soyaabeen

soyaabeen ki paki hui fali
soyaabeen se nirmit baayodeejal

soyaabeen ek fasal hai. yeh dalahan ke bajaay tilhan ki fasal maani jaati hai.

soyaabeen maanav poshan evam svaasthya ke liye ek bahuupayogi khaadya padaarth hai. soyaabeen ek mahatvapoorn khaadya strot hai. iske mukhya ghatak proteen, kaarbohaaideint aur vasa hote hai. soyaabeen mein 33 pratishat proteen, 22 pratishat vasa, 21 pratishat kaarbohaaideint, 12 pratishat nami tatha 5 pratishat bhasm hoti hai.

soyaaproteen ke emeegemino aml ki sanrachana pashu proteen ke samakaksh hoti hain. at: manushya ke poshan ke liye soyaabeen uchch gunavatta yukt proteen ka ek achha strot hain. kaarbohaaideint ke roop mein aahaar resha, sharkara, raifeenos evam staakiyoj hota hai jo ki pet mein paae jaane vaale sookshmajeevon ke liye laabhaprad hota hain. soyaabeen tel mein linolik aml evam linaalenik aml prachur maatra mein hote hain. ye aml shareer ke liye aavashyak vasa aml hote hain. iske alaava soyaabeen mein aaisoflaavon, lesithin aur faaitosteraul roop mein kuchh anya svaasthavardhak upayogi ghatak hote hain.

soyaabeen na keval proteen ka ek utkrusht straut hai balki kai shaareerik kriyaaon ko bhi prabhaavit karta hai. vibhinn shodhakartaaon dvaara soya proteen ka plaajma lipid evam kolesteraul ki maatra par padne vaale prabhaav ka adhyayan kiya gaya hai aur yeh paaya gaya hai ki soya proteen maanav rakt mein kolesteraul ki maatra kam karne mein sahaayak hota hai. nirdisht svaasthya upayog ke liye soya proteen sanbhavat: pehla soyaabeen ghatak hai.

soyaabeen ghatakon ke nirdisht svaasthya kaarya
ghatak nirdisht svaasthya kaarya
proteen kolestraal ko kam karna, motaapa kam karna, umr badhne se rokana, Cancer rodhi
proteen haaidonlaaijet shoshak, motaapa kam karna, uchch rakt chaap se bachaav
lektin pratirksha kriya
tinpsin inheebitr Cancer rodhi
aahaar faaibar vasa ko kam karna, pet Cancer rodhi
oligo-saikaraaid aanton mein paae jaane vaale bifeedo baikteeriya ke liye laabhadaayak
linolik esid aavashyak faiti esid, kolestraal ko kam karna
linolenik esid koronari hrudaya rog ke jokhim ko kam karne mein sahaayak, elarji rodhak
lesithin vasa ko kam karna, smruti mein sahaayak
sterol vasa ko kam karna
tokoferol koronari hrudaya rog ke jokhim ko kam karne mein sahaayak, enteeokseedeint gun
vitaamin ke thakka rodhi, ostiyoporosis ki rokathaam, Cancer rodhi
vitaamin bi bereeberi rog rodhi
faaitet Cancer rodhi
saiponin vasa ko kam karna, enteeokseedeint gun
aaisoflaavaun ostiyoporosis ki rokathaam, Cancer rodhi

anukram

soyaabeen ki kheti

bhoomi ka chunaav evam taiyaari

soyaabeen ki kheti adhik hal‍aakeereteeli va hal‍aki bhoomi ko chhodkar sabhi prakaar ki bhoomi mein safalataapoorvak ki ja sakti hai paran‍aatu paani ke nikaas waali chikni domat bhoomi soyaabeen ke liye adhik upayuk‍aat hoti hai. jahaan bhi khet mein paani rookata ho vahaan soyaabeen na lein.

greesh‍aam kaaleen jutaai 3 varsh mein kam se kam ek baar avash‍aaya karni chaahiye. varsha praaram‍aabh hone par 2 ya 3 baar bakhar tatha paata chalaakar khet ko taiyaar kar lena chaahiye. isse haani pahaichaane vaale keeton ki sabhi avas‍aathaaen nash‍aat hogeen. dhela rahit aur bhoorabhuri mitti vaale khet soyaabeen ke liye ut‍aatam hote hote hain. khet mein paani bharne se soyaabeen ki fasal par pri‍atakool prabhaav padta hai at: adhidhk ut‍aapaadan ke lile khet mein jal nikaas ki v‍aayavas‍aatha karna aavash‍aayak hota hai. jahaan tak sambhav ho aakhri bakharani evam paata samay se karein jisse ankurit kharapatavaar nash‍aat ho sake. yatha sambhav meind aur kood rij evam faro banaakar soyaabeen boen.

beej dar

soyaabeen ki fasal
  • chhote daane waali kis‍aamein – 70 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar
  • madh‍aayam don waali kis‍aamein – 80 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar
  • bade daane waali kis‍aamein – 100 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar

bone ka samay

June ke antim sap‍aataah mein July ke pratham sap‍aataah tak ka samay sabse upayuk‍aat hai bone ke samay ach‍aachhe ankuran hetu bhoomi mein 10 semi gaharaai tak upayuk‍aat nami hona chaahiye. July ke pratham sap‍aataah ke pash‍aachaat boni ki beej dar 5- 10 pratishat badha deni chaahiye.

paudh sankh‍aaya

4 – 5 lakh paudhe prati hek‍aatar '' 40 se 60 prati varg meter '' paudh sankh‍aaya upayuk‍aat hai. J.S. 75 – 46 J. S. 93 – 05 kis‍aamon mein paudhon ki sankh‍aaya 6 lakh prati hek‍aateyar upayuk‍aat hai. aseemit badhne waali kis‍aamon ke liye 4 lakh evam seemit vruddhi waali kis‍aamon ke liye 6 lakh paudhe prati hek‍aateyar hona chaahiye.

bone ki vidhi

soyaabeen ki boni kataaron mein karna chaahiye. kataaron ki doori 30 semi. '' boni kis‍aamon ke liye '' tatha 45 semi. badi kis‍aamon ke liye upayuk‍aat hai. 20 kataaron ke baad kood jal nithaar tatha nami sanrakshan ke liye khaali chhod dena chaahiye. beej 2.5 se 3 semi. gaharaai ta‍aak boyein. beej evam khaad ko alag alag bona chaahiye jisse ankuran kshamata prabhaavit na ho.

beejopachaar

soyaabeen ke ankuran ko beej tatha mruda janit rog prabhaavit karte hai. iski rokathaam hetu beej ko theeram ya kep‍aataan 2 gram kaarben‍aadaajim ya thaayofenet mitheeil 1 gram mishran prati kilo gram beej ki dar se upachaarit karna chaahiye athva traaikodarama 4 gram evam kaarben‍aadaajim 2 gram prati kilo gram beej se upachaarit karke boyein.

kal‍aachar ka upayog

fafooaindanaashak davaaon se beejopachaar ke pash‍aachaat beej ko 5 gram raaijobiym evam 5 gram pi.S.bi.kal‍aachar prati kilo gram beej ki dar se upachaarit karein. upachaarit beej ko chhaaya mein rakhana chaahiye evam sheegra boni karna chaahiye. dh‍aayaan rahein ki fafooaindanaashak dava evam kal‍aachar ko ek saath na milaaain.

samanvit poshan prabandhan

ach‍aachhi sadi hui gobar ki khaad (kam‍aapos‍aat) 5 tan prati hek‍aatar antim bakharani ke samay khet mein ach‍aachhi tarah mila devein tatha bote samay 20 kilo natrajan 60 kilo s‍aafur 20 kilo potaash evam 20 kilo gandhak prati hek‍aatar devein. yeh maatra mitti pareekshan ke aadhar par ghataai badhaai ja sakti hai tatha sambhav naadep, faas‍aafo kam‍aapos‍aat ke upayog ko praathamikta dein. raasaayanik urvarakon ko koodon mein lagbhag 5 se 6 se.mi. ki gaharaai par daalna chaahiye. gahari kaali mitti mein jink sal‍aafet 50 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar evam uthali mitityon mein 25 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar ki dar se 5 se 6 fasalein lene ke baad upayog karna chaahiye.

kharapatavaar prabandhan

fasal ke praarambhik 30 se 40 dinon tak kharapatavaar niyantran bahut aavash‍aayak hota hai. batar aane par dora ya kul‍aafa chalaakar kharapatavaar niyantran karein va doosari nindaai ankuran hone ke 30 aur 45 din baad karein. 15 se 20 din ki khadi fasal mein ghaans kul ke kharapatavaaro ko nash‍aat karne ke liye k‍aayoojelefop ithaail ek liter prati hek‍aatar athva ghaans kul aur kuchh chaudi pat‍aati vaale kharapatavaaron ke liye imejethaafaayar 750 mili. li. liter prati hek‍aatar ki dar se chhidkaav ki anushansa hai. neendaanaashak ke prayog mein bone ke poorv faluk‍aaloreleen 2 liter prati hek‍aatar aakhri bakharani ke poorv kheton mein chhidke aur ava ko pen‍aadeemethaleen 3 liter prati hek‍aatar ya metolaak‍aalor 2 liter prati hek‍aatar ki dar se 600 liter paani mein gholakar falaitafen ya faletajet nojal ki sahaayakata se poore khet mein chhidkaav karein. taral kharapatavaar naashiyon ke mitti mein paryaap‍aat paani va bhurabhuraapan hona chaahiye.

