sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala'

sooryakaant tripaathi
chitr:Nirala.jpg
sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala'
upanaam: 'niraala'
janm: vasant panchami, 1896
medineepur, pashchim Bengal, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 15 October, 1961
Allahabad, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: kavi, lekhak
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: gadya tatha padya
vishay: geet, kavita, kahaani, upanyaas, nibandh
saahityik
aandolan
:
chhaayaavaad va
pragativaad
pramukh kruti(yaaain): Ram ki shakti pooja, saroj smruti
hastaakshar: Signaturenirala.jpg


sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' (11 February, 1896[1] - [[15 October], 1961) hindi kavita ke chhaayaavaadi yug ke chaar pramukh stambhon[k] mein se ek maane jaate hain. apne samakaaleen anya kaviyon se alag unhonne kavita mein kalpana ka sahaara bahut kam liya hai aur yathaarth ko pramukhata se chitrit kiya hai. ve hindi mein muktachhand ke pravartak bhi maane jaate hain. 1930mein prakaashit apne kaavya sangrah pariml ki bhoomika mein ve likhte hain- "manushyon ki mukti ki tarah kavita ki bhi mukti hoti hai. manushyon ki mukti karm ke bandhan se chhutakaara paana hai aur kavita ki mukti chhandon ke shaasan se alag ho jaana hai. jis tarah mukt manushya kabhi kisi tarah doosaron ke pratikool aacharan naheen karta, uske tamaam kaarya auron ko prasann karne ke liye hote hain fir bhi svatantr. isi tarah kavita ka bhi haal hai."[2]

anukram

jeevan parichay

hindi saahitya ke sarvaadhik charchit saahityakaaron me se ek sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' ka janm Bengal ki riyaasat mahishaadal (jila medineepur) mein maagh shukl 11 samvat 1953[3] tadanusaar 11 fravari san 1896 mein hua tha. unki kahaani sangrah lili mein unki janmatithi 21 fravari 1899 ankit ki gayi hai.[4] vasant panchami par unka janmadin manaane ki parampara 1930 mein praarambh hui.[5] unka janm ravivaar ko hua tha isliye surjakumaar kahalaae. unke pita panndit raamasahaaya tivaari unnaav (baisavaada) ke rahane vaale the aur mahishaadal mein sipaahi ki naukri karte the. ve mool roop se uttar pradesh ke unnaav jile ka gadhkola naamak gaaainv ke nivaasi the.

niraala ki shiksha haai school tak hui. baad mein hindi sanskrut aur baangla ka svatantr adhyayan kiya. pita ki chhoti-si naukri ki asuvidhaaon aur maan-apamaan ka parichay niraala ko aarambh mein hi praapt hua. unhonne dalit-shoshit kisaan ke saath hamadardi ka sanskaar apne abodh man se hi arjit kiya. teen varsh ki avastha mein maata ka aur bees varsh ka hote-hote pita ka dehaant ho gaya. apne bachchon ke alaava sanyukt parivaar ka bhi bojh niraala par pada. pehle mahaayuddh ke baad jo mahaamaari faili usamein na sirf patni manohara devi ka, balki chaacha, bhaai aur bhaabhi ka bhi dehaant ho gaya. shesh kunabe ka bojh uthaane mein mahishaadal ki naukri aparyaapt thi. iske baad ka unka saara jeevan aarthik-sangharsh mein beeta. niraala ke jeevan ki sabse vishesh baat yeh hai ki kathin se kathin paristhitiyon mein bhi unhonne siddhaant tyaagakar samjhaute ka raasta naheen apnaaya, sangharsh ka saahas naheen ganvaaya. jeevan ka uttaraarddh Allahabad mein beeta. vaheen daaraaganj muhalle mein sthit raayasaahab ki vishaal kothi ke theek peechhe bane ek kamre mein 15 October 1961 ko unhonne apni ihaleela samaapt ki.

kaaryakshetr

sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' ki pehli niyukti mahishaadal raajya mein hi hui. unhonne 1918 se 1922 tak yeh naukri ki. uske baad sanpaadan, svatantr lekhan aur anuvaad kaarya ki or pravrutt hue. 1922 se 1923 ke dauraan Kolkata se prakaashit samanvaya ka sanpaadan kiya, 1923 ke August se matavaala ke sampaadak mandal mein kaarya kiya. iske baad Lucknow mein ganga pustak maala kaaryaalaya mein unki niyukti hui jahaaain ve sanstha ki maasik patrika sudha se 1935 ke madhya tak sambaddh rahe. 1935 se 1940 tak ka kuchh samay unhonne Lucknow mein bhi bitaaya. iske baad 1942 se mrutyu paryant Allahabad mein rah kar svatantr lekhan aur anuvaad kaarya kiya. unki pehli kavita janmabhoomi prabha naamak maasik patra mein June 1920 mein, pehla kavita sangrah 1923 mein anaamika naam se, tatha pehla nibandh bang bhaasha ka uchchaaran October 1920 mein maasik patrika sarasvati mein prakaashit hua. ve jayashankar prasaad, sumitraanandan pant aur mahaadevi varma ke saath hindi saahitya mein chhaayaavaad ke pramukh stambh maane jaate hain. unhonne kahaaniyaaain upanyaas aur nibandh bhi likhe hain kintu unki khyaati vishesharup se kavita ke kaaran hi hai.

pramukh krutiyaaain

kaavyasangrah:-Juhi ki kali kavita ki rachana 1916 mein ki gayi. anaamika-1923, pariml1930, geetika1936, dviteeya anaamika1938anaamika ke doosare bhaag mein saroj samruti aur Ram ki shakti pooja jaise prasiddh kavitaaon ka sankalan hai. tulaseedaas1938, kukuramutta42, anima43, bela46, naye patte46, archana50, aaraadhana53, geet kunj54, saandhyakaakali, apara.

upanyaas:- apsara, alaka, prabhaavati1946, nirupama, kulli bhaat, billesur bakariha.

kahaani sangrah- lili, chaturi chamaar, sukul ki beevi-1941, sakhi, devi.

nibandh- raveendr kavita kaanan, prabandh padm, prabandh pratima, chaabuk, chayan, sangrah.

puraan katha- mahaabhaarat

anuvaad: - aanand math, vish vruksh, krushnakaant ka vaseeyatanaama, kapaalakundala, durgesh nandini, raaj Singh, raajaraani, devi chaudharaani, yugalaangulya, chandrashekhar, Rajni, shri raamakrushn vachanaamrut, bharat mein vivekaanand tatha raajayog ka baangla se hindi mein anuvaad

samaalochana

sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' ki kaavyakala ki sabse badi visheshata hai chitran-kaushal. aantarik bhaav ho ya baahya jagat ke drushya-roop, sangeetaatmak dhvaniyaan ho ya rang aur gandh, sajeev charitra hon ya praakrutik drushya, sabhi alag-alag laganevaale tattvon ko ghula-milaakar niraala aisa jeevant chitr upasthit karte hain ki padhne wala un chitron ke maadhyam se hi niraala ke marm tak pahuainch sakta hai. niraala ke chitron mein unka bhaavabodh hi naheen, unka chintan bhi samaahit rahata hai. isliye unki bahut-si kavitaaon mein daarshanik gaharaai utpann ho jaati hai. is nae chitran-kaushal aur daarshanik gaharaai ke kaaran aksar niraala ki kavitaaain kuchh jatil ho jaati hain, jise na samajhne ke naate vichaarak log un par duroohata aadi ka aarop lagaate hain. unke kisaan-bodh ne hi unhein chhaayaavaad ki bhoomi se aage badhkar yathaarthavaad ki nai bhoomi nirmit karne ki prerana di. vishesh sthitiyon, charitron aur drushyon ko dekhte hue unke marm ko pehchaanana aur un vishisht vastuon ko hi chitran ka vishay banaana, niraala ke yathaarthavaad ki ek ullekhaneeya visheshata hai. niraala par adhyaatmavaad aur rahasyavaad jaisi jeevan-vimukh pravruttiyon ka bhi asar hai. is asar ke chalte ve bahut baar chamatkaaron se vijay praapt karne aur sangharshon ka ant karne ka sapana dekhte hain. niraala ki shakti yeh hai ki ve chamatkaar ke bharose akarmanya naheen baith jaate aur sangharsh ki vaastavik chunauti se aaainkhein naheen churaate. kaheen-kaheen rahasyavaad ke fer mein niraala vaastavik jeevan-anubhavon ke vipreet chalte hain. har or prakaash faila hai, jeevan aalokamaya mahaasaagar mein doob gaya hai, ityaadi aisi hi baatein hain. lekin yeh rahasyavaad niraala ke bhaavabodh mein sthaayi naheen rahata, vah kshanabhangur hi saabit hota hai. anek baar niraala shabdon, dhvaniyon aadi ko lekar khilvaad karte hain. in khilvaadon ko kala ki sanjnyaa dena kathin kaam hai. lekin saamaanyat: ve in khilvaadon ke maadhyam se bade chamatkaarapoorn kalaatmak prayog karte hain. in prayogon ki visheshata yeh hai ki ve vishay ya bhaav ko adhik prabhaavashaali roop mein vyakt karne mein sahaayak hote hain. niraala ke prayogon mein ek vishesh prakaar ke saahas aur sajagata ke darshan hote hain. yeh saahas aur sajagata hi niraala ko apne yug ke kaviyon mein alag aur vishisht banaati hai.

sandarbh

  1. niraala, sooryakaant tripaathi (1978). lili. nai Delhi: Rajkamal prakaashan. pa॰ blarb.
  2. hindi saahitya kosh bhaag-2(naamavaachi shabdaavali)
  3. hindi saahitya kosh bhaag-2, naamavaachi shabdaavali
  4. niraala, sooryakaant tripaathi (1971). lili. nai Delhi: Rajkamal prakaashan.
  5. "niraala jayanti". rishabh. http://rishabha.wikispaces.com/Nirala+Jayanti+. abhigman tithi: 2008.

yeh bhi dekhein

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