soorajamukhi

Sunflower
Sunflower sky backdrop.jpg
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: Plantae
(ashrenikrut) Angiosperms
(ashrenikrut) Eudicots
(ashrenikrut) Asterids
gan: Asterales
kul: Asteraceae
upakul: Helianthoideae
traaib: Heliantheae
prajaati: Helianthus
dvipd naam
Helianthus annuus
L.
poora beej (daaen) aur karnel bina chhilke ke (baaen)

soorajamukhi ya 'sooryamukhi' (vaanaspatik naam : heliynathas enas) America ke deshaj vaarshik paudhe hain. yeh anek deshon ke baagon mein ugaaya jaata hai. yeh kanpojiti (Compositae) kul ke heliyenthas (Helianthus) gan ka ek sadasya hai. is gan mein lagbhag saath jaatiyaaain pai gayi hain jinmein heliyenthas aimoos (Helianthus annuus), heliyenthas dikaipetales (Helianthus decapetalus), heliyenthis maltifloras (Helianthus multiflorus), he. auragailis (H. Orggalis), he. aitrorubeins (H. atrorubens), he. jaaijentiys (H. gigenteus) tatha he. maulis (H. molis) pramukh hain.

yeh fool amareeka ka deshaj hai par roos, amareeka, Britain, misr, Denmark, sveedan aur Bhaarat aadi anek deshon mein aaj ugaaya jaata hai. iska naam soorajamukhi is kaaran pada ki yeh soorya aur or jhukata rahata hai, haalaaainki praaya: sabhi ped paudhe soorya prakaash ke liye soorya ki or kuchh na kuchh jhukate hain. soorajamukhi ka soorya ki or jhukna aaainkhon se dekha ja sakta hai. baagon mein ugaae jaane vaale soorajamukhi ki uparyukt pratham do jaatiyaaain hi hain. iske ped 1 mi. se 5 mi. tak ooainche hote hain. inke danthal bade tunuk hote hain, hava ke jhonke se toot ja sakte hain at: inmein tech lagaane ki aavashyakta pad sakti hai. iski pattiyaaain 7 semi se 30 semi lambi hoti hai. kuchh soorajamukhi ekavarshi hote hain aur kuchh bahuvarshi ; kuchh bade kad ke hote hain aur kuchh chhote kad ke.

iske peele fool baag ke foolon mein sabse bade hote hain. sir 7 semi se 15 semi chaude aur karshan se ugaane par 30 semi ya isse bhi chaude ho sakte hain. ye shobha ke liye baagan mein ugaae jaate hain. achhe karshan aur khaad se bhinn-bhinn rang, kaanti aur aabha ke fool praapt ho sakte hain. fool ki pankhudiyaaain peele rang ki hoteen hain aur madhya mein bhoore, peet ya neelohit ya kisi kisi varnasankar paudhe mein kaala chakr rahata hai. chakr mein hi chipte kaale beej rahate hain. beej se utkrusht koti ka khaadya tel praapt hota hai aur khali murgi ko khilaai jaati hai. soorajamukhi ke ped mein rituaa rog bhi kabhi-kabhi lag jaata hai jisse pattiyon ke pichhle bhaag mein peetabhoore rang ke chakatte pad jaate hain. isse raksha ke liye gandhak ki dhool chhidki ja sakti hai.

anukram

parichay

baahar chaaron or 34 aur 55 ke sarpil mein florets pradarshit karta sar

jise aamtaur par fool kaha jaata hai, vah vaastav mein ek saath sankulit bahut se florets (chhote fool) ka sar (vidhivt roop se sammishr fool) hai. baahari florets nishfal re florets hain aur peele, laal, naarangi, ya anya rangon ke ho sakte hain. pariptr sar ke andar ke florets ko disk florets kaha jaata hai, jo beej mein paripakva hote hain.

soorajamukhi ke guchhe ke bheetar ke florets ek sarpil paitarn mein vyavasthit hote hain. aam taur par pratyek floret lagbhag svarn kon 137.5°, dvaara agale ki or unmukh hota hai, jo paraspar sambandhit sarpil ka utpaadan karte hain, jahaaain baayein sarpil ki sankhya aur daahine sarpil ki sankhya lagaataar fibonaiki sankhya hoti hai. aamtaur par, ek disha mein 34 sarpil hote hain aur doosari mein 55, ek bahut bade soorajamukhi par ek disha mein 89 aur doosari mein 144 hote hain.[1][2][3] yeh paitarn fool sar ke bheetar beej ki sabse kushal paiking utpann karta hai.[4][5][6]

heliotropijm (Heliotropism)

konpal avastha mein soorajamukhi heliotropijm (heliotropism) pradarshit karte hain. sooryodaya ke samay, adhiktam soorajamukhiyon ke chehare poorv ki or mude hote hain. din ke dauraan, ve poorv se pashchim tak sooraj ka peechha karte hain, jabki raat mein ve ek poorvaabhimukh unmukheekaran par vaapas aa jaate he. yeh gati, motor koshikaaon dvaara palvins mein pradarshit ki jaati hai, jo kali ke theek neeche tane ka ek lacheela kshetr hota hai. jaise hi konpal avastha samaapt hoti he, tana sakat ho jaata hai aur fool khilne ka charan shuroo ho jaata he.

apne fool khilne ke charan mein soorajamukhi apni heliotropik kshamata kho dete hain. tana "sthir" ho jaata hai, vishisht roop se ek poorvaabhimukh unmukheekaran mein.[krupaya uddharan jodein] tana aur patte apna hara rang kho dete hain.

jangali soorajamukhi aam taur par soorya ki or naheen mudta hai; paripakva hone par usaka pushpit sar bahut si dishaaon mein abhimukh ho sakta hai. haalaanki, patte aamtaur par kuchh heliotropijm (heliotropism) dikhaate hain.

itihaas

soorajamukhi khet

soorajamukhi madhya America ka nivaasi hai. soorajamukhi har prakaar ke rangon mein bhi mil sakte hain, lekin sabse aam hai peela. abhi tak saboot yeh hai ki yeh pehli baar kam se kam 2600 E.poo. tak Mexico mein ugaaya (domesticated) gaya tha.[7] yeh doosari baar ek madhya misisipi ghaati mein ugaaya gaya hoga ya vaha Mexico se ek praarambhik tithi par pesh kiya hoga jaise makka kiya gaya tha. Mexico ke uttar mein ek poornataya ugaaye gaye soorajamukhi ke sabse praarambhik gyaat udaaharan Tennessee mein paae gaye hain aur lagbhag 2300 E.poo. ki taareekh ke hain. Mexico ke otomi (Otomi) aur ejteks (Aztecs) tatha dakshin America ke inkaas (Incas) sahit kai deshi ameriki log soorajamukhi ka prayog apne saur devata ke pratiroop ke roop mein karte the. tahooaintinsuyo, peroo mein soorajamukhi se milne wala pehla Europeeya tha, Francisco pijaarro. fool ke suvarn chitr aur saath hi beej, 16 veen sadi ke praarambh mein Spain vaapis le jaae gaye. kuchh shodhakartaaon ka kehna hai ki Spain vaasiyon ne soorajamukhi ki kheti ko dabaane ki koshish ki thi kyoonki iska sambandh saur dharm aur sangraam se hai.[8]

18 veen shataabdi ke dauraan, Europe mein soorajamukhi tel ka prayog bahut lokapriya ho gaya, vishesh roop se roosi roodhivaadi church ke sadasyon mein, kyonki soorajamukhi tel, un kuchh telon mein se ek tha jo rojon ke dauraan nishiddh naheen tha.

kheti aur upayog

vishv vyaapak soorajamukhi utpaadan

achhi tarah se badhne ke liye, soorajamukhi ko poorn soorya ki jaroorat hoti hai. ye bahut saari aadhi sadi ghaas ke saath upajaaoo, nam, achhe se bahne waali mitti mein sarvottam reeti se badhte hain. vaanijyik ropan mein, beej 45 seintimeetar (1.5 foot) door aur 2.5 seintimeetar (1 inch) gahre lagaae jaate hain. soorajamukhi "poorn beej" (fal), namak daal kar ya uske bina, tandoor mein bhoon kar ek naashte ke roop mein beche jaate hain. soorajamukhi ek moongafali ke makkhan ke vikalp, sanabatar mein sansaadhit kiya ja sakta hai. Germany mein, sonneinnablaameinkembrot (vastut: soorajamukhi poorn beej roti) banaane ke liye ise raai ke aate ke saath milaaya jaata hai, jo jarman-bhaashi Europe mein kaafi lokapriya hai. yeh pakshiyon ke liye bhojan ke roop mein bhi becha jaata hai aur spashtat: khaana pakaane aur salaad mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.

beej se nikaala, soorajamukhi tel khaana pakaane ke liye, vaahak tel ke roop mein aur nakali makkhan env baayo-deejl ke utpaadan mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, kyonki yeh jaitoon ke tel se sasta hai. soorajamukhi ki kismon ki ek shreni, bhinn charabeedaar esid rachanaaon ke saath maujood hai; jinmein se kuchh 'uchch olik' prakaaron ke tel mein jaitoon ke tel se bhi uchch stareeya svasth mono-asantrupt shaamil hota hai.

disk florets ka vistaar.

tel ke liye beejon ko sansaadhit karne ke baad shesh cake ek pashudhan chaare ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai. kuchh haal hi mein viksit kalteevarj mein latakate hue sar hain. yeh kalteevarj sajaavati paudhon ke roop mein fool ugaane vaale maaliyon ke liye kam aakarshak hain, lekin kisaanon ko pasand aate hain, kyonki ve paksheeyon se kshati aur kuchh vanaspati rogon se hone wala nuksaan kam karte hain. soorajamukhi vanaspatik doodh ka utpaadan bhi karte hain aur haaipoalaarjenik rabad ke utpaadan ke liye ek vaikalpik fasal ke roop mein unki upayuktata mein sudhaar laane ke liye prayog ka vishay bhi hain.

paramparaagat roop se, kai mool nivaasi ameriki samoohon ne apne baagaanon ke uttari kinaaron par, behtar gyaat teen bahanon (three sisters) anaaj, sem aur skvaish ke sanyojan ke nikat "chauthi bahan" ("fourth sister") ke roop mein soorajamukhi lagaae.[9] vaarshik prajaatiyaaain aksar unki alelopethik (allelopathic) sampattiyon ke liye lagaai jaati hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

haalaanki, upayogi vastu fasalein ugaane vaale vyaavasaayik kisaanon ke liye, soorajamukhi, kisi bhi anya avaanchhit paudhe ki tarah, aksar ek veed (ghaas foos) maana jaata hai. vishesh roop se, madhya-pashchimi sanyukt raajya America mein jangali (baarahamaasi) prajaatiyaaain aksar makka aur soyaabeen ke kheton mein pai jaati hain aur inse upaj par ek nakaaraatmak prabhaav pad sakta hai.

soorajamukhi, mitti se led, harataal aur Uranium jaise jahareele tatv nikaalne ke liye bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. ye cheranobil aapada (fitoremeediyeshan dekhein) ke baad, mitti se Uranium, seejiym-137 aur strontiym-90 nikaalne ke liye bhi istemaal kiye gaye the.

soorajamukhi jeenom

soorajamukhi (heliynathas enas) jeenom ek aadhaar gunasootr sankhya: 17 aur ek anumaanit jeenom aakaar: 2,871-3,189 Mbp ke saath diploid hai.[10] kuchh sootr daava karte hain ki iska asli aakaar lagbhag 3.5 billion aadhaar jodi hai (maanav jeenom se thoda sa bada).[11]

floret vyavastha ka ganiteeya model

n=1..500 ke liye vogel ke model ka udaaharan

1979 mein H. vogel dvaara, ek soorajamukhi ke sar mein florets ke paitarn ke liye ek model, prastaavit kiya gaya.[12] yeh dhruveeya nirdeshaank mein vyakt kiya hai

jahaaain θ kon hai, r kendra se rediys ya doori hai aur n floret ka soochakaank hai tatha c ek nirantar skeling kaarak hai. yeh farmet ke sarpil ka ek roop hai. kon 137.5° sunahare anupaat se sambandhit hai aur florets ki ek kareebi paiking deta hai. yeh model soorajamukhi ke computer graafiks prativedanon ka utpaadan karne ke liye istemaal kiya gaya hai.

aakaar

soorajamukhi saadhaaranat: 1.5 aur 3.5 meter (8-12 foot) ke beech ki lambaai tak badhta hai. 1567 se vaigyaanik saahitya report, ki paadyooaa mein ek 12-meter (40 foot), paaramparik, ekal sar, soorajamukhi paudha ugaaya gaya tha. vahi beej varg anya samay aur sthaanon (jaise Madrid) par lagbhag 8 meter (26 foot) badha. aur bhi haal hi ke 8 meter se adhik ke adbhut karm (pichhle score varsh) needaralainds aur ontaariyo, Canada donon mein praapt kiye gaye hain.

saanskrutik prateek

  • soorajamukhi, ameriki raajya kaansaas ka raajya fool hai aur kitaakayushoo, Japan ke shahar ke foolon mein se ek hai.
  • soorajamukhi aksar hari vichaaradhaara ke prateek ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai, usi tarah jaise laal gulaab samaajavaad ya saamaajik lokatantr ka prateek hai. soorajamukhi shaakaahaari society ka bhi prateek hai. unneesaveen shataabdi ke atikaal ke dauraan, is fool ka prayog saundaryashaastr aandolan ke prateek ke roop mein kiya gaya.
  • vain gaag ke sabse prasiddh achal chitr jeevan ka vishay, soorajamukhi (chitron ki shrrunkhala)
  • soorajamukhi Ukraine ka raashtreeya fool hai.

kismein (prakaar)

nimnalikhit soorajamukhi ki kismein hain (varnamaala kram mein):

  • ameriki jaaint haaibreed
  • aarnika
  • otam beauty
  • ejtek san
  • blek oil
  • dvaarf sanaspot
  • evening san
  • jaaint primroj
  • Indian bleinket haaibreed
  • aayarish aaij
  • itaalavi vaait
  • kaaaing haaibreed
  • laarj gre straaip
  • leman queen
  • memoth soorajamukhi
  • mangoliyaai jaaint
  • oreinj san
  • peech paishan
  • peereedovik
  • red san
  • ring of fire
  • rostov
  • skaayaskrepar
  • soraaya
  • straaberi blond
  • sani haaibreed
  • taaiyo
  • taaraahamaara
  • tedeebiar
  • taaitan
  • vailantaain
  • velvet queen
  • yelo empres

anya prajaatiyaaain

  • mekseemiliyn soorajamukhi (heliynathas mekseemiliyni) uttari America ke mool baarahamaasi soorajamukhi ki 38 prajaatiyon mein se ek hai. bhoomi sansthaan aur anya prajanan kaaryakram vartamaan mein, ek baarahamaasi beej fasal ke roop mein in ke liye sambhaavana talaash kar rahe. hain.
  • sunachok [1] (yarooshalem aatichok ya heliynathas tyubarosas) soorajamukhi se sambandhit hai, yeh baarahamaasi soorajamukhi ka ek aur udaaharan hai.
  • maiksikn soorajamukhi tithoniya rotanadifoliya hai. yeh bahut hi door se uttar ameriki soorajamukhi se sambandhit hai.
  • faals (nakali) soorajamukhi jeenas heliopasis ke paudhon ko sandarbhit karta hai.

chitradeergha


yeh bhi dekhein

  • soorajamukhi ka tel
  • laal soorajamukhi
  • soorajamukhi ke rogon ki soochi

tippani

sandarbh

  • Pope, kevin; pohal, meri i.di.; jons, John ji.; leintaj, 3 David L.; vaun negi, Christopher; vega, Francisco J.; kuitamyer iravi aar.; "mesoamerika ke loleindaj mein praacheen krushi ka aarambh aur paryaavaran samaayojan," vigyaan, 18 May 2001: khand. 292. number. 5,520, peepi. 1370-1373.
  • shostek, robat. 1974. fool aur paudhe. jeevani sambandhi nots ke saath ek antarraashtreeya shabdakosh . kuaadreingal/the New York times book kan. 329 peepi.
  • vud, maarasiya. June 2002. "soorajamukhi rabad?" krushi anusandhaan. USDA. [2][3]

baahari link