soori saamraajya

soori saamraajya
د سaaوaaرaaیaaاaaنaaو ټaaوaaلaaوaaاaaکaaمaaنaaي
Flag of the Mughal Empire.svg
1540 – 1557
Flag of the Mughal Empire.svg
Location of सूरी साम्राज्य
hara mein soori saamraajya ka kshetr
rajdhani Delhi
bhaasha(eain) faarasi
dharm sunni islaam
sarkaar sultaan
itihaas
- sansthaapit 17 May, 1540
- visansthaapit 1557
sher shaah soori dvaara jrb kiya gaya sikka, (baai taraf) arabi-faarasi lipi aur devanaagari ke ek roop mein likha hai 'sulataan sher shaah'
Delhi ke puraane kile ke aage sthit 'laal daravaaja' jise 'soori gate' bhi kehte hain

soori saamraajya (pashto: د سaaوaaرaaیaaاaaنaaو ټaaوaaلaaوaaاaaکaaمaaنaaي, the sooriyaano tolavaakamana​aai) bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke uttari bhaag mein sthit pashtoon nasl ke sher shaah soori dvaara sthaapit ek saamraajya tha jo san 1540 se lekar 1557 tak chala. is dauraan soori parivaar ne baabar dvaara sthaapit mugl saltanat ko Bhaarat se bedakhl kar diya aur Iran mein sharan maangane par majaboor kar diya. sher shaah ne dusare mugl samraat humaayooain ko 26 June 1539 mein (Patna ke kreeb) chausa ke yuddh mein aur fir 17 May 1540 mein bilgraam ke yuddh mein paraast kiya. soori saamraajya pashchimottar mein khaibar-pakhtoonakhva se poorv mein Bengal tak vistrut tha.

anukram

vivran

soor raajavansh ka sansthaapak sherashaah Afghaanon ki soor jaati ka tha. yeh 'roh' (Afghaanon ka mool sthaan) ki ek chhota aur abhaavagrast jaati thi. sherashaah ka daada ibraaheem soor 1542 E. mein Bhaarat aaya aur himmatakhaaain soor tatha jamaalakhaaain ki senaaon mein sevaaeain keen. hasan soor jo freed (baad mein sherashaah ke naam se prasiddh hua) ka pita tha, jamaal khaaain ki seva mein 500 savaar aur sahasaraam ke ikta ka pad praapt karne mein safal ho gaya. sherashaah apne pita ki mrutyu ke pashchaat uske ikta ka uttaraadhikaari hua, aur vah us par lodi saamraajya ke patan (1526 E.) tak bana raha. iske pashchaat usane dheere-dheere unnati ki. dakshin Bihar mein lohaani shaasan ka ant kar usane apni shakti sadrudh kar li. vah Bengal jeetne mein safal ho gaya aur 1540 E. mein usane mugalon ko bhi Bhaarat se khaded diya. uske sattaarudh hone ke saath-saath Afghan saamraajya chaturdik faila. usane pratham Afghan (lodi) saamraajya mein Bengal, maalava, pashchimi rajputana, multaan aur uttari sindh jodkar usaka vistaar dugune se bhi adhik kar diya.

sherashaah ka doosra putr jalaal khaaain usaka uttaaraadhikaari hua. yeh 1545 E. mein islaamashaah ki upaadhi ke saath shaasanaaroodh hua. islaamashaah ne 9 varshon (1545-1554 E.) tak raajya kiya. use apne shaasanakaal mein sadaiv sherashaah yugeen saamanton ke vidrohon ko dabaane mein vyast rahana pada. usane raajakeeya maamalon mein apne pita ki saari neetiyon ka paalan kiya tatha aavashyakataanusaar sanshodhan aur sudhaar ke kaarya bhi kiye. islaamashaah ka alpavayask putr feeroj usaka uttaaraadhikaari hua, kintu mubaarij khaaain ne, jo sherashaah ke chhote bhaai nijaam khaaain ka beta tha, usaki hatya kar di.

mubaarij khaaain sulataan aadil shaah ki upaadhi ke saath gaddi par baitha. feeroj ki hatya se sherashaah aur islaamashaah ke saamant uttejit ho gaye aur unhonne mubaarij khaaain ke viruddh hathiyaar utha liye. baarahi vilaayaton ke sabhi shaktishaali muktaaon ne apne ko svaadheen ghoshit kar diya aur prabhutv ke liye paraspar ladne lage. yahi badhti hui araajakata Afghan saamraajya ke patan aur mugal shaasan ki pun: sthaapana ka kaaran bani.

soor saamraajya ki yeh visheshata thi ki uske alpakaalik jeevan mein raajaneetik, saamaajik, saanskrutik aur aarthik kshetron mein mahatvapoorn pragati hui, tathaapi unke dvaara punarvyavasthit prashaasakeeya sansthaaeain mugalon aur angrejon ke kaal mein bhi jaari raheen.

sherashaah ne prashaasanik sudhaaron aur vyavasthaaon ko alaauddeen khilji ki neetiyon ke aadhaar par gathit kiya kintu usane kaaryaadhikaariyon ke prati khalji ke nirdayataapoorn vyavahaar ki apeksha apni neetiyon mein maanaveeya vyavahaar ko sthaan diya. praaya: sabhi nagaron mein saamanton ki gatividhiyaaain baadshah ko soochit karne ke liye guptachar niyukt kiye gaye the. aparaadhon ke maamalon mein yadi vaastavik aparaadhi pakade naheen jaate the to us kshetr ke prashaasanik adhikaari uttaradaayi thaharaae jaate the.

sherashaah ne teen darein nishchit ki theen, jinmein raajya ki saari paidaavaar ka ek tihaai raajakosh mein liya jaata tha. ye darein jameen ki urvara shakti ke anusaar baaaindhi jaati theen. bhoomi ki bhinn-bhinn urvarata ke anusaar 'achhi', 'buri' aur 'madhya shreni' ki upaj ko prati beeghe jodkar, usaka ek-tihaai bhaag raajasv ke roop mein vasool kiya jaata tha, raajasv bhaag baajaar bhaav ke anusaar rakam mein vasool kiya jaata tha, jisse raajasv karmachaariyon tatha kisaanon ki bahut suvidha ho jaati thi. islaamashaah ki mrutyu tak yeh paddhati chalti rahi.

krushakon ko jungle aadi kaatkar kheti yogya bhoomi banaane ke liye aarthik sahaayata bhi di jaati thi. upalabdh pramaanon se yeh gyaat hua hai ki sherashaah ki maalava par vijay ke pashchaat narmada ki ghaati mein kisaanon ko basaakar ghaati ko krushi ke liye prayog kiya gaya tha. sherashaah ne un kisaanon ko agrim rin diya aur teen varshon ke liye maalagujaari maaf kar di thi. sadkon aur unke kinaare-kinaare saraayon ke vyaapak nirmaan dvaara bhi dash ke aarthik vikaas ko jeevan pradaan kiya gaya.

sainya sangathan mein bhi aavashyak sudhaar aur parivartan kiye gaye. pehle saamant log kiraae ke ghodon aur asainik vyaktiyon ko bhi sainik pradarshan ke samay haajir kar dete the. is jaalsaaji ko door karne ke liye ghodon par daag dene aur savaaron ki vivranaatmak naamaavali taiyaar karne ki paddhati chaaloo ki gayi.

saamraajya ka ant

22 May 1545 ko sher shaah soori ka dehaant hua. unhonne 17 May 1540 (bilgraam ke yuddh) ke baad se baagdor sambhaali thi aur apne dehaant tak sultaan bane rahe. unke baad islaam shaah soori ne 26 May 1545 se 22 November 1553 tak raaj kiya. iske baad chaaaind maheeno hi raaj karne vaale soori parivaar ke sultaanon ka silsila chala. humaayooain Iran se vaapas aakar Bhaarat par kbja karne mein safal ho gaya aur usane antim soori sultaan aadil shaah soori aur uske siphasalaar hemoo ko hara diya. soori saamraajya khtm ho gaya.

haalaanki soori saamraajya sirf 17 saal chala, is kaal mein bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein bahut se prashaasanik aur aarthik vikaas laae gaye. bhaarateeya itihaas mein aksar sher shaah soori ko videshi naheen samjha jaata.[1][2] unke raaj mein hindu aur muslimon mein aapasi bhaaichaara aur saamaajik ekta badhi. grand trank road jaise vikaas kaaryon par jor diya gaya. saamraajya ko 47 prashaasanik bhaagon mein baanta gaya (jinhein 'sarkaar' kaha jaata tha) aur inke aage 'paragana' naamak upabhaag banaae gaye. sthaaneeya prashaasan majboot kiya gaya. aane vaale samay mein mugl aur british raaj ki sarkaaron ne sher shaah ke bahut si upalabdhiyon par apni mohar lagaakar unhein jaari rakha.[3] Bhaarat ki mudra ka naam 'rupaya' bhi unhonne hi rakha.[4]

soori sultaanon ki soochi

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Dr. Zakir Hussain, quest for truth, Ziaul Hasan Faruqi, APH Publishing, 1999, ISBN 978-81-7648-056-7, ... never discriminated between the Muslims and non-Muslims in matters of justice and equality. He regarded India as his motherland and the Mughals as foreign invaders. He was determined to drive out the Mughals from India ...
  2. Border Security Force, V.V.K. Subburaj, Sura Books, ISBN 978-81-7254-185-9, ... Fratemal factions criss-crossed with a weak character of his own, Humayun could not stand for a long time when he was driven out of the country by a native Sher-Shah Suri ...
  3. Soul and structure of governance in India, Jagmohan, Allied Publishers, 2005, ISBN 978-81-7764-831-7, ... Sher Shah was an organiser and administrator par excellence ... largely adopted by Akbar ... 47 administrative units called 'Sarkars' ... small units known as 'parganas' ...
  4. India 2001: reference encyclopedia, Volume 1, South Asia Publications, 1994, ISBN 978-0-945921-42-4, ... Our currency unit the Rupee as we know it today is the product of the great administrative genius Sher Shah Suri ...


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