sinchaai

khareef mausam ki fasal hone ke kaaran saamaan‍aayat: soyaabeen ko sinchaai ki aavash‍aayakata nahi hoti hai. faliyon mein daana bharate samay arthaat September maah mein yadi khet mein nami paryaap‍aat na ho to aavash‍aayakataanusaar ek ya do hal‍aki sinchaai karna soyaabeen ke vipul ut‍aapaadan lene hetu laabhadaayak hai.

paudh sanrakshan

keet

soyaabeen ki fasal par beej evam chhote paudhe ko nuksaan pahunchaane wala neelaabhrung (b‍aaloobeetal) pat‍aate khaane waali illiyaan, tane ko nuksaan pahunchaane waali tane ki mak‍aakhi evam chakrabhrung (gardal beetal) aadi ka prakop hota hai evam keeton ke aakraman se 5 se 50 pratishat tak paidaavaar mein kami aa jaati hai. in keeton ke niyantran ke upaaya nim‍aanalikhit hai:

krushigt niyantran

khet ki greesh‍aamakaaleen gahari jutaai karein. monsoon ki varsha ke poorv boni naheen kare. monsoon aagaman ke pash‍aachaat boni sheeghrata se poori karein. khet neenda rahit rakhein. soyaabeen ke saath j‍aavaar athva mak‍aaka ki antaravarteeya kheti karein. kheton ko fasal avasheshon se muk‍aat rakhein tatha medhon ki safaai rakhein.

raasaayanik niyantran

buaai ke samay thayomithok‍aajaam 70 dab‍aaloo S. 3 gram dava prati kilo gram beej ki dar se upachaarit karne se praarambhik keeton ka niyantran hota hai athva ankuran ke praaram‍aabh hote hi neela bhrung keet niyantran ke liye k‍aayoonaalafaus 1.5 pratishat ya mithaail peraathiyaan (faaleedaal 2 pratishat ya dhaanudaal 2 pratishat) 25 kilo gram prati hek‍aatar ki dar se bhurakaav karna chaahiye. kai prakaar ki illiyaan pat‍aati chhoti faliyon aur falon ko khaakar nash‍aat kar deti hai in keeton ke niyantran ke liye ghulanasheel davaaon ki nim‍aanalikhit maatra 700 se 800 liter paani mein gholakar chhidkaav karna chaahiye. hari il‍aali ki ek prajaati jiska sir patala evam pichhla bhaag chauda hota hai soyaabeen ke foolon aur faliyon ko kha jaati hai jisse paudhe fali viheen ho jaate hain. fasal baanjh hone jaisi lagti hai. chooki fasal par tana mak‍aakhi, chakrabhrung, maaho hari il‍aali lagbhag ek saath aakraman karte hain at: pratham chhidkaav 25 se 30 din par evam doosra chhidkaav 40-45 din ki fasal par aavash‍aayak karna chaahiye.

jaivik niyantran

keeton ke aarambhik avas‍aatha mein jaivik kat niyantran hetu bi.ti evam b‍aayoovereeya baisiyaana aadharit jaivik keetanaashak 1 kilogram ya 1 liter prati hek‍aatar ki dar se buvaai ke 35-40 din tatha 50-55 din baad chhidkaav karein. N.pi.vi. ka 250 L.E samatul‍aaya ka 500 liter paani mein gholakar banaakar prati hek‍aateyar chhidkaav karein. raasaayanik keetanaashakon ki jagah jaivik keetanaashakon ko adala badli kar daalna laabhadaayak hota hai.

1. gardal beetal prabhaavit kshetr mein J.S. 335, J.S. 80 – 21, J.S 90 – 41, lagaavein

1.2. nindaai ke samay prabhaavit tahaniyaan todkar nash‍aat kar dein

1.3. kataai ke pash‍aachaat bandalon ko seedhe gaharaai s‍aathal par le jaavein

1.4. tane ki mak‍aakhi ke prakop ke samay chhidkaav sheegra karein

rog

1 . fasal bone ke baad se hi fasal nigraani karein. yadi sambhav ho to laait trep tatha feromen tayoob ka upayog karein.

2 . beejopachaar aavash‍aayak hai. iske baad rog niyantran ke liye fafooaind ke aakraman se beej sadn rokane hetu kaarben‍aadaajim 1 gram + 2 gram theeram ke mishran se prati kilo gram beej upachaarit karna chaahiye. theeram ke s‍aathaan par kep‍aataan evam kaarben‍aadaajim ke s‍aathaan par thaayofenet mithaail ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai.

3 . pat‍aaton par kai tarah ke dhab‍aabe vaale fafoond janit rogon ko niyantrit karne ke liye kaarben‍aadaajim 50 dabaloo pi ya thaayofenet mithaail 70 dab‍aaloo pi 0.05 se 0.1 pratishat se 1 gram dava prati liter paani ka chhidkaav karna chaahiye. pehla chhidkaav 30 -35 din ki avas‍aatha par tatha doosra chhidkaav 40 – 45 din ki avas‍aatha par karna chaahiye.

4 . baik‍aateeriyl pash‍aachayool naamak rog ko niyantrit karne ke liye s‍aatrep‍aatosaaik‍aaleen ya kaasoogaamaaisin ki 200 pi.pi.M. 200 mi.gra; dava prati liter paani ke ghol aur kaapar aak‍aaseek‍aaloraaid 0.2 (2 gram prati liter) paani ke ghol ke mishran ka chhidkaav karna chaahiye. iraake liye 10 liter paani mein 1 gram s‍aatrep‍aatosaaik‍aaleen evam 20 gram kaapar ak‍aaseek‍aaloraaid dava ka ghol banaakar upayog kar sakte hain.

5 . gerooaa prabhaavit kshetron (jaise baitool, chhindavaada, sivni) mein gerooaa ke liye sahanasheel jaatiyaan lagaayein tatha rog ke praarambhik lakshan dikhte hi 1 mi.li. prati liter ki dar se hek‍aasaakonaajol 5 E.si. ya propikonaajol 25 E.si. ya aak‍aaseekaarbojim 10 gram prati liter ki dar se traayaedimeefaan 25 dab‍aaloo pi dava ke ghol ka chhidkaav karein.

6 . vishaanu janit peela mojek virus rog va vad v‍aalaait rog praaya: efrids safed mak‍aakhi, thrip‍aas aadi dvaara failate hain at: keval rog rahit s‍aavas‍aath beej ka upayog karna chaahiye. evam rog failaane vaale keedon ke liye thaayomethek‍aajon 70 dab‍aaloo ev. se 3 gram prati kilo gram ki dar se upachaarit kar evam 30 dinon ke antaraal par doharaate rahein. rogi paudhon ko khet se nikaal devein. ithofenapraak‍aas 10 E.si. 1.0 liter prati hek‍aatar thaayomithejem 25 dab‍aaloo ji, 1000 gram prati hek‍aatar.

7 . peela mojek prabhaavit kshetron mein rog ke liye graahi fasalon (moong, udd, barabati) ki keval pratirodhi jaatiyaan hi garmi ke mausam mein lagaayein tatha garmi ki fasalon mein safed mak‍aakhi ka niyamit niyantran karein.

8 . neem ki nim‍aaboli ka ark difoliyetars ke niyantran ke liye kaaragar saabit hua hai. fasal kataai evam gaharaai adhikaansh pattiyon ke sookh kar jhad jaane par aur 10 pratishat faliyon ke sookh kar bhoori ho jaane par fasal ki kataai kar lena chaahiye. Punjab 1 pakane ke 4 – 5 din baad, J.S. 335, J.S. 76 – 205 evam J.S. 72 – 44 J.S. 75 – 46 aadi sookhane ke lagbhag 10 din baad chatakane lagti hain. kataai ke baad gadadho ko 2 – 3 din tak sukhaana chaahiye jab kati fasal ach‍aachhi tarah sookh jaaye to gaharaai kar donon ko alag kar dena chaahiye. fasal gahaai thresar, trek‍aatar, belon tatha haath dvaara lakdi se peetakar karna chaahiye. jahaan tak sambhav ho beej ke liye gaharaai lakdi se peet kar karna chaahiye, jisse ankuran prabhaavit na ho.

an‍aatarvarteeya fasal paddhati

soyaabeen ke saath an‍aatarvarteeya fasalon ke roop mein nim‍aanaanusaar fasalon ki kheti avash‍aaya karein

1 . arahar + soyaabeen (2:4)

2 . j‍aavaar + soyaabeen (2:2)

3 . mak‍aaka + soyaabeen (2:2)

4 . til + soyaabeen (2:2)

arahar evam soyaabeen mein kataaron ki doori 30 se.mi. rakhein.

chitraavali

Description botanique

baahari kadiyaaain