai. haalaanki spaarta anchal mein logon ke basane ke kai aaranbhik pramaanon mein, mitti ke bartan milte hain jo madhya navapaashaan yug ki avadhi ke maane jaate hain. ye bartan spaarta se kuchhek do kilometer ke aaspaas ke kshetr kofovuno mein paae gaye. ye praarambhik maaiseniyaai spaartan sabhyata ke aaranbhik avashesh hai jiska ullekh homar ke iliyd mein kiya gaya hai.

aisa lagta hai taamr yug ke ant tak is sabhyata ka patan ho gaya, herodotas ke anusaar, maisidauniyn jan jaatiyon ne uttar se peloponnes par hamla kar diya, jahaan unhein doriyans kaha jaata tha aur sthaayi roop se nivaas karne waali sthaaneeya janajaatiyaan unke adheen theen. aisa lagta hai ki doriyans ne apne raajya ki sthaapana karne se praay: bahut poorv hi spaartan raajya-kshetr ki seemaaon ka vistaar karna aarambh kar diya tha. poorab aur dakshin-poorab mein nivaas karne vaale aargiv doriyans ke viruddh bhi unhonne ladaai ki aur uttar-pashchim ke aarkedeeyan ekeeyans se bhi. is pramaan se yeh pata chalta hai ki tegetan maidaani ilaake ki bhaugolik banaavat ke kaaran spaarta apekshaakrut agamya hai, jo praarambhik kaal se hi surakshit tha: iski majabooti se kilaabandi kabhi naheen ki gayi thi.

aathaveen aur saataveen sadi isa poorv ke madhya spaarta (spaartiyon) ne naagrik sangharsh aur araajakata ka anubhav kiya jise herodotas aur thusaaidaaids (thusaaidaaids) donon ne hi baad mein chalakar pramaanit kiya hai. iske falasvaroop ve unke apne hi saamaaj ke raajaneetik aur saamaajik sudhaaron ke kaaryon ko poora karne mein lag gaye, baad mein chalakar unhonne ardh pauraanik vidhaayak laayakaragas (Lycurgus) ko iska shreya pradaan kiya. ye sudhaar shreshth saanskrutik spaarta ke aaranbhik itihaas ke saakshya hain.

laaysurgas

saanskrutik (klaasikl) spaarta

spaarta mein liyonidaas I ki moorti

dviteeya meinseniyn yuddh mein, spaarta ne peloponnes tatha shesh yoonaan mein ek sthaaneeya shakti ke roop apne aapko sthaapit kiya. aanevaali sadiyon ke dauraan, spaarta ki sthal yuddh ki taakat ke roop mein pratishtha ki koi shaani naheen thi. 480 isa poorv mein, spaartiyon (sapaartans) ki ek chhoti-si sena-vaahini, thesapiyans evam thebans (Thespians, and Thebans) tatha King leonids (Leonidas) ke netrutv mein thebans (Thebans) ne (jismein lagbhag poore 300 spaarti 700 thesipyans tatha 400 thebans the; inmein nirnaayak yuddh mein hataahaton ki sankhya shaamil naheen hai), vishaal faarasi sena-vaahini ke khilaaf tharmopaaile (tharmopaailein) ke yuddh mein ant tak dat kar mukaabala kiya aur ant mein chaaron or se gher liye jaane se pehle faarasi faujein kaafi badi sankhya mein hataahat hui. uchchastareeya gunavatta vaale astr-shastr, kushal rananeeti, tatha yoonaani nagar raajya ki naagrik sena evam unki sangathit sena-vaahini ke kaanse ke kavach ne ek saal baad bhi unki yogyata ko pun: pramaanit kiya jab spaarta poori taakat ke saath sanghatit hua aur plaataaeya (Plataea) ki ladaai mein faarasiyon ke khilaaf yoonaani gathabandhan ka netrutv kiya.

plaataaeya (Plataea) mein nirnaayak yoonaani jeet ne yoonaani-faarasi yuddh (Greco-Persian War) ko hamesha ke liye ant kar diya aur iske saath hi Europe mein faarasiyon ke vistaar ki mahatvaakaanksha bhi samaapt ho gayi. yadyapi yeh yuddh akhil-yoonaani sena dvaara jeeta gaya tha, lekin spaarta ko hi shreya diya gaya, jo tharmopaaile evam plaataae (Plataea) mein aguva banane ke baadajood samagr yoonaani abhiyaan ka vaastavik neta tha.

paravarti praacheen saanskrutik kaal mein, Athens, thebes aur faaras ke saath-saath spaarta apna varchasv banaane ke liye ek-doosare ke khilaaf ladne mein pramukh shaktiyaan raheen. peloponnesinyan yuddh ke parinaamasvaroop, spaarta paramparaagat taur par mahaadveepeeya sanskruti, wala hokar bhi ek naisainik shakti ban gaya. apni shakti ke shikhar par pahunchakar spaarta ne kai pramukh yoonaani raajyon ko apne adheen kar liya aur yahaan tak ki abhijaat etheniyn nauvaahini par bhi apna kabja jamaane mein kaamayaab raha. 5veen sadi isa poorv ke ant tak yeh ek raajya ke roop mein oopar uthakar saamane aaya jisne etheniyn saamraajya ko paraast kiya aur anaatoliya ke faarasi praanton par aakraman kiya. yeh ek aisi avadhi thi jismein spaartan aadhiptya ne apni chhaap chhodi hai.

kaureenthiyn yuddh ke dauraan spaarta ko mahatvapoorn yoonaani raajyon, thebes entheins, kaurinth evam aargos ke pramukh gathabandhan ka saamana karna pada. shuroo-shuroo mein is gathabandhan ko faaras ka samarthan praapt hua, anaatoliya mein jiski bhoomi par spaarta dvaara aakraman kiya ja chuka tha aur jise Asia mein spaarta ke aur aage ke vistaar ka bhaya bhi tha. spaarta ko ek ke baad ek jameeni ladaaiyon mein jeet haasil hoti rahi, lekin kiraae par liye gaye jahaaji-bedon ke dvaara jise faaras ne Athens ko muhaiya karaaya tha, naaids (Cnidus) ke yuddh mein iske kai jalayaan nast kar diye gaye. is ghatna ne spaarta ki nausainik shakti ko kaafi kshati pahunchaai lekin faaras par aage bhi aakraman karne ki iski aakaanksha ko tabatak samaapt na kar saka jabatak ki etheniyn senaapradhaan (konon) ne spaarta ki samudri tatavarti seema ko tabaah na kar diya tatha boodhe spaartan ke man mein helaut vidroh ke bhaya ko ukasa diya.

387 E.poo. ki ladaai ke aur kai varshon baad antaalsaidl ki shaanti (Peace of Antalcidas) kaayam hua, jiske anusaar loniya ke sabhi yoonaani nagar pun: faaras ke kabje mein ho jaaenge aur faaras ki Asiaee seema spaartan aakraman ki aashanka se mukt ho jaaegi. yuddh ke prabhaav-svaroop (faaras ki yogyata) yoonaani raajaneeti mein safalataapoorvak hastakshep karne ki faaras ki kshamata ki punarpushti thi tatha yoonaani raajaneetik pranaali mein spaarta ki pradhaanata waali sthiti ko bhi nishchayataapoorvak sveekaar karna tha. liyukatra ke yuddh (Battle of Leuctra) mein thebes ipaaminaunadaus ke haathon bhayaanak sainya paraajaya ke pashchaat spaarta deerghaavadhi ke liye patan ki or unmukh ho gaya. yeh pehli baar tha ki spaartan sena sthal-yuddh mein poori tarah paraast ho gayi.

choonki spaartan (spaarti) naagarikta rakt sambandh se hi viraasat mein milti thi, at: spaarta ko ab teji se helot (krushi-daason ki ek shreni) ki aabaadi jhelni padi, jiski sankhya naagrikon ki sankhya se bade paimaane par aage nikal gayi. spaartan naagrikon ki sankhya mein ise khatarnaak giraavat par arastoo ne bhi tippani ki hai.

helenistik aur roman spaarta

371 E.poo. mein liyukatra ki ladaai evam tatpashchaat helot vidroh mein sapaartans ko jo kshati sahani padi usase spaarta kabhi bhi Uber naheen paaya. baharahaal do shataabdiyon se bhi adhik samay tak ek kshetreeya shakti ke roop mein apne aapko barkaraar banaane rakhane mein yeh kaamayaab raha. na hi Phillip dviteeya ne aur na hi uske bete sikandar mahaan ne hi khud spaarta par vijay praapt karne ki koshish ki: spaartan ki saamarik nipunata ab bhi is had tak achhi thi kisi bhi hamle ko sanbhavat: kaafi nuksaan ka jokhim uthaana pad sakta tha.

poorab ke sikandar ke abhiyaan ke dauraan, spaarta ke raaja, ejis III ne 333 isaapoorv mein kret mein is uddeshya se sena-vaahini bheji ki spaarta ke liye dweep par kabja kar liya jaaega. ab ki baar mesedaun ke khilaaf ejis ne sanyukt yoonaani sena ki kamaan swayam sambhaali aur 331 E.poo. mein megaalopaulis (Megalopolis) ki naakaabandi mein ghir jaane se pehle shurooaati safalataaen bhi haasil ki. senaapati enteepetar (Antipater) ke netrutv mein ek vishaal maisidauniyn sena-vaahini ne raahat pahunchaane ke maksad se kuch kiya aur spaartan ki netrutv waali sena ko jordaar kaante ki ladaai mein paraajit kiya. 5300 se bhi adhik spaartans evam uske sahayogi is sangraam mein maare gaye tatha enteepetar ki 3500 sainikon ki tukadi bhi marne vaalon mein shaamil thi. ejis, jo ab ghaayal ho chuka tha tatha khade hone mein asamarth tha, ne apne logon ko aadesh diya ki ve use peechhe chhodkar aage badhti hui, maisidauniyn sena ka saamana karein taaki peechhe hatne ke liye use unase thodi muhalat mil jaaya. aur ant mein bhaale se maare jaane se pehle, spaarta ke raaja ne apne ghutanon ke bal khade hokar hi shatru ke kai sainikon ko maut ke ghaat utaar diya.

yahaan tak ki apne patan ke dauraan bhi, spaarta ne "helenijm ka rakshak" hone evam laikonik ko teekshan buddhi apne daave ko kabhi bhula naheen. is sandarbh mein ek upaakhyaan hai ki jab Phillip dviteeya ne spaarta ko ek sandesh mein yeh kah bheja ki "agar main laukiniya mein pravesh kar jaata hoon to main spaarta ko paraast kar mitti mein mila doonga," spaartans ne iske javaab mein sirf ek shabd kaha: "agar".

jab Phillip ne faaras ke khilaaf yoonaan ke ekeekaran ke bahaane yoonaaniyon ka sangh (league) banaaya, spaartans ne usamein shaamil naheen hona chaaha - akhil yoonaani abhiyaan mein shaamil hone ki unki koi dilchaspi thi hi naheen agar yeh spaartan netrutv ke antargat naheen hota hai to. herodotas ke anusaar maisidoniyans doriyn vansh ke log the jo spaartans ke hi sajaateeya the, lekin isse koi fark naheen padta tha. is prakaar faaras par vijay praapt karne ke baad sikandar mahaan ne ethens ko faarasi kavach vaale 300 soot bheje jiske saath yeh shilaalekh bhi tha, "Phillip ka putr sikandar evam sabhi yoonaani spaartan ko chhodkar Asia ke rahane vaale videshiyon se li gayi yeh bheint pesh karta hai [atireekt mahattv diya gaya]".

pyunik yuddhon ke dauraan spaarta roman ganaraajya ka chitr raajya (sahayogi) tha. antat: spaarta ki raajaneetik svaadheenata samaapt kar di gayi jyoheen ise echiyn league mein shaamil ho jaane ke liye majaboor kar diya gaya. 146 E.poo. roman jenaral lusiys myumiys dvaara yoonaan par jeet haasil kar li gayi thi. roman vijay ke dauraan spaartans ne apni jeevan-yaatra jaari rakhi, tatha unka nagar roman sanbhraanton ke liye paryatak ka aakarshan ban gaya jo mohak spaarti reeti-rivaajon ko kareeb se dekhne aaya karte the. aisa maanana hai ki, edriyaanopal ke yuddh (378 E.poo) mein roman saamraajya ki sena par jo tabaahi barapa hui uske saath hi saath, spaartan sainikon ke evam jatthe ne visigoths par chadhaai kar rahi sena ko yuddh mein parast kar diya.

madhyakaaleen aur aadhunik spaarta

baaijeintaain ke sootron ke havaale, laikoniyn kshetr ke kuchh hisse 10veen sadi E.poo. tak but-parast hi bane rahe aur dorik bhaasha-bhaashi aabaadi aaj bhi jakoniya se barkaraar hain. madhya yug mein, laikoniya ka raajaneetik aur saanskrutik kendra pados mein hi base mistraas mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya. yoonaan ke raaja otto (King Otto) ke ek farmaan ke anusaar, varsh 1834 mein aadhunik sparti ki punarsthaapana ki gayi.

