sookshmajaiviki

sookshmajeevon se streekd ek agaar plate

sookshmajaiviki un sookshmajeevon ka adhyayan hai, jo ekakoshikeeya ya sookshmadarsheeya koshika-samooh jantu hote hain.[1] inmein yookairyots jaise kavak evam protist aur prokairyots, jaise jeevaanu aur aarkiya aate hain. vishaanuon ko sthaayi taur par jeev ya praani naheen kaha gaya hai, fir bhi isi ke antargat inka bhi adhyayan hota hai.[2] sankshep mein sookshmajaiviki un sajeevon ka adhyayan hai, jo ki nagn aaainkhon se dikhaai naheen dete hain. sookshmajaiviki ati vishaal shabd hai, jismein vishaanu vigyaan, kavak vigyaan, parajeevi vigyaan, jeevaanu vigyaan, va kai anya shaakhaaeain aateen hain. sookshmajaiviki mein tatpar shodh hote rahate hain evam yeh kshetr anvarat pragati par agrasar hai. abhi tak humne shaayad poori pruthvi ke sookshmajeevon mein se ek pratishat ka hi adhyayan kiya hai.[3] haaainlaaainki sookshmajeev lagbhag teen sau varsh poorv dekhe gaye the, kintu jeev vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon, jaise jantu vigyaan ya paadap vigyaan ki apeksha sookshmajaiviki apne ati praarambhik star par hi hai.

anukram

sookshmajeevavijnyaaan poorv

entoni vaun lyoovenhauk

sookshmajeevon ke astitv ka anumaan unki khoj se kai shataabdiyon poorv laga liya gaya tha. in par sabse pehla siddhaant praacheen roman vidvaan maarkas tereinshiys vairro ne apni krushi par aadhaarit ek pustak mein diya tha. ismein unhonne chetaavani di thi ki daladal ke nikat khet naheen banaae jaane chaahiye.[k] kainan of maidisin naamak pustak mein, abu Ali ibn sina ne kaha hai ki shareer ke sraav, sankramit hone se pehle baahari sookshmajeevon dvaara dooshit kiye jaate hain.[4] unhonne kshaya rog va anya sankraamak bimaariyon ke sankramak svabhaav ki parikalpana ki thi, va sangarodh (kvaarantaain) ka prayog sankraamak bimaariyon ki rokathaam hetu kiya tha.[5] chaudahaveen shataabdi mein jab kaali mrutyu (black daith) va byubonik pleg al-andailas mein pahuaincha tab ibn khaatima ne yeh praakkalan kiya ki sookshmajeev maanav shareer ke andar pahuainch kar, sankraamak rog paida karti hain.[6] 1546 mein jirolaamo fraikaistoro ne yeh prastaav diya ki mahaamaariyaaain sthaanaantaraneeya beej jaise astitvon dvaara failati hain. ye vastueain pratyaksh ya paroksh roop se kabhi kabhi to bina sampark ke hi lambi doori se bhi sankramit kar sakti hain. sookshmajeevon ke baare mein ye sabhi daave anumaan maatr hi the kyonki ye kisi aankadon ya vigyaan par aadhaarit naheen the. satrahaveen shataabdi tak sookshm jeev na to siddh hi hue the aur na hi dekhe gaye the. inko satrahaveen shataabdi mein hi sahi taur par dekha gaya tatha varnit kiya gaya. iska mool kaaran yeh tha ki sabhi poorv soochanaaeain va shodh ek moolabhoot upakaran ke abhaav mein kiye gaye the, jo sookshmajaiviki ya jeevaanuvijnyaaan ke astitv mein rahane ke liye atyaavashyak tha aur vah tha sookshmadarshi yantr. entoni vaun lyoovenhauk pratham sookshmajeevavaijnyaaanik the jinhonne pehli baar sookshmajeevon ko sookshmadarshi yantr se dekha tha, isi kaaran unhein sookshmajaiviki ka janak kaha jaata hai. inhonne hi sookshmadarshi yantr ka aavishkaar kiya tha.

sookshmajaiviki ki khoj va udgam

jeevaanu va sookshmajeevon ko sarvapratham entoni vaun lyoovenhauk ne 1676 mein svanirmit ekal-leins sookshmadarshi se dekha tha. aisa karke unhonne jeev vigyaan ke kshetr mein ek abhootapoorv kaarya kiya jiske dvaara jeevaanu vigyaan va sookshmajaiviki ka aarambh hua.[1] baikteeriym shabd ka prayog kaafi baad (1828) mein ehrenbarg dvaara hua. yeh yoonaani shabd βaaαaaκaaτaaηaaρaaιaaοaaν se nikla hai, jiska arth hai - chhoti si dandi. haalauki lyoovenhauk ko pratham sookshmajaivijnya kaha gaya hai, kintu pratham maanyata praapt sookshmajaivik Robert hook (1635-1703) ko maana jaata hai jinhonne mold ke falan ka avlokan kiya tha.[7]

sookshmadarshi yantr

jeevaanu vigyaan (jo baad mein sookshmajaiviki ka ek up-vibhaag ban gaya) fardinaind kohn (1828–1898) dbaara sthaapit kiya gaya maana jaata hai. ye ek paadapavaijnyaaanik the, jinke shaivaal va prakaashasanshleshit jeevaanu par kiye gaye shodh ne unhein baisils va baiggiyaitoaa sahit kai anya jeevaanuon ka varnan karne ko prerit kiya tha. kohn hi jeevaanuon ke vargeekaran ki yojana ko paribhaashit karne vaale pratham vyakti the.[8] lui paashchar (1822–1895) va Robert coach (1843–1910) kohn ke samakaaleen the tatha unako aayurvigyaan sookshmajaiviki ka sansthaapak maana jaata hai.[9] paashchar tatkaaleen sahaj utpaadan ke siddhaant ko jhuthalaane ke liye apne dvaara kiye gaye shreneebaddh prayogon ke liye prasiddh ho chuke the. iseese sookshmajaiviki ka dharaatal aur thos ho gaya.[10] paashchar ne khaadya sanrakshan ke upaaya khoje the (paashcharaaijeshan) unhonne hi ainthraiks, foul kaulara evam rebeej sahit kai rogon ke suraksha teekon ki khoj ki thi.[1] coach apne rogon ke jeevaanu siddhaant ke liye prasiddh the, jiske anusaar koi vishisht rog, kisi vishisht rogajanak sookshmajeev ke kaaran hi hota hai. unhonne hi kochs paustyulets banaaye the. coach shuddh kalchar mein se jeevaanuon ke pruthakeekaran karne vaale vaigyaaniko mein se pratham rahe hain. jiske parinaamasvaroop kai naveen jeevaanuon ki khoj va varnan kiye ja sake, jinmein maaikobaikteeriym tyoobarkyulosis, kshaya rog ka mool jeevanu bhi raha.

paashchar evam coach praay: sookshmajaiviki ke janak kahe jaate hain parantu unka kaarya sahi dhang se sookshmajaivik sansaar ki vaastavik vividhta ko naheen darshaata hai, kyonki unak dhyaan pratyaksh chikitsa sambandhi sandarbhon vaale sookshmajeevon par hi kendrit raha. maartins William beijarink (1851–1931) evam sarjei vinograidski (1856–1953), jo saamaanya sookshmajaiviki (ek puraatan pad, jismein sookshmajaivik shareerakriya vigyaan, vibhed evam paaristhitiki aate hain) ke sansthaapak kahe jaate hain, ke kaaryon ke uparaant hi, sookshmajaiviki ki sahi-sahi paridhi ka gyaan hua.[1]

beijarink ke sookshmajaiviki mein do mahaan yogadaan hain: vishaanuon ki khoj tatha upajaaoo sanvardhan takaneek (enrarichmeint kalchar taikneek) ka vikaas.[11] unke tambaakoo mojaaik vishaanu par kiye gaye anusandhaan kaarya ne vishaanu vigyaan ke moolabhoot siddhaant sthaapit kiye the. yeh unke enarichmeint kalchar ka vikaas tha, jiska taatkshanik prabhaav sookshmajaiviki par pada. iske dvaara ek vruhat sookshmajeevon ki shrunkhala ko sanvarddhit kiya ja saka, jinki shaareeriki vividh prakaar ki thi. vinograidski ne akaarbanik raasaayanik padaarthon (keemolithotraufi) par pratham siddhaant prastut kiya tha, jiske saath hi sookshmajeevon ki bhooraasaayanik prakriyaaon mein atimhatvapoorn bhoomika ujaagar hui.[12] inhonne hi sarvapratham naaitrifaaing tatha naaitrojan-fixing jeevaanu ka pruthakeekaran kiya tha.[1]

