soorya grahan

पूर्ण सूर्य ग्रहण
chandrama jab soorya ko poorn roop se aachhaadit kar leta hai to use poorn soorya grahan kehte hain jaisa ki 1999 ke soorya grahan mein dekha gaya. iske antim chhor (laal rang mein) par saur jvaala athva vistrut kaurona tantu dekhe ja sakte hain.
वलयाकार सूर्य ग्रहणआंशिक सूर्य ग्रहण
valayaakaar soorya grahan (baayein) tab dikhaai deta hai jab chandrama soorya ko poori tarah ek saath naheen aachhaadit kar paata. (jaisa 20 May 2012 ke soorya grahan mein dekha gaya.) aanshik soorya grahan ki sthiti mein chandrama dvaara soorya ka koi ek hissa aavarit kiya jaata hai (23 October 2014 ka soorya grahan).

soorya grahan ek tarah ka grahan hai jab chandrama, pruthvi aur soorya ke madhya se hokar gujarata hai tatha pruthvi se dekhne par soorya poorn athva aanshik roop se chandrama dvaara aachhaadit hota hai.

bhautik vigyaan ki drushti se jab soorya va pruthvi ke beech mein chandrama aa jaata hai to chandrama ke peechhe soorya ka bimb kuchh samay ke liye dhak jaata hai, usi ghatna ko soorya grahan kaha jaata hai. pruthvi sooraj ki parikrama karti hai aur chaaaind pruthvi ki. kabhi-kabhi chaaaind, sooraj aur dharati ke beech aa jaata hai. fir vah sooraj ki kuchh ya saari roshani rok leta hai jisse dharati par saaya fail jaata hai. is ghatna ko soorya grahan kaha jaata hai. yeh ghatna sada sarvada amaavasya ko hi hoti hai.

anukram

poorn grahan

2008-08-01 Solar eclipse progression

aksar chaaaind, sooraj ke sirf kuchh hisse ko hi dhkata hai. yeh sthiti khand-grahan kahalaati hai. kabhi-kabhi hi aisa hota hai ki chaaaind sooraj ko poori tarah dhaink leta hai. ise poorn-grahan kehte hain. poorn-grahan dharati ke bahut kam kshetr mein hi dekha ja sakta hai. zyaada se zyaada do sau pachaas (250) kilometer ke sampark mein. is kshetr ke baahar keval khand-grahan dikhaai deta hai. poorn-grahan ke samay chaaaind ko sooraj ke saamane se gujarane mein do ghante lagte hain. chaaaind sooraj ko poori tarah se, zyaada se zyaada, saat minute tak dhainkata hai. in kuchh kshanon ke liye aasmaan mein andhera ho jaata hai, ya yooain kahein ki din mein raat ho jaati hai.

jyotish vigyaan ki drushti se soorya grahan

grahan prakruti ka ek adbhut chamatkaar hai. jyotish ke drushtikon se yadi dekha jaae to abhootapoorv anokha, vichitr jyotish gyaan, grah aur upagrahon ki gatividhiyaaain evam unka svaroop spasht karta hai. soorya grahan (sooryoparaag) tab hota hai, jab soorya aanshik athva poorn roop se chandrama dvaara aavrut (vyavadhaan / baadha) ho jaae. is prakaar ke grahan ke liye chandama ka pruthvi aur soorya ke beech aana aavashyak hai. isse pruthvi par rahane vaale logon ko soorya ka aavrut bhaag naheen dikhaai deta hai.