saanskrutik spaarti samaaj ki sanrachana

samvidhaan

dorik kretans ki nakl karte hue spaarta ke dorik raajya ne ek milaajula sarkaari raajya viksit kiya. yeh raajya ejiyaad (Agiad) aur yooropaunteeds (Eurypontids) ke parivaaron kein do vanshaanugat raajaaon dvaara prashaasit hota tha, kathit roop se donon hi heraaklis ke uttaraadhikaari the aur donon ke hi adhikaar ek saamaan the, taaki unamein se koi ek apne sahayogi ke khilaaf nishedhaadhikaar ki kaaryavaai na kar sake. naagrikon ki vidhaanasabha dvaara prayog ki jaane waali satta ki taakat ka srot mool vastut: agyaat hai kyonki aitihaasik dastaavejeekaran ka abhaav aur spaartan raajya ki gopaneeyata iske peechhe kaaran hain.

raajaaon ke kartavya praarambhik taur par dhaarmik, nyaayik aur saamarik hua karte the. ve raajya ke pradhaan purohit to the hi aur delfiyn abhayaaranya ke saath sanchaar-vyavastha bhi banaae rakhate the, jo spaartan raajaneeti mein hamesha apne adhikaar ka poora prayog karta tha. herodotas ke kaal mein (lagbhag 450 E.poo.), unke nyaayik kaaryakaalayon par uttaraadhikaar, dattak-grahan tatha saarvajanik sadkon janit maamalon mein pratibndh tha. deevaani aur aaparaadhik maamalon ke faisale ifaurs ke roop mein maane jaane vaale adhikaareeyon ke ek varg ke saath hi saath gerusiya kahalaane waali vayovruddhon ki parishd dvaara kiye jaate the. gerusiya mein 28 vayovrusd shaamil hote the jinki umr 60 saal se oopar ki hoti thi, aajeevan sadasyata ke liye nirvaachit hote the aur aamtaur par raajagharaanon evam do raajaaon ke hisse hua karte the. raajya ke uchchastareeya neetigat faisalon par is parishd dvaara vichaar-vimarsh kiya jaata tha jo tab kaheen jaakar daamos ke vikalp mein kaaryavaai ka prastaav pesh kar sakta tha. daamos spaartan naagrikon ka saamoohik ang tha jo mataadhikaar ke maadhyam se vikalpon mein se kisi ek ka chunaav kar sakta tha.

arastoo ne spaarta ke raajatantr ka varnan "ek prakaar ka aseemit evam satat senaapatitv" ke roop mein kiya hai. (Pol. iii. I285a), jabki sukaraat ne spaartan ko "andar se kuleenattantr ke adheen se lekar abhiyaan ke sanchaalan tab raajatantr" (iii 24) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya hai. haalaanki, yahaan bhi samayaantaraal se raajakeeya visheshaadhikaaron mein katauti kar di gayi. faarasi yuddhon ke samay se hi, raaja ne yuddh ki ghoshana karne ka adhikaar kho diya evam paryavekshi adhikaaron ke saath do magistrate (ifors) raaja par najar rakhane ke liye ranakshetr mein saath bhej diye jaate the. videsh neeti ke niyantran mein bhi manoneet magistrate (ifors) dvaara use padasvalit kar diya jaata tha.

samayaantaraal se, raaja sena pradhaano ki kshamata ke alaava keval naamadhaari shaasak rah gaye. vaastavik kshamata ifors aur gerusiya ko sthaanaantarit kar di gayi.

naagarikta

spaartan (spaarti) raajya ke sabhi nivaasiyon ko naagrik naheen maana jaata tha. keval ve hi yogya paatr maane jaate the jinhonein utkanthit shaareerik saamarik ke roop mein parichit spaartan (spaarti) shiksha prakriya angargat shiksha grahan ki ho. haalaanki, aamtaur par ve hi is shiksha grahan karne ke paatr samajhe jaate the jo sparti hote the, athva ve log jo purakhon ko is nagar ke maulik nivaasi hone ka sanket de paate the.

is baare mein do apavaad the. trofimoi (Trophimoi) ya "posya-putron" ko jo videshi chhaatron ko adhyayan ke liye aamantrit kiya jaata tha. udaaharan ke liye, etheniyn senaapati jenofon ne, apne do beton ko trofimoi ke roop mein spaarta bheja. ek doosra apavaad yeh bhi tha ki krushidaason ke beton ko sintrofaus ke roop mein naamaankit kiya ja sakta tha basharte koi spaarti parivaar ne use god liya ho aur usaka vyaya apne tareeke vahan kiya ho. agar ek sintrofaus apne prashikshan mein asaadhaaran tareeke se achha pradarshan karta tha, to use sparti hone ke liye praayojit kar liya jaata tha.

raajya mein anya naagrikon ke perioikoi (pereeoikoi) the, jo spaartan ke adhikaar kshetr ke svatantr nivaasi the lekin gair-naagrik, evam bandhuaa das (helots), raajya ke svaamitv vaale krushi-das the. gair-sparti naagrikon ke uttaraadhikaari shaareerik-saamarik shiksha ke kaabil naheen the tatha aise spaartan jo egaug ke prashikshan ka vyaya vahan naheen kar sakte the unki naagarikta samaapt ho sakti thi. in kaanoonon ka matlab tha ki spaarta yuddh mein khoe naagrikon ke badle mein tatkaal hi kisi aur ko pratisthaapit naheen kar sakta tha, athva anyatha evam antat: raajya ki nirantarata ke liye yeh ghaatak pramaanit ho sakta tha choonki raajya ke naagrikon ki sankhya ko gair-naagrikon ki sankhya se kam ho jaati aur bhi adhik khatarnaak, helot ki sankhya badh ja sakti thi.

helots evam perioikoi

helots

laikoniyn janasankhya mein spaartans (spaarti) alpasankhyak the. nivaasiyon ka sabse bada varg helots tha (klaasikl greek mein [52] / helots (Heíalôates)).

helots moolat: messeniya aur laikoniya anchal ke rahane vaale svatantr greek the jinhein spaartans ne yuddh mein paraajit kar saath hi saath gulaam bana liya tha. anya greek nagar-raajyon mein, svatantr naagrik anshakaalik senaani hote the, jo yuddh mein vyavahrut naheen hone par anya kaamon mein laga diye jaate the. choonki spaarti poornakaalik sainik hote the, isliye shaareerik shram ke kaamon ke liye ve upalabdh naheen the. helots ka vyavahaar shramajeevi krushi daason ke roop mein kiya jaata tha jo spaartan ki jameen ki jutaai karte the. gulaam helot mahilaaen aksar daaiyon ke roop mein kaam karti theen. helots purush bhi spaarti sena ke saath ayodhi sevakon ke roop mein yaatra kiya karte the. tharmopaaile ke yuddh ke antim padaav par greek mrutakon mein keval suvikhyaat teen sau spaartan sainik hi naheen the balki saikadon thespiyn tatha theban sainya-daston ke saath ek badi sankhya mein helots gulaam bhi the.

helots evam unke sparti svaamiyon ke beech rishte aksar shatrutaapoorn ho jaaya karte the. thoosaaideds ne is sandarbh mein tippani ki hai ki "spaartan neeti hamesha se hi mukhyat: helots ke khilaaf saavadhaaniyaan baratne ki aavashyakta par hi niyantrit rahi hain.

madhya isaapoorv 3 sadi ke praain ke maayaraun (Myron of Priene) ke anusaar,

"They assign to the Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace. For they ordained that each one of them must wear a dogskin cap (κaaυaaνaaῆ / kunễ) and wrap himself in skins (δaaιaaφaaθaaέaaρaaα / diphthéaara) and receive a stipulated number of beatings every year regardless of any wrongdoing, so that they would never forget they were slaves. Moreover, if any exceeded the vigour proper to a slave's condition, they made death the penalty; and they allotted a punishment to those controlling them if they failed to rebuke those who were growing fat".[1]

plootaark ka bhi kehna hai ki, spaartans helots ke saath "karkash aur nishthur" vyavahaar karte the: ve unhein khaalis sharaab peene ko majaboor karte the. (jise khatarnaak-sharaab maana jaata tha, aamtaur par paani naheen milaaye jaane ki vajah se)"...evam unhein saarvajanik sabhaagaar (hall) mein aisi haalat mein chhod diya jaata tha ki, bachche dekh sakein ki piykkad logon ka kya najaara hota hai; ve unhein bhadde nrutya aur foohad gaane gaane ko majaboor kar dete the..." sisseeya (syssitia) (purashon, visheshakar yuvakon ke anivaarya saamajik-saanskruti bhoj samaaroh mein)

helots ko mataadhikaar naheen tha, haalaanki yoonaan ke anya bhaagon ke gair-greek daason ki tulana mein apekshaakrut roop se inhein visheshaadhikaar kar praapt the. spaartan kavi taairiyo (Tyrtaios) ne helots ke sandarbh mein likha hai ki unhein vivaah karne ki anumati thi. aisa maanana hai ki unhein dhaarmik sanskaar ki paripaati ke paalan ki anumati bhi thi aur thoosaaidaaids ke anusaar, seemit raashi mein niji sampatti bhi rakh sakte the.

pratyek varsh jab ifors kaaryaalaya mein kaaryabhaar grahan kar lete the ve aanushthaanik taur par helots ke khilaaf rivaaj ke anusaar yuddh ghoshana kar dete the, jisse ki spaartan dhaarmik sanskaar ke pradooshan ke bina unki hatya bedhadk kar sakein. aisa lagta hai ki yeh sabkuchh kriptiya (sing. κaaρaaύaaπaaτaaηaaς), egog ke snaatakon dvaara kiya jaata tha jo kriptiya (Krypteia) ke naam se jaani jaane waali rahasyamayi sanstha mein bhaag liya karte the.

424 isa poorv ke aaspaas spaartiyon ne ek suchintit yojanaabaddh manchasth anushthaan mein 2000 helots ki hatya kar di. thoosaaidaaids ke vivran ke anusaar:

"ek ghoshana ke tahat helots ko aamantrit karte hue kaha gaya ki ve apni aabaadi mein se un logon ko hi chune jo apne aapko dushman ke khilaaf sabse adhik jaane-pahachaane (pratishthit) hone ka daava karte hain, taaki ve bhi aajaadi ke hakdaar ho sake; maksad keval unki jaanch karni thi, choonki yeh soch liya gaya tha ki aajaadi ka daava karne wala sabse pehla vyakti hi sabse jyaada saahasi bahaadur aur sabse yogya vidrohi maan liya jaaega. tadanusaar, lagbhag do hajaar log chune gaye, jin logon ne khud ko taaj pahanaaya aur nai aajaadi ka jashn manaate hue, devalayon ki parikrama karne lage. haalaanki, spartiyon ne, sheegra hi unke saath vahi kiya jo unhein karna tha aur kisi ne yeh naheen jaana ki unamein se kitne log nasht ho gaye.

pereeoikoi

pereeoikoi bhi helots ki tarah moolat:, isi prakaar aae lekin sparti samaaj mein inhonein alag hi ohada bana liya. haalaanki unhein poori naagarikta ka adhikaar praapt naheen tha, lekin ve svaadheen the aur helots ki tarah unke saath saamaan durvyavahaar naheen kiya jaata tha. spaartiyon ke prati unki daasata ki theek-theek prakruti spast naheen hai, lekin aisa lagta hai ki ve aanshik roop se ek prakaar se aarakshit sena ke roop mein aanshik roop se daksh kaareegaron ke roop mein aur aanshik roop se videshi vyaapaar ke agent ke roop mein sevaarat the. haalaanki pereeoikoi hopalaaits (praacheen greek nagar ke naagrik-senaani) kabhi kabhi spaarati sena mein sevaarat hote the, jismein plaatoya ka yuddh (Battle of Plataea) sabse ullekhaneeya hai, lekin pereeoikoi ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn kaarya lagbhag nishchit roop se kavach ki marammat aur hathiyaaron ka nirmaan tha.

arth-vyavastha

kaanoon ke jariye spaarti naagrikon ko vyaapaar athva vinirmaan se vanchit kar diya gaya tha, falasvaroop perioikoi ke haathon mein yeh kaarya-bhaar aa gaya, evam (saiddhaantik roop se) sone ya chaandi rakhane nishiddh (varjit) ho gaya tha. spaarti mudra mein lohe ki salaakhein hoti thi, is prakaar chori aur videshi vaanijya bahut hi mushkil evam dhaan-sanchaya ke maamale mein niraashaajanak tha. kam se kam saiddhaantik roop se sampatti sampoorn roop se jameeni jaayadaad se hi arjit hoti thi evam helots dvaara bhugataan kiye jaane vaale vaarshik pratifl ke anusaar hota tha, jo spaarti naagrikon ko aavantit bhoo-khandon ki kheti karte the. lekin jaayadaad ko is prakaar se ek saamaan baraabar karne ki koshish naakaam saabit hui: shurooaati daur se hi, raajya mein sampatti ke ullekhaneeya antar the, evam ye epitediysh ke kaanoon ke baad aur bhi adhik gambhir ho gaye, jo peloponesiyn yuddh ke samay laagoo kiye gaye the, jisne upahaar athva jameen ki vaseeyat par se vidhi-nishedh hata diya.

kisi bhi prakaar ke aarthik kaarya-kalaapon se unmukt, poorn naagrikon ko, ek bhoo-khand de diya jaata tha jiski kheteebaari ka kaam helots kiya karte the. jaise-jaise samay gujarata gaya jameen ka ek bada hissa bade jameendaaron ke haathon mein sankreindit hota gaya, lekin poorn naagrikon ki sankhya kam hoti gayi. 5veen sadi isaapoorv ke aarambh mein naagrikon ki sankhya 10,000 thi lekin arastoo ke samay (384–322 isaapoorv) mein yeh ghatkar 1000 se bhi kam ho gayi aur aage chalakar 244 isaapoorv mein egis IV ke raajyaarohan ke samay yeh ghatkar 700 ho gayi. nae kaanoon banaakar is sthiti se nipatne ki koshishein ki gayi. jo avivaahit hi rah gaye athva jinhonne der se vivaah kiya unapar ab dand bhi lagaae gaye. haalaanki, is kaanoonon ke laagoo kiye jaane mein kaafi der ho chuki thi aur chali aa rahi prakruti ka palatane mein aprabhaavi the.

praacheen spaarta mein jeevan shaili

janm aur mrutyu

spaarta sarvopari sainyavaadi raajya tha aur janm ke samay se hi sainya fitness par vishesh jor dena vastut: janm se hi aarambh ho jaata tha. janm ke fauran baad hi, maan bachche ko sharaab se nehala deti thi sirf yeh dekhne ke liye ki navajaat shishu majaboot hai ya naheen. agar bachcha bach jaata tha to uske pita use gerausiya ke paas le jaata tha. tab gerausiya is baat ka faisala karta tha ki usaka laalan-paalan kiya jaaya ya naheen. agar ve use "thingana aur bedaul" maan lete the, to shishu ko mount teingitaus shiltbhaasha mein epothitaae (greek mein ἀaaπaaοaaθaaέaaτaaαaaς, "jama") ki ek gahari khaai mein feink diya jaata tha. darasal yeh, sujnaniki (yoojenaaik) ke aadim roop kaam prabhaav tha.

Athens sahit anya yoonaani kshetron mein avaanchhit bachchon ko ujaagar (khulaasa) karne ki prachalit pratha ke kuchh saakshya upalabdh hain.

jab spaartans ki mrutyu ho jaati thi, prastar ke smruti-saudh (kabr par bane smaarak) keval sainikon ke liye hi anubhodit hote the jo vijay abhiyaan mein sangharsh mein maare gaye athva un mahilaaon ke liye jo ya to devi seva mein athva prasav ke dauraan mar jaati theen.

shiksha

jab purush spaartans saat varsh ki umr se hi sainya prashikshan shuroo kar deta tha, unhein egaug pranaali mein pravisht hona padta tha. anushaasan aur shaareerik sudrudhta ko protsaahit karne ke liye tatha spaartan raajya ke mahattv ko pramukhata pradaan karne ke liye hi egaug ki roop rekha dijaaine ki gayi thi. ladke saamudaayik meson mein rahate the aur unhein jaanaboojh kar alpaahaar diya jaata tha taaki unhein bhojan churaane ki kala mein mahaarat haasil karne ke liye protsaahit kiya jaae. shaareerik aur shaastr shiksha ke alaave, ladkon ko pathan, lekhan, sangeet aur nrutya ka adhyayan karna padta tha. agar ladke paryaapt "laikonik" tareeke se (arthaat sankshep mein tatha hajaarijvaabi ke saath) savaalon ke javaab dene mein naakaamayaab ho jaate the to unke liye vishesh dand-vidhaan laagoo kiya jaate the. baarah ki umr mein, egaug spaartan ladke ko ek vyast purush guru aamtaur par avivaahit yuvak ke paas jaane ko majaboor karta tha. vyaskavyakti se yeh ummeed ki jaati thi ki vah vaikalpik pita ke roop mein kaam kare aur apne kaanist sahayogi ke liye road model (aadarsh-charitra) ki bhoomika nibhaae, haalaanki, yeh nivirdaadit kaaranon se yeh nishchit tha ki unke beech yaun sambandh the. (haalaanki sparti vyask vyakti aur kishor ke beech yaun-sansarg ki sateek pravruti aspasht hai).

athaarah varsh ki umr mein, sparti ladke spaartan sena ke aarakshit sadasya ban jaate the. egaug chhod dene ke baad, unhein vibhinn samoohon mein vargeekrut kar diya jaata tha, jinmein se kuchh ko dehaaton mein keval ek chhoori dekar bhej diya jaata tha taaki ve apni buddhi aur chaalaaki ke sahaare jabaradasti jeene ke liye majaboor rahein. ise kriptiya kaha jaata tha aur iska tatkaal uddeshya kisi bhi helots ki talaash karna aur maar dena tha aur yeh helots aabaadi ko aantakit karne aur daraane ke vyaapak kaaryakram ka keval ek hissa tha.

sparti ladkiyon ki shiksha-deeksha ke baare mein kam jaankaari upalabddh hai, lekin aisa lagta hai ki unhein kaafi had tak vyaapak aupachaarik shaikshanik chakr se gujarana padta tha, mote taur par ladkon jaise hi lekin sainya prashikshan par kam mahattv diya jaata tha. is maamale mein praacheen yoonaan mein saanskrutik spaarta bejod tha. kisi bhi nagar raajya mein mahilaaen kisi bhi prakaar ki aupachaarik shiksha naheen paati thi.

sainya jeevan

helmed hoplaait ki maarbal ki moorti (5veen shataabdi isa poorv), spaarta ki puraatatv sangrahaalaya, grees

bees varsh ki umr mein hi, sparti naagrik kisi bhi ek siskiya (bhojanaalayon athva clubon) ka sadasya ban jaata tha, pratyek siskiya ka gathan pandrah sadasyon ko lekar hota tha, jismein se pratyek naagrik ko sadasya banana anivaarya maana jaata tha. yahaan pratyek samooh yeh seekhata tha ki ek bandhan mein kaise bandhe rahein aur ek doosare par bharosa karein. tees varsh ki umr se hi sparti apne poore adhikaaron aur kartavyon ka paalan karne lagte the. spaarta ke keval mool nivaasiyon ko hi poori naagarikta ke liye vichaara jaata tha aur kaanoon ke dvaara nirdhaarit prashikshan se hokar gujarane ke liye ve baadhya hote the, saath hi saath kisi ek sissiya mein bhaag lene aur aarthik roop se yogadaan karna hota tha.

spaarti purush saath saal ki umr tak sakriya rijrv (sena ka vah sadasya jo jarurat padne par prastut rahe) bane rahate the. purushon ko bees varsh ki umr mein vivaah ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata tha lekin apne parivaar ke saath tabatak naheen rah sakte the jabatak ki tees varsh ki aayu mein sakriya sainya seva naheen chhod dete the. ve apne aap ko "homoikoi" (ek samaan) kaha karte the, sipaahiyon ke sangathit vyoo ke anushaasan aur aam jeevan shaili ki aur ingit karte hue, jiski yeh sifaarish thi ki koi bhi sainik apne kaumared se shreshthatar naheen hai. yatha sambhav hopalaait (praacheen yunaam nagar raajya ke naagrik sainik) ke yuddh mein paripoornata paane ki spaartiyon ne bharsak koshish ki.

thoosaaindaaids ki report ke anusaar jab spaarti purush yuddh mein jaate the, unki patniyaan (athva kuchh mahattv ki koi doosari mahila) rivaaj ki mutaabik unhein dhaal bheint karti thi aur kehti thi,:iske saath hi ya is par hi (Ἢ τaaὰaaν ἢ ἐaaπaaὶ τaaᾶaaς, Èai tàan èai èapì tàas), arthaat sachche sparti ya to vijayi bankar hi spaarta lauteinge (haathon mein dhaal liye) ya fir (is par lete hue) mrut lauteinge. agar ke hopalaait (praacheen yoonaani nagar-raajya ke naagrik sainik) ko haathon mein dhaal ke bina hi jeevit lautana hi hota tha, to yeh maan liya jaata tha ki bhaagane ke prayaas mein usane apni dhaal dushman par feink di hai; yeh mrutyu dand ya nirvaasan ki saja paane laayak dandaneeya karm tha. apne shirstraan, seene ya pairon ke kavach, bestaplet aur greevs khone vaale sainik ko theek usi tarah dandit naheen kiya jaata tha, kyonki ye vastuen kisi vyakti ke niji suraksha-kavach ke ang thi, jab ki dhaal kisi ek sainik ko vyaktigat suraksha hi naheen pradaan karti thi, balki spaartiyon ki thasaathas bhaari vyooh-rachana ke mein sainik ki suraksha mein bhi baayeen aur kshati pahunchane se bachaane mein sahaayak tha. is prakaar dhaal ek vyaktigat sainik ki apni tukadi ke prati adheenata, iski safalta mein usaka aham ang hona, tatha apne hathiyaar band kaumaredo, bhojan layon ke saathiyon evam bandhuon aur aksar rakt-sambandhon ke prati usaka sampoorn pavitra uttaradaayitv hona.

arastoo ke anusaar, spaarti saamarik sanskruti dar-asal adooradarshi aur be-asar thi. unhonne dhyaan se dekha:

sabhya logon ka na ki pashuon ka ek maanya star hona chaahiye, jise dhyaan mein avashya rakhana chaahiye, choonki ye jaanavar naheen balki achhe log hain, jo sachmuch ke saahas ke liye saksham hain. spaartiyon ki tarah hi ve log jo kisi ek par apna dhyaan kendrit karte hain aur doosare ki shiksha mein upeksha karte hain, ve manushyon ko machine mein badal dete hain aur nagari jeevan ke kisi ek pahaloo par hi apne aap ko samarpit kar dete hain, aise mein bhi ve unhein nimnatar banaakar hi chhodte hain.

yahaan tak ki maataaon ne bhi sainyavaadi jeevan-shaili laagoo ki jaisa ki spaarti purush drudhta ke saath jeete the. spaarti yoddha ki ek pauraanik katha hai jo ladaai se bhaagakar apni maan ke paas vaapas chala gaya tha. haalaanki apni maan se usane bachaav ki ummeed ki thi, lekin usaki maan ne iska ulta hi kiya. saarvajanik sharm se bachaane ke bajaay, usane evam usaki kuchh saheliyon ne use sadkon par daudte hue usaka peechha kiya aur laathiyon se use peeta bhi. baad mein, apni kaayarata aur heenata ke liye cheekhata hua vah spaarta ki pahaadiyon par oopar-neeche daudne ko laachaar ho gaya.

vivaah

kriptiya (Krypteia) poora karne ke baad, spaarti purushon ko 30 varsh ki umr mein vivaah karna jaruri ho jaata tha. plootaark ki report ke mutaabik spaartan ki shaadi ki raat ke kuchh ajeebogareeb reeti-rivaaj jude hue hain:

vivaah ke liye auraton par kabja karne ki pratha thi (...) kabja ki gayi ladki ka bhaar tathaakathit dulhan ki saheli le leti thi. sabse pehle vah usaki khopadi ki hajaamat kar deti thi, tab use purush ke vastr aur saindal pahanakar aaindhere mein ek gadde par lita deti thi. doolha - jo nashe mein naheen rahata tha aur iseeliye napunsak bhi naheen rahata tha, par hamesha ki tarah saumya aur shaant bana rahata tha - sarvapratham mes (bhojanaalayon) mein raatri-kaaleen bhojan grahan karta tha, tab chupake se andar pravesh karta tha, uske kamar band kholata tha, use baahon mein uthaata tha aur use bistar par le jaata tha.

vivaah ke baad pati chori-chhupe apni patni se milna-julana jaari rakhata tha. ye reeti-rivaaj, jo spaartiyon ke liye anokhe the, inhein vibhinn tareekon se vyaakhyaayit kiya gaya hai. "apaharan" ho sakta hai buri najron se bachane ka ek tareeka bhi ho aur patni ke kesh katavaana, shaayad sanskaar ka ek maarg ho jo usaki nai jindagi mein pravesh-dwaar ka ek sanket maatr ho.

mahilaaon ki bhoomika

raajaneetik, saamaajik aur aarthik samaanata

spaarti mahilaaen rutaba, kshamata, tatha aadar ka upabhog karti thi jo shesh klaasikl jagat ke liye agyaat tha. ve apni niji jaayadaad ko apne niyantran mein rakhane ke saath-hi-saath un purush rishtedaaron ki jaayadaad ki bhi dekhbhaal karti theen, jo sena-vaahini ke saath door chale jaate the. yeh anumaanit hai ki auratein spaarta ki sampoorn jameen tatha jaayadaad ki kam se kam 35% ki ekamaatr akeli maalakin thi. talaak ka kaanoon purashon aur naariyon donon ke liye hi ek samaan tha. Athens ki auraton jaisi naheen, agar ek spaarti aurat apne pita ki uttaraadhikaarini ban jaati thi kyonki uttaraadhikaari hone ke liye uske paas koi jeevit bhaai naheen hua karta tha (epikleros), to us aurat ke liye uske najadeeki Patrick rishtedaar se vivaah karne hetu use apne maujooda, pati se talaak lena aavashyak naheen maana jaata tha. spaarti auratein shaayad hi 20 varsh ki kam umr mein shaadi karti ho aur etheniyn auraton jaisi naheen, jo bhaari-bharakam, vastraabhooshanon se apne aapko poori tarah dhak leti thi tatha shaayad hi kabhi ghar ke baahar dikhaai deti ho, spaarti auratein chhoti poshaakein pahanati thi aur jahaan chaahein apni marji ke mutaabik ja sakti thi. ladkiyaan ladkon ki hi tarah nangi rah sakti thi tatha yuvakon ki hi tarah yuvatiyaan bhi jimnopeediya (Gymnopaedia) mein (nange yuvak-yuvatiyon ka mahotsav) mein bhaag le sakti theen.

aitihaasik mahilaaen

kai mahilaaon ne spaarta ke itihaas mein ullekhaneeya bhoomikaaen ada ki hain. queen gorgo, raajagaddi ki utaraadhikaarini leyonids pratham ki patni ek prabhaavashaalini tatha achhi tarah se pralekhit hasti thi. herodotas ke record ke mutaabik jab vah ek chhoti-si ladki thi tabhi usane apne pita kliyomenes (Cleomenes) ko rishvat ke len-den se virt rahane ki salaah di thi. aisa kaha jaata hai ki baad mein chalakar usane hi ek chetaavani ka kootaanuvaad karne ki jimmedaari nibhaayi thi ki faarasi faujein yoonaan par hamla bolne hi vaale hain; jab spaarti senaadhyaksh mom mein lipti lakdi ki takhti par likhe koot-sandesh ka kootaanuvaad na kar sake, usane mom ko saaf-suthara kar chetaavani ko khulaasa karne ka unhein hukm jaari kiya. plootaark ke moraaliya (Moralia) mein "spaarti mahilaaon ki kahaavaton" ka sangrah shaamil hai, jismein gorgon par aaropit chutakule bhi hain: atteeka se I hui ek mahila ke poochhe jaane par ki spaarti mahilaaen hi sansaar mein ekamaatr aisi mahilaaen hain jo purashon par shaasan kar sakti hain, javaab mein usane kaha, "kyonki ham log hi keval aisi mahilaaen hain jo purushon ki maataaen hain".

laikonofileeya

edjaar degaas dvaara yuva spartan vyaayaam (1834-1917)

laikonofileeya spaarta evam spaartan sanskruti athva samvidhaan ke prati prem ya prashansa hai. apne samay mein spaarta yathesht prashansa ka vishay tha, yahaan tak ki apne pratidvandi, Athens mein bhi. praacheen kaal mein, kai kuleen sanmbhraant evam sabse achhe etheniyans spaartan raajya ko hamesha ek aadarsh siddhaant ki parampara ki vaastvaayit pratimoorti maanate the." kai yoonaani daarshanikon ne visheshakar pletovaadiyon ne, spaarta ki aksar ek aadarsh raajya, sashakt saahasi, evam vaanijya aur vitt ke bhrashtaachaar se mukt kehkar prashansa ki hai.

Europe ke punarjaagaran ke samay klaasiki shiksha ke pun: pravartan ke saath, laikonofiliya pun: prakat ho jaata hai, udaaharan ke liye maikiyaaveli ke lekhan mein yeh spasht parilkshit hai. elijaabethan english sanvidhaani John aayalmer ne tyudar kaaleen inglaind ki tulana spaartan ganaraajya se yeh uddhrut karte hue ki hai ki, "laisidemoniya [arthaat spaarta], [tha] sabse sanbhraant aur sarvakaaleen sarvottam shaasit shahar tha". usane inglaind ke liye ise ek model (aadarsh-pratiroop) kehkar saraahana ki hai. Swiss-French daarshanik jyaan-jaiks rooson ne apni kala aur vigyaan par samvaad prastut karte hue Athens ke paksh mein spaarta ke saath vaishamya ki tulana yeh tark pesh karte hue ki hai ki, iska aadambaraheen kathor samvidhaan etheniyn jeevan ke adhik sunsaskrut svabhaav ke liye shreyaskar tha. kraantikaari aur nepoliyni France ke dvaara spaarta ka upayog saamaajik svachhata ke model ke roop mein bhi kiya gaya tha.

kaarl otafraaid moolar (Karl Otfried Müaller) ke dvaara jisne spaartan aadarshon ko yoonaaniyo ke up-jaateeya samooh spaartiyon ka bhi jisse sarokaar tha, doriyns ki nasli shreshthata ke saath jodkar laikonofileeya mein ek naya tatv jod diya gaya. edaulf hitlar ne spaartan ki prashansa ki hai, varsh 1928 mein yeh sifaarish karte hue ki Germany ko "jeene ki anumati ki sankhya" ko seemit kar unki nakal karni chaahiye. unhonne kaha ki "kisi samay spaartans aise buddhi se bhare upaaya mein saksham the. 6000 spaartans ke antargat 350,000 helots ki adheenata ekamaatr nasleeya shreshthata ke kaaran hi sambhav tha." spaartans ne hi "sarvapratham jaativaadi raajya ki sthaapana ki".

aadhunik samay mein, "spaartan" (spaarti) visheshan ka prayog saadagi, mitvyayita athva vilaasita evam aaraam se parahej ke arth mein kiya jaata hai. sankshipt vaakyaansh laikonik bolachaal ke shuddh evam sankshipt tareeke ko jo spaartiyon ka vishesh gun tha, ka varnan karta hai.

spaarta aadhunik lokapriya sanskruti ko bhi pramukhata se prastut karta hai (dekhein lokapriya sanskruti mein, spaarta), vishesh roop se tharmopaailein ka yuddh (dekhein, lokapriya sanskruti mein tharmopaailein ka yuddh).

puraatatv

mount taayagets ke saath prushthabhoomi mein praacheen spaarta ke theatre.
praacheen avashesh ki site se.

thusaaidaaids ne likha hai:

maan leejiye ki spaarta shahar veeraan ho gaya, jameen ka khaaka (yojana ki rooparekha) aur dharm-sthalon ke alaava kuchh bhi avashisht naheen rah gaya, aise mein aanevaale sudooravarti yug ke log yeh vishvaas karne mein sarvatha anichhuk raheinge ki laisidemoneeyans ki kshamata unki khyaati ke saath sampoorn roop se samaan thi. unka shahar kramik roop se lagaataar naheen nirbhit hota raha aur unke paas bhavya mandir athva anya imaaratein bhi naheen thi; ulta yeh gaanvon ka ek samooh-jaisa dekhne mein prateet hota tha, helaas ke praacheen shaharon ki tarah aur iseeliye ek kamjor maamooli pradarshan bhi pesh karta hai.

beesaveen shataabdi tak, spaarta ke praacheen praasaad theatre the, haalaanki, jiska thoda sa hissa baaki bachi hui deevaaron ke kuchh ansh ke alaave dikhaai deta tha; tatha-kathit leyonidaas ka makabara (Tomb of Leonidas), ek chaukor bhavan, shaayad ek mandir, patthar ke blauks (khand) se nirmit, evam do kakshon vaale yurotaas nadi par nirmit praacheen pul ki neevan vruttaakaar sanrachana ke nasht avashesh; antim roman kilebandi ke khandahar, int ke kuchh makaan tatha mojek futapaath.

avashisht puraataatvik sanpada mein shilaalekh, prastar ki moortiyaan tatha anya saamaan jo sthaaneeya sangrahaalaya mein sangruhit hain, jiski sthaapana varsh 1872 staametaakis (Stamatakis) ke dvaara ki gayi (aur varsh 1907 mein jise viksit kiya gaya). golaakaar bhavan ki aanshik khudaai ka bhaar varsh 1892 aur 1893 mein Athens ke American school dvaara liya gaya. choonki dhaanche ki sanrachana helenik mool ki ardhavruttaakaar bachi hui deevaarein theen jiska roman saamraajya kaal mein punaruddhaar kiya gaya.

varsh 1904 mein, Athens mein sthit british school ne laikoniya ka aadyopaant anveshan aarambh kiya aur aane vaale varsh mein thelaami, geronthre tatha monemavaasiya ke nikat enjelona mein khudaaiyaan ki gayi. varsh 1906 mein, spaarta mein khudaaiyaan shuroo ki gayi.

leek (Leake) ke dvaara varnit ek chhote se sarkas se yeh pramaanit hota hai ki theatre jaisi hi imaarat vedi ke chaturdik aur aartemis orthiya (Artemis Orthia) ke mandir ke saamane isaveen san 200 ke sheegra baad nirmit hui. yahaan sangeet aur jimnaastik ki pratiyogitaaen aayojit hone ke saath hi saath prasiddh shaareerik prataadna ki kathor pareeksha (diamastigosis) se hokar gujarana padta tha. mandir, jiska nirmaan-kaal doosari sadi isaapoorv ke aaspaas maana ja sakta hai, vah chhathi sadi ke ek praacheen mandir ki aadhaar shila par khada hai aur iske kareeb hi bagal mein aur bhi ek praacheen mandir ke avashesh milein hain, jo 9veen athva 10veen sadi ke samay ke maane ja sakte hain. mitti ke bartanon mein mannat ke chadhaave, kaharuba (ambar), kaansa, haathi ke daant, evam seesa seemit kshetr ke antargat hi prachurata mein paae gaye hain, jinka kaal 9veen se 4veen shataabdiyaan isaapoorv maana gaya hai, jo aaranbhik spaartan kala ke amoolya saakshya ki aapoorti karte hain.

varsh 1907 mein, "braajen house ke" ethena ka abhayaaranya (Chalkioikos) ko theatre ke theek oopar bane ekropaulish par avasthit paaya gaya aur yadyapi vaastavik mandir sampoorn roop se vinsht ho chuka hai, is kshetr ne laikoniya ke puraakaaleen shilaalekhon ke deerghatam prasaar prastut kiye hain jismein kaanse ki keele evam tashtariyaan tatha kaafi sankhya mein mannat ke chadhaave paae gaye hain. yoonaani nagar ki deevaar, jiska nirmaan 4thi se 2ri sadi ke beech kramash: kai charanon mein hua tha, apne sarkit ke ek bade bhaag ke kaaran khoj mein paaya gaya, jiska maapaankan 48 steds ya 10 kilometer kiya gaya. (Polyb. 1X. 21). antim kaaleen roman deevaar, laghunagar ke chaturdik bana, jo sanbhavat: varsh 262 ke gauthik aakraman ke baad ke varshon ke samay mein nirmit hui hogi, ki bhi khoj ki gayi. vaastavik bhavanon ki khoj ke alaave, paavaseniya (Pausanias) ke vivran ke aadhaar par, spaartan sthalaakruti vigyaan ke saadhaaran adhyayan mein kai vindu avasthit hain jinka maanachitran kiya gaya. khudaaiyon se yeh pata chala ki maaiseniyn kala ka shahar yurotaas nadi ke baaen tat par spaarta se thode dakshin-poorv mein avasthit tha. bhoomi ki vyavastha mote taur par aakaar mein trikoneeya thi, jiska oopari hissa uttar ki or nikla hua tha. iska kshetrafal anumaanat: "nae" spaarta ke kshetrafal ke saamane tha lekin anaachhaadaan ne iske bhavanon par tabaahi barapa kar di hai aur neenvon ke avashesh tatha toote-foote bartanon ke tukadon ke alaave kuchh bhi naheen bache.

prasiddh praacheen sapaartans

  • egis I—aaraaja
  • egis II—aaraaja
  • egesilaus II—aaraaja
  • kleomeins I—aaraaja
  • lionadaas I (si. 520-480 E.poo.)—araaja, baital of tharmople par apne kaaryon ke liye prasiddh
  • kleyomenes III—aaraaja aur sudhaarak
  • lysaindar (5th-4th shataabdi E.poo.)—asaamaanya
  • lykaargas (10veen shataabdi isa poorv)—ashaasrakaar
  • chionis (7veen shataabdi E.poo.)—aethaleet
  • syniska (4th shataabdi E.poo.)—araajakumaari aur khilaadi
  • chilauna—aadaarshanik
  • gorgo-raani aur raajaneetijnya
  • helena—aatrojan ke yuddh, spaarta ki raani
  • menelausa—aatrojan yuddh ke dauraan spaarta ke raaja

inhein bhi dekhein

  • spaarta ke raajaaon ki soochi
  • lokapriya sanskruti mein spaarta
  • spaarti (nagar paalika)

nots

  1. Apud Athenaeus, 14, 647d = FGH 106 F 2. Trans. by Cartledge, p.305.

sandarbh

is lekh ki saamagri sammilit hui hai britainika vishvakosh ekaadashavein sanskaran se, ek prakaashan, jo ki jan saamaanya hetu pradarshit hai..

baahari links