sooradaas

sooradaas ka naam Krishna bhakti ki ajasr dhaara ko pravaahit karne vaale bhakt kaviyon mein sarvopari hai. hindi saahitya mein Bhagwan shreekrushn ke ananya upaasak aur brajabhaasha ke shreshth kavi mahaatma sooradaas hindi saahitya ke soorya maane jaate hain. hindi kavita kaamini ke is kamaneeya kaant ne hindi bhaasha ko samruddh karne mein jo yogadaan diya hai, vah adviteeya hai. sooradaas hindi saahitya mein bhakti kaal ke sagun bhakti shaakha ke Krishna-bhakti upashaakha ke mahaan kavi hain.

anukram

jeevan parichay

sooradaas ka janm 1478 isvi mein runakata naamak gaanv mein hua. yeh gaaainv Mathura-Agra maarg ke kinaare sthit hai. kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki soor ka janm seehi [1] naamak gram mein ek nirdhan saarasvat braahman parivaar mein hua tha. baad mein ye Agra aur Mathura ke beech gaooghaat par aakar rahane lage the. sooradaas ke pita raamadaas gaayak the. sooradaas ke janmaandh hone ke vishay mein [2] matabhed hai. praarambh mein sooradaas Agra ke sameep gaooghaat par rahate the. vaheen unki bheint shri vallabhaachaarya se hui aur ve unke shishya ban gaye. vallabhaachaarya ne unako pushtimaarg mein Dixit kar ke krushnaleela ke pad gaane ka aadesh diya. sooradaas ki mrutyu govardhan ke nikat paarasauli gram mein 1580 isvi mein hui.

janmatithi evam janmasthaan ke vishay mein matabhed

sooradaas ki janmatithi evam janmasthaan ke vishay mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. "saahitya lahari' soor ki likhi rachana maani jaati hai. ismein saahitya lahari ke rachana-kaal ke sambandh mein nimn pad milta hai -

muni puni ke ras lekh.
dasan gaureenand ko likhi suval sanvat pekh.

iska arth vidvaanon ne sanvat 1607 vi0 maana hai, ataev "saahitya lahari' ka rachana kaal sanvat 1607 vi0 hai. is granth se yeh bhi pramaan milta hai ki soor ke guru shri ballabhaachaarya the.

sooradaas ka janm san0 1535 vi0 ke lagbhag thaharata hai, kyonki ballabh sampradaaya mein aisi maanyata hai ki ballabhaachaarya sooradaas se das din bade the aur ballabhaachaarya ka janm ukt sanvat ki vaishaakh Krishna ekaadashi ko hua tha. isliye sooradaas ki janm-tithi vaishaakh shukla panchami, sanvat 1535 vi0 sameecheen jaan padti hai. anek pramaanon ke aadhaar par unka mrutyu sanvat 1620 se 1648 vi0 ke madhya sveekaar kiya jaata hai. raamachandr shukl ji ke mataanusaar sooradaas ka janm sanvat 1540 vi0 ke sannikt aur mrutyu sanvat 1620 vi0 ke aaspaas maana jaata hai.

shri guru ballabh tattv sunaayo leela bhed bataayo.

sooradaas ki aayu "soorasaaraavali' ke anusaar us samay 67 varsh thi. 'chauraasi vaishnavan ki vaarta' ke aadhaar par unka janm runakata athva renu ka kshetr (vartamaan jila aagaraantargat) mein hua tha. Mathura aur Agra ke beech gaooghaat par ye nivaas karte the. ballabhaachaarya se inki bheint vaheen par hui thi. "bhaavaprakaash' mein soor ka janm sthaan seehi naamak gram bataaya gaya hai. ve saarasvat braahman the aur janm ke andhe the. "aaine akabari' mein (sanvat 1653 vi0) tatha "mutakhabut-tavaareekh' ke anusaar sooradaas ko Akbar ke darabaari sangeetajnyaon mein maana hai.

kya sooradaas janmaandh the ?

sooradaas shreenaath ki "sanskrutavaarta manipaala', shri hariraaya krut "bhaav-prakaash", shri gokulanaath ki "nijvaarta' aadi granthon ke aadhaar par, janm ke andhe maane gaye hain. lekin raadha-Krishna ke rup saundarya ka sajeev chitran, naana rangon ka varnan, sookshm paryavekshanasheelata aadi gunon ke kaaran adhiktar vartamaan vidvaan soor ko janmaandh sveekaar naheen karte.
shyaamasundar das ne is sambandh mein likha hai - "soor vaastav mein janmaandh naheen the, kyonki shrungaar tatha rang-rupaadi ka jo varnan unhonne kiya hai vaisa koi janmaandh naheen kar sakta." Doctor hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ne likha hai - "soorasaagar ke kuchh padon se yeh dhvani avashya niklati hai ki sooradaas apne ko janm ka andha aur karm ka abhaaga kehte hain, par sab samay iske aksharaarth ko hi pradhaan naheen maanana chaahiye."

rachanaaeain

sooradaas ji dvaara likhit paaainch granth bataae jaate hain:

  • (1) soorasaagar - jo sooradaas ki prasiddh rachana hai. jismein sava lakh pad sangrahit the. kintu ab saat-aath hajaar pad hi milte hain.
  • (2) soorasaaraavali
  • (3) saahitya-lahari - jismein unke koot pad sankalit hain.
  • (4) nal-damayanti
  • (5) byaahalo

uparokt mein antim do apraapya hain.

naagari prachaarini sabha dvaara prakaashit hastalikhit pustakon ki vivran taalika mein sooradaas ke 16 granthon ka ullekh hai. inmein soorasaagar, soorasaaraavali, saahitya lahari, nal-damayanti, byaahalo ke atirikt dashamaskandh teeka, naagaleela, bhaagavat, govardhan leela, soorapacheesi, soorasaagar saar, praanapyaari, aadi granth sammilit hain. inmein praarambh ke teen granth hi mahattvapoorn samajhe jaate hain, saahitya lahari ki praapt prati mein bahut prakshiptaansh jude hue hain.