sookshmajeevon ke prakaar

jeevaanu

sookshm jeevi anek prakaar ke hote hain jinmein jeevaanu pramukh hain. jeevaanu ek ekakoshikeeya jeev hai. iska aakaar kuchh mileemeetar tak hi hota hai. inki aakruti gol ya mukt-chakraakaar se lekar chhad aadi ke aakaar ki ho sakti hai. ye prokairiyotik, koshika bhittiyukt, ekakoshakeeya saral jeev hain jo praay: sarvatr paaye jaate hai. ye pruthvi par mitti mein, amleeya garm jal-dhaaraaon mein, naabhikeeya padaarthon mein[13], jal mein, bhoo-papadi mein, yahaaain tak ki kaarbanik padaarthon mein tatha paudhaun evam jantuon ke shareer ke bheetar bhi paaye jaate hain. saadhaaranat: ek gram mitti mein 4 karod jeevaanu kosh tatha 1 mileeleetar jal mein 10 lakh jeevaanu paae jaate hain. sampoorn pruthvi par anumaanat: lagbhag 5X1030 jeevaanu paae jaate hain.[14] jo sansaar ke baayomaas ka ek bahut bada bhaag hai.[15] ye kai tatvon ke chakr mein bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada karte hain, jaise ki vaayumandal ke liye naaitrojan ke sthireekaran mein. haaainlaaki bahut saare vansh ke jeevaanuon ka shreni vibhaajan bhi naheen hua hai tathaapi lagbhag aadhon ki kisi na kisi jaati ko prayogashaala mein ugaaya ja chuka hai.[16] jeevaanuon ka adhyayan baiktiriyoloji ke antargat kiya jaata hai jo sookshmajaiviki ki hi ek shaakha hai.

E. kolaai naamak jeevaanu, sarvaadhik adhyayan kiya gaya sookshmajeev

maanav shareer mein jitni maanav koshikaaeain hai, uske lagbhag 10 guna adhik jeevaanu kosh hai. inmein se adhikaansh jeevaanu tvacha tatha ahaaranaal mein paae jaate hain.[17] haanikaarak jeevaanu suraksha tantr ke rakshak prabhaav ke kaaran shareer ko nuksaan nahi pahuaincha paate hai. kuchh jeevaanu laabhadaayak bhi hote hain. anek prakaar ke parajeevi jeevaanu kai rog utpann karte hain, jaise - haija, miyaadi bukhaar, nimoniya, tapedik ya kshayarog, pleg ityaadi. sirf kshaya rog se prativrsh lagbhag 20 lakh log marate hain jinmein se adhikaansh up-sahaara kshetr ke hote hain.[18] viksit deshon mein jeevaanuon ke sankraman ka upachaar karne ke liye tatha krushi kaaryon mein pratijaivik prayogon ke liye inka upayog hota hai, isliye jeevaanuon mein in pratijaivik davaaon ke prati pratirodhak shakti viksit hoti ja rahi hai. audyogik kshetr mein jeevaanuon ki kinvan kriya dvaara dahi, paneer ityaadi vastuon ka nirmaan hota hai. inka upayog pratijaiviki tatha aur rasaayanon ke nirmaan mein tatha jaivapraudyogiki ke kshetr mein hota hai.[19]
iske atirikt vishaanu jo ateesookshm jeev hain. ve shareer ke baahar to mrut hote hain parantu shareer ke andar jeevit ho jaate hain. inhe kristal ke roop me ikattha kiya ja sakta hai. kavak jo ek prakaar ke paudhe hain, apna bhojan sade gale mrrut kaarbanik padaarthon se praapt karte hain aur jinka sabse bada laabh sansaar me apamaarjak ke roop me kaarya karna hai, protojoaa jo ek ekakoshikeeya jeev hai, jiski koshikaayein yukairiyotik prakaar ki hoti hain aur saadhaaran sookshmadarshi yantr se aasaani se dekhe ja sakta hai, aarkiya ya aarkibaikteeriya jo apne saral roop mein baikteeriya jaise hi hote hain par unki kosheeya sanrachana kaafi alag hoti hai. aur shaivaal jo saral sajeev hain, paudhon ke samaan soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya dvaara apna bhojan svanya banaate hain aur ek koshikeeya se lekar bahu-koshikeeya anek roopon mein ho sakte hain, parantu paudhon ke samaan ismein jad, pattiyaaain ityaadi rachanaaeain naheen pai jaati hain bhi sookshmajeeviyon ki shreni mein aate hain.

adhyayan ki vidhi

sookshmajeev jaise jeevaanu tatha vishaanu atyant sookshm hote hain parantu inki sanrachana saral hoti hain. inke adhyayan mein sookshmadarshi yantr ki mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai. ilektraun sookshmadarshi yantr ke aavishkaar ke baad to inka adhyayan aur bhi saral ho gaya hai. ilektraun sookshmadarshi ki aavardhan kshamata saadhaaran ya yaugik sookshmadarshi se hajaaron guna adhik hai. isse sookshmajeevon ko vaastavik aakaar se laakhon guna bada karke dekha jaata hai. jeevaanuon ko abhiranjit karne ki vidhiyon ki khoj hone ke baad inki pehchaan saral ho gayi hai. gram sten ki sahaayata se jeevaanuon ka vargeekaran evam adhyayan kiya jaata hai. prayogashaala mein sanvardhan dvaara jeevaanuon ki colony ugaai jaati hai. is prakaar se ugaai gayi jeevaanu-colony jeevaanuon par shodh karne mein atyant upayogi siddh hui hai.

ek aadarsh vishaanu

adhyayan ke liye sookshmajaiviki ke kshetr ko praay: kai up-kshetron mein baanta jaata hai: sookshmajeev shareer kriya vigyaan ismein sookshmajaivik koshikaaeain kis prakaar jaivaraasaayanik kriyaaeain karateen hain, iska adhyayan tatha sookshmajaivik upaj, sookshmajaivik upapaachaya (maitaabolijm) evam sookshmajaivik koshika sanrachana sammilit hain. sookshmajaivik anuvaanshiki ismein sookshmajeevon mein jeen tatha unki koshikeeya kriyaaon ke sambandh mein, ve kis prakaar vyavasthit va niyamit hote hain, iski jaankaari praapt ki jaati hai. yeh shreni aanvik jaiviki ke kshetr se niktata se sambandhit hai. aayurvigyaan sookshmajaiviki ya sookshmajaiv aayurvigyaan ismein maanaveeya rogon mein sookshmajeevon ki bhoomika ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. sookshmajaivik rogajanan evam mahaamaari vigyaan ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai saath hi yeh rog vikruti vigyaan evam shareer ke suraksha vigyaan se bhi sambandhit hai. pashu sookshmajaiviki iski sookshmajeevon ki pashu chikitsa ya pashu vargeekaran mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai. paryaavaran sookshmajaiviki ismein sookshmajeevon ke praakrutik paryaavaran/vaataavaran mein kriya va vibhed ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai tatha ismein sookshmajaivik paaristhitiki, sookshmajaivikeeya-madhyasth poshan chakr, bhoosookshmajaiviki, sookshmajaivik vibhed va baayoreemaidiyeshan bhi sammilit hain. vikaasavaadi sookshmajaiviki ismein sookshmajeevon ke vikaas ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai saath hi ismein jeevaanvik suvyavastha evam vargeekaran bhi sammilit hai. audyogik sookshmajaiviki ismein audyogik prakriyaaon mein sookshmajeevon ke anuprayog va upayog ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth, audyogik prakinvan, vyarth jal nirupan ityaadi. yeh jaivapraudyogiki vyavasaaya ka nikat sambandhi hai. is kshetr mein madyakaran bhi sammilit hai, jo sookshmajaiviki ka mahatvapoorn anuprayog hai. vaayu sookshmajaiviki yeh vaayuvaahit sookshmajeevon ka adhyayan hai. khaadya sookshmajaiviki jismein sookshmajeevon dvaara khaadya padaarthon mein kharaabi va khaadya sambandhi rogon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. sookshmajeevon ko khaadya padaarth utpaadan hetu prayog mein laana, jaise prakinvan aadi bhi ismein shaamil hai. aushadheeya sookshmajaiviki mein aushadhiyon mein dooshan laane vaale sookshmajeevon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. maukhik sookshmajaivikeemein mukh ke bheetar ke sookshmajeevon ka adhyayan, khaaskar jo sookshmajeevi dantakshaya evam dantaparidheeya (pairiyodaaainntal) rogon ke kaaran hain unka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

laabh

beer utpaadan hetu khameer se poorn tankiyaaain
  • yadyapi sookshmajeevon ko unke vibhinn maanaveeya rogon se sambandhit hone ke kaaran, praay: nakaaraatmak drushti se dekha jaata hai, tathaapi sookshmajeev kai laabhadaayak prakriyaaon ke liye bhi uttaradaayi hote hain, jaise audyogik prakinvan (udaaharan svaroop madyasaar (alkohaul) evam dugdh-utpaad), jaivapratirodhi utpaadan. yeh uchch shreni ke jeevon jaise paadapon mein kloning hetu vaahan roop mein bhi prayog kiye jaate hain. vaigyaaniko ne jaivapraudyogik drushti se mahatvapoorn kinvak jaise taik paulimrej, reporter jeen aadi ka utpaadan karne mein apne sookshmajeevon ke gyaan ka upayog kiya hai. in kinvakon ka prayog anya anuvaanshik tantron mein va noval aanvik jeevavijnyaaan takaneekon mein hota hai, jaise yeest too-haaibrid system ityaadi.
  • jeevaanuon ko ameeno aml ke audyogik utpaadan ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. kauraainebaikteeriym glootaimikm jeevaanu ka prayog L-glootaamet evam L-laaiseen naamak ameeno aml ke utpaadan mein kiya jaata hai, jisse prati varsh do million tan ameeno aml ka utpaadan hota hai.[20].
  • anek prakaar ke jaiv bahuanuk jaise pauleesaikkaraaid, pauliyestar evam pauleeemaaid; sookshmajeevon dvaara hi utpaadit kiye jaate hain. sookshmajeevon ka prayog bahuanukon ke jaivapraudyogik utpaadan hetu bhi kiya jaata hai. yeh jeev uchch maan ke aayurvijnyaaani anuprayogon, jaise ootak abhiyaantriki evam drag delivery ke anukool gunon se lais kiye gaye hote hain. sookshmajeevon ka prayog jainthain, ailjinet, sailyuloj, saayanofaaisin, pauli-gaama glootonik aml, levain, haayalyuraunik aml, kaarbanik oligosaikkaraaid evam pauleesaikkaraaid tatha pauleehaaidraukseeailkainoet aadi ke jaivasanshleshan hetu bhi hota hai.[21]
  • sookshmajeev gharelu, krushi ya audyogik koode tatha mruda (mitti), avasaad evam samudreeya paryaavaranon mein adhosatahi pradooshan ke sookshmajaivik vightan ya jaivapunarnirmaan mein prayukt hote hain. pratyek sookshmajeev dvaara jahareele koode ke vightan ki kshamata sandooshit ke svabhaav par bhi nirbhar karti hai, kyonki adhikaansh sthal vibhinn prakaar ke pradooshakon se yukt hote hain. sookshmajaivik vightan ki sarvottam prabhaavi paddhati hai- vibhinn jeevaanvik jaatiyon va strens, jinmein se pratyek ek ya anek prakaar ke sandooshakon ke vightan mein saksham ho, ke mishran ka prayog karna.[22]
  • probaayotik (paachan pranaali mein sanbhavat: sahaayak jeevaanu) evam preebaayotik (probaayotik sookshmajeevon ki badhottri hetu liye gaye padaarth) padaarthon se maanaveeya va paashvik svaasthya mein yogadaan ke kai daave bhi hue hain.[23]
  • haal ke shodhon se gyaat hua hai ki sookshmajeev Cancer ke upachaar mein bhi sahaayak ho sakte hain. gair-paithojainik klostreediya ke kai stren dete ghuspaith karke thos rasauliyon ke andar hi pratilipiyaan bana sakta hai. klostridiyl vaahak saurakshit roop se niyantrit kiye ja sakte hain, va unki chikitsa sambandhi proteenon ko vahan karne ki kshamata kai pratiroopon mein pradarshit ki ja chuki hai.[24]

teeka tippani

k. ^ ...and because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and there cause serious diseases.[25]

sandarbh

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vistrut pathan

  • larnar, brenda vilmauth & ke.li larnar (sanpa.) (2006). maidisin, hailth end baayoethiks : asenshiyl primary sorsej (pratham sanskaran san॰). thaumasan Gale. ISBN 1-4144-0623-1.
  • vitjaini, guenthar (2008). baayo-kamyunikeshan of baikteeriya end its ivaulyooshnari intararileshans too natural jeenom editing kaumpitainsej of vaayarasej. nechar priseedings. hdl:10101/npre.2008.1738.1.

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