  • sooryagrahan hone ke liye nimn sharte poori honi aavashyak hai.
  1. amaavasya honi chaahiye.
  2. chandama ka rekhaansh raahoo ya ketu ke paas hona chaahiye.
  3. chandrama ka akshaansh shoonya ke nikat hona chaahiye.[1]

uttari dhruv ko dakshini dhruv se milaane waali rekhaaon ko rekhaansh kaha jaata hai tatha bhoomadhya rekha ke chaaro vrutaakaar mein jaane waali rekhaaon ko ankshaash ke naam se jaana jaata hai. soorya grahan sadaiv amaavasya ko hi hota hai. jab chandrama ksheenatam ho aur soorya poorn kshamata sampann tatha deept hon. chandr aur raahoo ya ketu ke rekhaansh bahut nikat hone chaahiye. chandr ka akshaansh lagbhag shoonya hona chaahiye aur yeh tab hoga jab chandra ravimaarg par ya ravimaarg ke nikat hon, soorya grahan ke din soorya aur chandr ke koneeya vyaas ek samaan hote hain. is kaaran chand soorya ko keval kuchh minute tak hi apni chhaaya mein le paata hai. soorya grahan ke samay jo kshetr dhak jaata hai use poorn chhaaya kshetr kehte hain.

prakaar

chandrama dvaara soorya ke bimb ke poore ya kam bhaag ke dhke jaane ki vajah se soorya grahan teen prakaar ke hote hain jinhein poorn soorya grahan, aanshik soorya grahan va valayaakaar soorya grahan kehte hain.

1. poorn soorya grahan

poorn soorya grahan us samay hota hai jab chandrama pruthvi ke kaafi paas rahate hue pruthvi aur soorya ke beech mein aa jaata hai aur chandrama poori tarah se pruthvi ko apne chhaaya kshetr mein le leta hai. iske falasvaroop soorya ka prakaash pruthvi tak pahuainch naheen paata hai aur pruthvi par andhakaar jaisi sthiti utpann ho jaati hai tab pruthvi par poora soorya dikhaai naheen deta. is prakaar banane wala grahan poorn soorya grahan kahalaata hai.

2. aanshik soorya grahan

aanshik sooryagrahan mein jab chandrama soorya va pruthvi ke beech mein is prakaar aae ki soorya ka kuchh hi bhaag pruthvi se dikhaai naheen deta hai arthaat chandama, soorya ke keval kuchh bhaag ko hi apni chhaaya mein le paata hai. isse soorya ka kuchh bhaag grahan graas mein tatha kuchh bhaag grahan se aprabhaavit rahata hai to pruthvi ke us bhaag vishesh mein laga grahan aanshik soorya grahan kahalaata hai.

3. valayaakaar soorya grahan

valayaakaar soorya grahan mein jab chandrama pruthvi ke kaafi door rahate hue pruthvi aur soorya ke beech mein aa jaata hai arthaat chandr soorya ko is prakaar se dhakata hai, ki soorya ka keval madhya bhaag hi chhaaya kshetr mein aata hai aur pruthvi se dekhne par chandrama dvaara soorya poori tarah dhaka dikhaai naheen deta balki soorya ke baahar ka kshetr prakaashit hone ke kaaran kangan ya valaya ke roop mein chamakata dikhaai deta hai. kangan aakaar mein bane sooryagrahan ko hi valayaakaar soorya grahan kahalaata hai.

khagol shaastreeyon ki gananaayein

khagol shaastriyon nein ganit se nishchit kiya hai ki 18 varsh 18 din ki samayaavadhi mein 41 soorya grahan aur 29 chandragrahan hote hain. ek varsh mein 5 sooryagrahan tatha 2 chandragrahan tak ho sakte hain. kintu ek varsh mein 2 sooryagrahan to hone hi chaahiye. haaain, yadi kisi varsh 2 hi grahan hue to vo dono hi sooryagrahan honge. yadyapi varshabhar mein 7 grahan tak sanbhaavya hain, tathaapi 4 se adhik grahan bahut kam hi dekhne ko milte hain. pratyek grahan 18 varsh 11 din beet jaane par pun: hota hai. kintu vah apne pehle ke sthaan mein hi ho yeh nishchit naheen hain, kyonki sampaat bindu nirntar chal rahe hain.

saadhaaranataya sooryagrahan ki apeksha chandragrahan adhik dekhe jaate hain, parantu sachchaai yeh hai ki chandr grahan se kaheen adhik sooryagrahan hote hain. 3 chandragrahan par 4 sooryagrahan ka anupaat aata hai. chandragrahanon ke adhik dekhe jaane ka kaaran yeh hota hai ki ve pruthvi ke aadhe se adhik bhaag mein dikhlaai padate hain, jab ki sooryagrahan pruthvi ke bahut bade bhaag mein praaya sau meal se kam chaude aur do se teen hajaar meal lambe bhoobhaag mein dikhlaai padate hain. udaaharan ke taur par yadi Madhya Pradesh mein khagraas (jo sampoorn soorya bimb ko dhakane wala hota hai) grahan ho to Gujarat mein khand sooryagrahan (jo soorya bimb ke ansh ko hi dhankata hai) hi dikhlaai dega aur uttar Bhaarat mein vo dikhaayi hi naheen dega.

vaigyaanik drushtikon mein soorya grahan

chaahe grahan ka koi aadhyaatmik mahattv ho athva na ho kintu duniya bhar ke vaigyaaniko ke liye yeh avsar kisi utsav se kam naheen hota. kyon ki grahan hi vah samay hota hai jab braahmand mein anekon vilkshan evam adbhut ghatnaaen ghatit hoteen hain jisse ki vaigyaaniko ko naye naye tathyon par kaarya karne ka avsar milta hai. 1968 mein laarkayar naamak vaigyaanik nein soorya grahan ke avsar par ki gayi khoj ke sahaare varn mandal mein heeliym gas ki upasthiti ka pata lagaaya tha. aainsteen ka yeh pratipaadan bhi soorya grahan ke avsar par hi sahi siddh ho saka, jismein unhonne anya pindon ke gurutvakarshan se prakaash ke padane ki baat kahi thi. chandragrahan to apne sampoorn tatkaaleen prakaash kshetr mein dekha ja sakta hai kintu sooryagrahan adhiktam 10 hajaar kilometer lambe aur 250 kilometer chaude kshetr mein hi dekha ja sakta hai. sampoorn sooryagrahan ki vaastavik avadhi adhik se adhik 11 minute hi ho sakti hai usase adhik naheen. sansaar ke samast padaarthon ki sanrachana soorya rashmiyon ke maadhyam se hi sambhav hai. yadi sahi prakaar se soorya aur usaki rashmiyon ke prabhaavon ko samajh liya jaae to samast dhara par aashcharyajanak parinaam laae ja sakte hain. soorya ki pratyek rashmi vishesh anu ka pratinidhitv karti hai aur jaisa ki spasht hai, pratyek padaarth kisi vishesh parmaanu se hi nirmit hota hai. ab yadi soorya ki rashmiyon ko poonjeebhoot kar ek hi vishesh bindu par kendrit kar liya jaae to padaarth parivartan ki kriya bhi sambhav ho sakti hai.

bhaarateeya vaidik kaal aur soorya grahan

vaidik kaal se poorv bhi khagoleeya sanrachana par aadhaarit kalaindar banaane ki aavashkata anubhav ki gayi. soorya grahan chandr grahan tatha unki punaraavrutti ki poorv soochana isa se chaar hajaar poorv hi upalabdh thi. rigved ke anusaar atrimuni ke parivaar ke paas yeh gyaan upalabdh tha. vedaang jyotish ka mahattv hamaare vaidik poorvajon ke is mahaan gyaan ko prativimbit karta hai.

grah nakshatron ki duniya ki yeh ghatna bhaarateeya maneeshiyon ko atyant praacheen kaal se gyaat rahi hai. chir praacheen kaal mein maharshiyon nein ganana kar di thi. is par dhaarmik, vaidik, vaichaarik, vaigyaanik vivechan dhaarmik evam jyotisheeya granthon mein hota chala aaya hai. maharshi atrimuni grahan ke gyaan ko dene vaale pratham aachaarya the. rigvedeeya prakaash kaal arthaat vaidik kaal se grahan par adhyayan, manan aur pareekshan hote chale aae hain.

soorya grahan ke samay hamaare rishi-muniyon ke kathan

hamaare rishi-muniyon ne soorya grahan lagne ke samay bhojan ke liye mana kiya hai, kyonki unki maanyata thi ki grahan ke samay mein keetaanu bahulata se fail jaate hain. khaadya vastu, jal aadi mein sookshm jeevaanu ekatrit hokar use dooshit kar dete hain. isliye rishiyon ne paatron ke kush daalne ko kaha hai, taaki sab keetaanu kush mein ekatrit ho jaaen aur unhein grahan ke baad feinka ja sake. paatron mein agni daalkar unhein pavitra banaaya jaata hai taaki keetaanu mar jaaen. grahan ke baad snaan karne ka vidhaan isliye banaaya gaya taaki snaan ke dauraan shareer ke andar ooshma ka pravaah badhe, bheetar-baahar ke keetaanu nasht ho jaaen aur dhul kar bah jaaen.


puraanon ki maanyata ke anusaar raahu chandrama ko tatha ketu soorya ko grasata hai. ye donon hi chhaaya ki santaan hain. chandrama aur soorya ki chhaaya ke saath-saath chalte hain. chandra grahan ke samay kaf ki pradhaanata badhti hai aur man ki shakti ksheen hoti hai, jabki soorya grahan ke samay jatharaagni, netr tatha pitt ki shakti kamzor padti hai. garbhavati stri ko soorya-chandra grahan naheen dekhne chaahiye, kyonki uske dushprabhaav se shishu angaheen hokar viklaang ban sakta hai, garbhapaat ki sambhaavana badh jaati hai. iske liye garbhavati ke udar bhaag mein gobar aur tulasi ka lep laga diya jaata hai, jisse ki raahu-ketu usaka sparsh na karein. grahan ke dauraan garbhavati mahila ko kuchh bhi kainchi ya chaakoo se kaatne ko mana kiya jaata hai aur kisi vastraadi ko silne se roka jaata hai. kyonki aisi maanyata hai ki aisa karne se shishu ke ang ya to kat jaate hain ya fir sil (jud) jaate hain.

grahan lagne ke poorv nadi ya ghar mein upalabdh jal se snaan karke Bhagwan ka poojan, yagya, jap karna chaahiye. bhajan-keertan karke grahan ke samay ka sadupayog karein. grahan ke dauraan koi kaarya na karein. grahan ke samay mein mantron ka jaap karne se siddhi praapt hoti hai. grahan ki avadhi mein tel lagaana, bhojan karna, jal peena, mal-mootr tyaag karna, kesh vinyaas banaana, rati-kreeda karna, manjan karna varjit kiye gaye hain. kuchh log grahan ke dauraan bhi snaan karte hain. grahan samaapt ho jaane par snaan karke braah‌aaman ko daan dene ka vidhaan hai. kaheen-kaheen vastr, bartan dhone ka bhi niyam hai. puraana paani, ann nasht kar naya bhojan pakaaya jaata hai aur taaja bharakar piya jaata hai. grahan ke baad dom ko daan dene ka adhik maahaatmya bataaya gaya hai, kyonki dom ko raahu-ketu ka svaroop maana gaya hai.

sooryagrahan mein grahan se chaar prahar poorv aur chandra grahan mein teen prahar poorv bhojan naheen karna chaahiye. boodhe baalak aur rogi ek prahar poorv tak kha sakte hain grahan poora hone par soorya ya chandra, jiska grahan ho, grahan ke din patte, tinke, lakdi aur fool naheen todana chaahiye. baal tatha vastr naheen nichodne chaahiye va dant dhaavan naheen karna chaahiye grahan ke samay taala kholana, sona, mal mootr ka tyaag karna, maithun karna aur bhojan karna - ye sab kaarya varjit hain. grahan ke samay man se satpaatr ko uddeshya karke jal mein jal daal dena chaahiye. aisa karne se denevaale ko usaka fal praapt hota hai aur lene vaale ko usaka dosh bhi naheen lagta. grahan ke samay gaayon ko ghaas, pakshiyon ko ann, jaruratamandon ko vastr daan se anek guna punya praapt hota hai. 'devi Bhagwat' mein aata hai ki bhookamp evam grahan ke avsar pruthvi ko khodana naheen chaahiye.[2]

sandarbh