  • soorasaagar ka mukhya varnya vishay shri Krishna ki leelaaon ka gaan raha hai.
  • soorasaaraavali mein kavi ne Krishna vishyak jin kathaatmak aur seva parak pado ka gaan kiya unhi ke saar roop main unhone saaraavali ki rachana ki.
  • sahityalahari main soor ke drushtikoot pad sankalit hain.

soor-kaavya ki visheshataaeain

  • 1. soor ke anusaar Bhagwan shreekrushn ke anugrah se manushya ko sadgati mil sakti hai. atal bhakti karmabhed, jaatibhed, gyaan, yog se shreshth hai.
  • 2. soor ne vaatsalya, shrrungaar aur shaant rason ko mukhya roop se apnaaya hai. soor ne apni kalpana aur pratibha ke sahaare Krishna ke baalya-roop ka ati sundar, saras, sajeev aur manovaigyaanik varnan kiya hai. baalakon ki chapalata, spardha, abhilaasha, aakaanksha ka varnan karne mein vishv vyaapi baal-svaroop ka chitran kiya hai. baal-Krishna ki ek-ek cheshtaaon ke chitran mein kavi kamaal ki hoshiyaari evam sookshm nireekshan ka parichay dete hain-
maiya kabahin badhaigi chauti?
kiti baar mohin doodh piyt bhai, yeh ajahooain hai chhoti.

soor ke Krishna prem aur maadhurya pratimoorti hai. jiski abhivyakti badi hi svaabhaavik aur sajeev roop mein hui hai.

  • 3. jo komalakaant padaavali, bhaavaanukool shabd-chayan, saarthak alankaar-yojana, dhaaraavaahi pravaah, sangeetaatmakata evam sajeevata soor ki bhaasha mein hai, use dekhkar to yahi kehna padta hai ki soor ne hi sarv pratham brajabhaasha ko saahityik roop diya hai.
  • 4. soor ne bhakti ke saath shrrungaar ko jaadkar uske sanyog-viyaag pakshon ka jaisa varnan kiya hai, vaisa anyatr durlabh hai.
  • 5. soor ne vinaya ke pad bhi rache hain, jismein unki daasya-bhaavana kaheen-kaheen tulaseedaas se aage badh jaati hai-
hamaare prabhu augun chit na dharau.
samadarasi hai maan tumhaarau, soi paar karau.
  • 6. soor ne sthaan-sthaan par koot pad bhi likhe hain.
  • 7. prem ke svachh aur maarjit roop ka chitran bhaarateeya saahitya mein kisi aur kavi ne naheen kiya hai yeh sooradaas ki apni visheshata hai. viyog ke samay raadhika ka jo chitr sooradaas ne chitrit kiya hai, vah is prem ke yogya hai
  • 8. soor ne yashoda aadi ke sheel, gun aadi ka sundar chitran kiya hai.
  • 9. soor ka bhramarageet viyog-shrungaar ka hi utkrusht granth naheen hai, usamein sagun aur nirgun ka bhi vivechan hua hai. ismein visheshakar uddhav-gopi sanvaadon mein haasya-vyangya ke achhe chheentein bhi milte hain.
  • 10. soor kaavya mein prakruti-saundarya ka sookshm aur sajeev varnan milta hai.
  • 11. soor ki kavita mein puraane aakhyaanon aur kathanon ka ullekh bahut sthaanon mein milta hai.
  • 12. soor ke geya padon mein hrrudayasth bhaavon ki badi sundar vyajana hui hai. unke Krishna-leela sambandhi padon mein soor ke bhakt aur kavi hrrudaya ki sundar jhaaainki milti hai.
  • 13. soor ka kaavya bhaav-paksh ki drushti se hi mahaan naheen hai, kala-paksh ki drushti se bhi vah utana hi mahatvapoorn hai. soor ki bhaasha saral, svaabhaavik tatha vaagvaidigdhapoorn hai. alankaar-yojana ki drushti se bhi unka kala-paksh sabal hai. aachaarya hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ne soor ki kavitv-shakti ke baare mein likha hai-
sooradaas jab apne priya vishay ka varnan shuroo karte hain to maano alankaar-shaastr haath jodkar unke peechhe-peechhe dauda karta hai. upamaaon ki baadh aa jaati hai, roopakon ki varsha hone lagti hai.

is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki sooradaas hindi saahitya ke mahaakavi hain, kyonki unhonne na keval bhaav aur bhaasha ki drushti se saahitya ko susajjit kiya, varan Krishna-kaavya ki vishisht parampara ko bhi janm diya hai.

sandarbh

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain