soviyt sangh

Сaaоaaюaaз Сaaоaaвaaеaaтaaсaaкaaиaaх Сaaоaaцaaиaaаaaлaaиaaсaaтaaиaaчaaеaaсaaкaaиaaх Рaaеaaсaaпaaуaaбaaлaaиaaк
soyooj sovetskikh sotsiyaalisticheskikh respublik
soviyt samaajavaadi ganatantron ka sangh
roosi so.san.s.g.| Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg

paar-kaukas so.san.s.g.| Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg

yookreni so.s.g.| Flag of Ukrainian SSR (1929-1937).svg

belaaroosi so.s.g.| Flag of Byelorussian SSR (1919-1927).svg
1922 – 1991
ध्वज कुल चिन्ह
soviyt sangh ka dhvaj|dhvaj soviyt sangh ka|raajachihn
aadarsh vaakya
Пaaрaaоaaлaaеaaтaaаaaрaaиaaи вaaсaaеaaх сaaтaaрaaаaaн, сaaоaaеaaдaaиaaнaaяaaйaaтaaеaaсaaь!
proletaari vsekh straan, soedinyaaitesa​!
hindi: duniya ke majdooron, ek ho jaao!
raashtragaan
"intaranaasiyonaal"
(1922–1944) chitr:Internationale orchestral arrangement.ogg
"soviyt sangh ka raashtragaan"
(1944–1991)
Location of सोवियत संघ
dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad soviyt sangh
rajdhani mosko
bhaasha(eain) roosi, bahut si anya
dharm naastikta
sarkaar sangh,
maarksavaad-leninvaad, saamyavaad
mahaasachiv
- 1922–1952 josef staalin (pehla)
- 1991 vlaadimeer ivaashako (antim)
raashtraadhyaksh
- 1922–1938 mikhaail kaalinin (pehla)
- 1988–1991 mikhaail gorabaachof​ (antim)
sarkaari adhyaksh
- 1922–1924 vlaadimeer lenin (pehla)
- 1991 ivaan silaayev (antim)
vidhaayika sarvochch soviyt
- Upper house sangheeya soviyt
- Lower house raashtreeyataaon ka soviyt
aitihaasik yug pratham vishvayuddh ke ant se sheet yuddh
- sthaapana sandhi 30 December, 1922
- sangh ka khandan 26 December, 1991
kshetr
- 1991 2,24,02,200 km² (86,49,538 sq mi)
janasankhya
- 1991 est. 29,30,47,571
ghanatv 13.1 /ki.mee² (33.9 /varg meal)
mudra soviyt roobal (рaaуaaб) (SUR)
intaranet uchchatam domen .su2
doorabhaash code +7
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg roosi so.san.s.g.
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg paar-kaukas so.san.s.g.
Flag of Ukrainian SSR (1929-1937).svg yookreni so.s.g.
Flag of Byelorussian SSR (1919-1927).svg belaaroosi so.s.g.
roos Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg
jaurjiya Flag of Georgia (1990-2004).svg
Ukraine Flag of Ukraine.svg
moldova Flag of Moldova.svg
Belarus Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg
aarmeeniya Flag of Armenia.svg
ajrabaijaan Flag of Azerbaijan.svg
kaajaakhstaan Flag of the Kazakh SSR.svg
ujbekistaan Flag of Uzbekistan.svg
Turkmenistan Flag of the Turkmen SSR.svg
kirgijstaan Flag of Kyrgyz SSR.svg
taajikistaan Flag of Tajik SSR.svg
estoniya3 Flag of Estonia.svg
laataviya3 Flag of Latvia.svg
lithuaaniya3 Flag of Lithuania (1988-2004).svg
121 December 1991 mein gyaarah ganatantron ne alma-ata mein milkar ghoshit kiya ki svatantr raajyon ka raashtramandal banane se soviyt sangh ab astitv mein naheen raha. baarahavaaain ganatantr jaurjiya bhi prekshak ke roop mein maujood tha.

2Assigned on 19 September 1990, existing onwards.
3estoniya, laataviya aur lithuaaniya ki sarkaarein maanati hai ki ve kabhi soviyt sangh ka vaidh bhaag hi naheen the.
roos in teenon ko soviyt sangh ka vaidh ansh maanata hai aur in sarkaaron ke kathan ko avaidh maanata hai.
sanyukt raajya America aur bahut si anya pashchimi sarkaaron ne in teenon ka dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad soviyt sangh mein vilay kabhi naheen sveekaara, isliye unhein soviyt sangh ka vaidh ansh naheen maanate.

soviyt sangh (roosi bhaasha: Сaaоaaвaaеaáaaтaaсaaкaaиaaй Сaaоaaюaáaaз, sovetski soyooj; angreji: Soviet Union), jiska aupachaarik naam soviyt samaajavaadi ganatantron ka sangh (Сaaоaaюaáaaз Сaaоaaвaaеaáaaтaaсaaкaaиaaх Сaaоaaцaaиaaаaaлaaиaaсaaтaaиaáaaчaaеaaсaaкaaиaaх Рaaеaaсaaпaaуaáaaбaaлaaиaaк, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) tha, yooreshiya ke bade bhoobhaag par vistrut ek desh tha jo 1922 se 1991 tak astitv mein raha. yeh apni sthaapana se 1990 tak saamyavaadi party (komyunist party) dvaara shaasit raha. samvaidhaanik roop se soviyt sangh 15 svashaasit ganatantron ka sangh tha lekin vaastav mein poore desh ke prashaasan aur arthavyavastha par kendreeya sarkaar ka kada niyantran raha. roosi soviyt sangheeya samaajavaadi ganatantr ( Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) is desh ka sabse bada ganatantr aur raajanaitik, saanskrutik aur aarthik kendra tha, isliye poore desh ka gahra rooseekaran hua. yahi kaaran raha ki videsh mein bhi soviyt sangh ko aksar glati se 'roos' bula diya jaata tha.

anukram

itihaas

sthaapana

soviyt sangh ki sthaapana ki prakriya 1917 ki roosi kraanti ke saath shuroo hui jismein roosi saamraajya ke jaar (samraat) ko satta se hata diya gaya. vlaadimeer lenin ke netrutv mein bolshevik party ne satta par kbja kar liya lekin fauran hi vah bolshevik-virodhi shvet morche (White movement) ke saath gruh yuddh mein fains gayi. bolshevikon ki laal sena ne gruh yuddh ke dauraan aise bhi kai raajyon par kbja kar liya jinhonein tsaar ke patan ka faayda uthaakar roos se svatantrata ghoshit kar di thi. December 1922 mein bolshevikon ki poorn jeet hui aur unhonne roos, Ukraine, Belarus aur kaukas kshetr ko milkar soviyt sangh ki sthaapana ka ailaan kar diya.[1]

staalin aur dviteeya vishvayuddh

1924 mein lenin ki mrutyu hui aur josef staalin satta mein aaya. usane soviyt sangh mein zabardast audyogeekaran karavaaya aur keindreeya aarthik vyavastha banaai. krushi aur anya vyavasaayon ka saamoohikeekaran kiya gaya, yaani khet kisaanon ki niji sampatti na hokar raashtra ki sampatti ho gaye aur unapar kisaanon ke gut sarkaari nirdeshon par kaam karne lage. isi keindreekrut arthavyavastha ko dviteeya vishvayuddh mein jang ladne ke liye prayog kiya gaya jis se soviyt sangh ki jeet hui. staalin ne apne shaasanakaal mein saamyavaadi party ke bahut se sadasyon aur netaaon ko alag karke maravaaya aur soviyt sangh ke kai samudaayon par bhi atyaachaar kiya.

dviteeya vishvayuddh mein shuroo mein to Germany aur soviyt sangh mein ek sandhi thi jiske antargat unhonne Poland ko aapas mein baaaint liya tha aur kraisi ilaaka soviyt sangh ko mil gaya. lekin 1941 mein Germany ne palat kar soviyt sangh par hamla kar diya. is se soviyt sangh mitrapaksh shaktiyon (ailaaid shaktiyon) ke gut mein sanyukt raajya America aur Britain ka saath ho gaya aur Germany ke viruddh lada. Germany-soviyt yuddh bahut hi bhayankar tha aur ismein 2.7 karod soviyt logon ki mrutyu hui. lekin ant mein soviyt sangh vijayi hua aur poorvi Europe ke bahut se desh (jaise ki Poland, Hungary, chekoslovekiya, romaaniya, bulgaariya aur poorvi Germany) par usaka niyantran ho gaya.

sheet yuddh

poorvi Europe mein apne niyantran ke adheen deshon ke saath soviyt sangh ne ek saamyavaadi sainya mitrapaksh banaaya, jise vaarasau sandhi gut (Warsaw Pact) ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iske vipaksh America ke netrutv mein pashchimi deshon ka gut tha. donon vipkshiyon ke beech sheet yuddh jaari raha jismein donon mein seedhi ladaai to kabhi naheen hui, lekin donon parmaanu hathiyaaron aur misaailon se lais hamesha vidhvansakaari parmaanu yuddh chhid jaane ki sambhaavana ke saaye mein rahe.

staalin ki mrutyu ke baad vibhinn saamyavaadi netaaon mein sarvochch neta banane ki kheenchaataani hui aur nikita khrushcheva​ satta mein aaye. unhonne staalin ki sabse sakhta​ taanaashaahi neetiyon ko palat diya. soviyt sangh antariksh anusandhaan mein sabse aage nikal gaya. 1957 mein usane vishv ka sabse pehla krutrim upagrah sputanik pruthvi ke ird-gird kaksha mein pahuainchaaya. 1961 mein soviyt vaayu-sainik yoori gagaarin pruthvi se oopar antariksh mein pahuainchane wala sabse pehla maanav bana. 1962 mein kyoobaai misaail sankat mein America aur soviyt sangh ke beech bahut gambhir tanaav bana aur ve parmaanu pralaya ki dahaleej par pahuainch gaye, lekin kisi tarah yeh sankat tal gaya. 1970 ke dashak mein soviyt-ameriki sambandhon mein tanaav kam hua lekin 1979 mein jab soviyt sangh ne afgaanistaan mein hastakshep karte hue vahaaain apni fauj bheji to sambandh bahut bigad gaye.

soviyt sangh ka ant

afgaanistaan mein soviyt niyantran ke khilaaf upadrav aur gruh yuddh lagaataar jaari rahe aur aakhirkar 1989 mein soviyt faujein vahaaain se bina apna dhyeya poora kiye laut I. desh mein aarthik kathinaaiyaaain bani raheen aur videshi sanbadhon mein bhi pecheedagiyaaain raheen. antim soviyt neta mikhaail gorabaachof​ ne desh mein glaasnost (glasnost) naamak raajanaitik khulepan ki nai neeti aur perestroika (perestroika) naamak aarthik dhaaainche ko badalne ki neeti ke antargat sudhaar karne ki koshish ki lekin vifal rahe. December 1991 mein unki vichaaradhaara ke viruddh raajyaviplav (coup d'éaatat) ki koshish hui lekin vah kuchali gayi. is ghatna ke baad soviyt sangh toot gaya aur uske 15 ganatantr sabhi svatantr deshon ke roop mein ubhare. antarraashtreeya sandhiyon mein roos ko soviyt sangh ke vaaris desh ki maanyata di gayi.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. World and Its Peoples: Europe, pp. 1362, Marshall Cavendish, 2009, ISBN 978-0-7614-7900-0, ... Resistance grew into civil war in which several different movements participated, but the Red Army and the anti-Soviet voluntary White Army were the main combatants ... The declaration of the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, or Soviet Union) was signed on December 30, 1922 ...