soorya siddhaant

soorya siddhaant bhaarateeya khagolashaastr par likhi gayi teeka hai.

bhaarateeya ganitjnya aur khagolashaastriyon ne iska sandarbh bhi liya hai, jaise aaryabhatt aur vaaraahamihir, aadi.

vaaraahamihir ne apne panchasiddhaantika mein chaar anya teekaaon sahit iska ullekh kiya hai, jo hain:

  • paitaamaah siddhaant, (jo ki paramparaagat vedaang jyotish se adhik samaan hai),
  • paulish siddhaant
  • romak siddhaant (jo yoonaani khagolashaastr ke samaan hai) aur
  • vashishth siddhaant.

soorya siddhaant naamak varnit kaarya, kai baar dhaala gaya hai. iske praacheenatam ullekh bauddh kaal (teesari shataabdi, E.poo) ke milte hain. vah kaarya, sanrakshit karke aur sampaadit kiya hua (bargas dvaara 1858 mein) madhya kaal ko sanket karta hai. vaaraahamihir ka dasveen shataabdi ke ek teekaakaar, ne soorya siddhaant se chh: shlokon ka uddharan kiya hai, jinmein se ek bhi ab is siddhaant mein naheen milta hai. vartamaan soorya siddhaant ko tab vaaraahamihir ko upalabdh upalabdh paathya ka seedha vanshaj maana ja sakta hai.[1] is lekh mein bargas dvaara sampaadit kiya gaya sanskaran hi mil paayega. gupt kaal ke jo saakshya hain, unhein pathan karne hetu dekhein panch siddhaantika.

ismein ve niyam diye gaye hain, jinke dvaara brahmaandeeya pindon ki gati ko unki vaastavik sthiti sahit jaana ja sakta hai. yeh vibhinn taaron ki sthitiyaan, chaandreeya nakshatron ke sivaaya; ki sthiti ka bhi gyaan karaata hai. iske dvaara soorya grahan ka aakalan bhi kiya ja sakta hai.

anukram

khagolashaastr

is granth mein vishyon ki soochi nimn hai:

  1. grahon ki chaal
  2. grahon ki sthiti
  3. disha, sthaan aur samay
  4. chandrama aur grahan
  5. soorya aur grahan
  6. grahanon ka poorv anumaan/ aakalan
  7. graheeya sanyog
  8. taaron ke baare mein
  9. unka udaya aur ast
  10. chandrama ka udaya aur ast
  11. soorya aur chandrama ke ekai ahitkar paksh
  12. vishvotpatti/brahmaand sॄjan, bhoogol aur sॄjan ke aayaam
  13. soorya ghadi ka dand
  14. lokon ki gati aur maanaveeya kriya-kalaap

saur ghadi dvaara samay maapan ke shuddh tareeke adhyaaya 3 aur 13 mein varnit hain.

is granth mein varnit samay-chakr vilkshan roop se vishuddh the. ek anya poorv kaarya, se liye gaye hindu samay chakr shlok 11-23, adhyaaya pratham mein milte hain: hindu brahmaandeeya samay chakr soorya siddhaant ke pehle adhyaaya ke shlok 11–23 mein aate hain.[2]:

"(shlok 11). vah jo ki shvaas (praan) se aarambh hota hai, yathaarth kahalaata hai; aur vah jo truti se aarambh hota hai, avaastavik kahalaata hai. chh: shvaas se ek vinaadi banti hai. saath shvaason se ek naadi banti hai.

(12). aur saath naadiyon se ek diwas (din aur raatri) bante hain. tees divson se ek maas (maheena) banta hai. ek naagrik (saavan) maas sooryodayon ki sankhyaaon ke baraabar hota hai.

(13). ek chandra maas, utani chandra tithiyon se banta hai. ek saur maas soorya ke raashi mein pravesh se nishchit hota hai. baarah maas ek varash banaate hain. ek varash ko devataaon ka ek diwas kehte hain.

(14). devataaon aur daityon ke din aur raatri paarasparik ulate hote hain. unke chh: guna saath devataaon ke (divya) varsh hote hain. aise hi daityon ke bhi hote hain.

(15). baarah sahasr (hajaar) divya varshon ko ek chaturyug kehte hain. ek chaturyug tiraalees lakh bees hajaar saur varshon ka hota hai.

(16) chaturyugi ki usha aur sandhya kaal hote hain. kॄtayug ya satayug aur anya yugon ka antar, jaise maapa jaata hai, vah is prakaar hai, jo ki charanon mein hota hai:

(17). ek chaturyugi ka dashaansh ko kramash: chaar, teen, do aur ek se guna karne par kॄtayug aur anya yugon ki avadhi milti hai. in sabhi ka chhatha bhaag inki usha aur sandhya hota hai.

(18). ikahattar chaturyugi ek manvantar ya ek manu ki aayu hote hain. iske ant par sandhya hoti hai, jiski avadhi ek satayug ke baraabar hoti hai aur yeh pralaya hoti hai.

(19). ek kalp mein chaudah manvantar hote hain, apni sandhyaaon ke saath; pratyek kalp ke aarambh mein pandrahaveen sandhya/usha hoti hai. yeh bhi satayug ke baraabar hi hoti hai.

(20). ek kalp mein, ek hajaar chaturyugi hote hain aur fir ek pralaya hoti hai. yeh brahma ka ek din hota hai. iske baad itni hi lambi raatri bhi hoti hai.

(21). is din aur raatri ke aakalan se unki aayu ek sau varsh hoti hai; unki aadhi aayu nikal chuki hai aur shesh mein se yeh pratham kalp hai.

(22). is kalp mein, chh: manu apni sandhyaaon samet nikal chuke, ab saatavein manu (vaivasvat: vivsvaan (soorya) ke putr) ka sattaisavaan chaturyugi beet chuka hai.

(23). vartamaan mein, atthaaisavaan chaturyugi ka kॄtayug beet chuka hai.........

is khagoleeya samay chakr ka aakalan karne par, nimn parinaam milte hain
  • ushnakatibnadheeya varsh ki ausat lambaai hai 365.2421756 diwas, jo ki aadhunik aakalan se keval 1.4 saikand hi chhoti hai. (J2000). yeh ushnakatibndheeya varsh ka sarvaadhik vishuddh aakalan raha kam se kam agali chh: shataabdiyon tak, jab muslim ganitjnya umar khayyaam ne ek behtar anumaan diya. fir bhi yahaaakalan abhi bhi vishv mein prachalit gregoriyn varsh ke maapan se ati shuddh hi hai, jo ki varsh: ki avadhi keval 365.2425 diwas hi bataata hai, yathaarth 365.2421756 diwas ke sthaan par.
  • ek naakshatreeya varsh ki ausat avadhi, pruthvi ke dvaara, soorya ki parikrama mein lage samay avadhi 365.2563627 diwas hoti hai, jo ki aadhunik maan 365.25636305 diwas (J2000) ke ekdam baraabar hi hai. yeh naakshatreeya varsh ka sarvaadhik parishuddh kalan yaha sahasron varsh tak.

naakshatreeya varsh ka diya gaya yathaarth maan, vaise utana shuddh naheen hai. iska maan 365.258756 diwas diya gaya hai, jo ki aadhunik maan se 3 minute aur 27 saikand kam hai. yeh isaliye hai, kyonki lekhak, ya sampaadak ne baad mein kiye gaye kalanon mein hindu brahmaandeeya samay chahr ki ganana se thoda bhinn ho kar yahaan ganana ki hai. usane shaayad samay chakr ke jatil ganana ke aakalan ko sahi samjha naheen hai. sampaadak ne soorya ki ausat gati aur samaan parishuddhata ka prayog kiya hai, jo ki hindu brahmaandeeya samay chakr ke aakalan se nimn star ka hai.

trikonamiti

soorya siddhaant aadhunik trikonamiti ka mool hai. ismein jya sootr (jya), kosaain sootr (kojya ya "abhilmb sign") aur anulom sign (utkram jya) ka prayog pratham dॄshtaya hua hai. ismein tainjaint for the first time, and also contains the earliest use of the tangent and secant when discussing the shadow cast by a gnomon in verses 21–22 of Chapter 3:

Of [the sun's meridian zenith distance] find the jya ("base sine") and kojya (cosine or "perpendicular sine"). If then the jya and radius be multiplied respectively by the measure of the gnomon in digits, and divided by the kojya, the results are the shadow and hypotenuse at mid-day.

In modern notation, this gives the shadow of the gnomon at mid-day as

and the hypotenuse of the gnomon at mid-day as

where is the measure of the gnomon, is the radius of the gnomon, is the shadow of the gnomon, and is the hypotenuse of the gnomon.

kailendareeya prayog

The Indian solar and lunisolar calendars are widely used, with their local variations, in different parts of India. They are important in predicting the dates for the celebration of various festivals, performance of various rites as well as on all astronomical matters. The modern Indian solar and lunisolar calendars are based on close approximations to the true times of the Sun's entrance into the various rasis.

Conservative "panchang" (almanac) makers still use the formulae and equations found in the Surya Siddhanta to compile and compute their panchangs. The panchang is an annual publication published in all regions and languages in India containing all calendrical information on religious, cultural and astronomical events. It exerts great influence on the religious and social life of the people in India and is found in most Hindu households.

yantr

paaradaaraambusootraani shulvatailajalaani ch .
beejaani paansavasteshu prayogaasteऽpi durlabhaa: .13.22 .
arth : taadiyon (spokes) mein paarad bhara hua,; jal, dhaaga (sootr), rassi, tel aur jal aadi se yantr ye yantr banaaye jaate hain. iske alaava beej aur maheen ret bhi in yantron mein prayukt hoti hain. ye yantr durlabh hain.

sandarbh

  1. romesh chandar datt, A history aaf sivilaaijeshan in enksheeent indiya, sanskॄt saahitya par aadhaariya, vol. 3, ISBN 0-543-92939-6 p. 208.
  2. cf. Burgess.
  • Ebenezer Burgess. "Translation of the Surya-Siddhanta, a text-book of Hindu Astronomy", Journal of the American Oriental Society 6 (1860): 141–498.
  • Victor J. Katz. A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, 1998.
  • Dwight William Johnson. Exegesis of Hindu Cosmological Time Cycles, 2003.

dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain