sookha

akaal bhojan ka ek vyaapak abhaav hai jo kisi bhi pashuvargeeya prajaati par laagoo ho sakta hai. is ghatna ke saath ya iske baad aam taur par kshetreeya kuposhan, bhukhamari, mahaamaari aur mrutyu dar mein vruddhi ho jaati hai. jab kisi kshetr mein lambe samay tak (kai maheene ya kai varsh tak) varsha kam hoti hai ya naheen hoti hai to ise sookha ya akaal kaha jaata hai. sookhe ke kaaran prabhaavit kshetr ki krushi evam vahaaain ke paryaavaran par atyant pratikool prabhaav padta hai. isse sthaaneeya arthavyavastha dagamaga jaati hai. itihaas mein kuchh akaal bahut hi kukhyaat rahe hain jismein karondon logon ki jaane gayeen hain.

akaal raahat ke aapaatkaaleen upaayon mein mukhya roop se kshatipoorak sookshm poshak tatv jaise ki vitaamin aur khanij padaarth dena shaamil hai jinhein forteefaaid shaise paaudaron ke maadhyam se ya seedhe taur par poorakon ke jariye diya jaata hai.[1][2] sahaayata samoohon ne daata deshon se khaadya padaarth khareedne ki bajaay sthaaneeya kisaanon ko bhugataan ke liye nagad raashi dena ya bhookhon ko nagad vaauchar dene par aadhaarit akaal raahat model ka prayog karna shuroo kar diya hai kyonki daata desh sthaaneeya khaadya padaarth baajaaron ko nuksaan pahunchaate hain.[3]

lambi avadhi ke upaayon mein shaamil hain aadhunik krushi takaneekon jaise ki urvarak aur sinchaai mein nivesh, jisne viksit duniya mein bhukhamari ko kaafi had tak mita diya hai.[4] vishv bank ki baadhyataaen kisaanon ke liye sarkaari anudaanon ko seemit karte hain aur urvarakon ke adhik se adhik upayog ke anaapekshit parinaamon: jal aapoortiyon aur aavaas par pratikool prabhaavon ke kaaran kuchh paryaavaran samoohon dvaara iska virodh kiya jaata hai.[5][6]

anukram

akaal ke kaaran

1941 mein distrofiya se joojh raha ek bhookha vruddh.[7]

akaal ki paribhaashaaen teen alag-alag shreniyon par aadhaarit hain - khaadya aapoorti ke aadhaar par, bhojan ki khapat ke aadhaar par aur mrutyu dar ke aadhaar par. akaal ki kuchh paribhaashaaen hain:

  • bliks - khaadya padaarthon ki vyaapak kami jiske kaaran kshetreeya mrutyu daron mein ullekhaneeya vruddhi ho jaati hai.[8]
  • brown aur ekholam - khaadya aapoorti mein achaanak, teevrata se hone waali kami jiske parinaam svaroop vyaapak bhukhamari paida ho jaati hai.[9]
  • skrimshau - badi sankhya mein logon ki bhojan ki khapat ke star mein achaanak giraavat. [10]
  • raiveliyn - kisi aabaadi ke kuchh khandon mein bhojan grahan karne par asaamaanya roop se gambhir khatre ke saath asaamaanya roop se uchch mrutyu dar.[11]
  • kyooni - paristhitiyon ka ek aisa set jo us samay utpann hota hai jab kisi kshetr mein badi sankhya mein log paryaapt maatra mein bhojan praapt naheen kar paate hain jiske parinaam svaroop ek bade paimaane par teevrata se kuposhan fail jaata hai.[12]

kisi aabaadi mein khaadya padaarthon ki kami ya to bhojan ki kami ya fir bhojan ke vitran mein kathinaaiyon ke kaaran hota hai; yeh sthiti praakrutik jalavaayu ke utaar-chadhaavon aur damanakaari sarkaar ya yuddh se sambandhit charam raajaneetik paristhitiyon ke kaaran aur bhi badatar ho sakti hai. Ireland ka bheeshan akaal aanupaatik roop se sabse bade aitihaasik akaalon mein se ek tha. iski shuruaat 1845 mein aaloo ki beemaari ki vajah se hui thi aur yeh isliye bhi hua kyonki khaadya padaarthon ko Ireland se England bheja ja raha tha. keval angrej hi uchch moolyon ka bhugataan karne mein saksham the. haal hi mein itihaasakaaron ne apne un aakalanon ko sanshodhit kiya hai jiske anusaar yeh bataaya gaya tha ki akaal ko kam karne mein angrejon dvaara kitna adhik niyantran ka prayaas kiya ja sakta tha, ismein yeh paaya gaya ki aam taur par jitna samjha jaata tha unhonne usase kaheen adhik madad karne ki koshish ki thi.[13] akaal ke kaaran ke liye 1981 tak paramparaagat vyaakhya khaadya padaarthon ki upalabdhata mein kami (efaedi) ki parikalpana ke roop mein thi. dhaarana yeh thi ki sabhi akaalon ki keindreeya vajah khaadya padaarthon ki upalabdhata mein kami thi.[14] haalaanki efaedi yeh naheen samjha paaya ki kyon aabaadi ka keval ek khaas khand jaise ki khetihr majadoor akaal se prabhaavit the jabki anya akaal se achhoote the.[15] haal hi ke kuchh akaalon ke adhyayan ke aadhaar par efaedi ki nirnaayak bhoomika par savaal uthaaya gaya hai aur yeh sujhaav diya gaya hai ki jald se jald bhukhamari ki sthiti laane ka kaaran banane waali pranaaliyon mein sirf khaadya padaarthon ki upalabdhata mein kami ke alaava bhi kai anya kaarak shaamil hain. is drushtikon ke anusaar, akaal adhikaaron ka ek parinaam hai, is prastaavit siddhaant ko "aadaan-pradaan ke adhikaaron ki vifalta" ya efaii kaha jaata hai.[15] kisi vyakti ke paas vibhinn prakaar ki vastuen ho sakti hain jinki adala-badli ek baajaar vyavastha mein usaki jaroorat ki anya cheejon ke badalein mein ki ja sakti hai. aadaan-pradaan vyaapaar ya utpaadan ya donon ke sanyojan ke maadhyam se kiya ja sakta hai. in adhikaaron ko vyaapaar-aadhaarit ya utpaadan-aadhaarit adhikaar kaha jaata hai. is prastaavit drushtikon ke anusaar akaal ki sthiti vyakti dvaara apne adhikaaron ke aadaan-pradaan ki kshamata khtm ho jaane ke kaaran aati hai.[15] efaii ke kaaran hone vaale akaalon ka ek udaaharan kisi khetihr majadoor dvaara apne pramukh adhikaaron ka aadaan-pradaan karne ki akshamata hai, jaise ki chaaval ka majadoor jab uske rojagaar ki sthiti daavaandol ya poori tarah se samaapt ho jaati hai.[15]

kuchh tatv ek vishesh kshetr ko akaal ke liye atyadhik samvedansheel bana dete hain. inmein shaamil hain:[16]

  • gareebi
  • anupayukt bhautik avasanrachana
  • anupayukt saamaajik dhaancha
  • ek damanakaari raajaneetik vyavastha
  • ek kamjor ya pehle se taiyaar naheen rahane waali sarkaar

kuchh maamalon mein, jaise ki cheen mein great leep fauravaard (jisne poorn sankhyaaon mein sabse bada akaal paida kiya tha), 1990 ke dashak ke madhya mein uttar Korea mein ya san 2000 ki shuruaat mein Zimbabwe mein, akaal ki sthiti sarkaari neetiyon ke ek anpekshit parinaam ke roop mein utpann ho sakti hai. malaavi ne vishv bank ki baadhyataaon ke khilaaf kisaanon ko anudaan dekar apne akaal ka khaatma kiya.[5] ithiyopiya mein 1973 ke vollo akaal ke dauraan khaadya padaarthon ko vollo se baahar rajdhani shahar adees abaaba mein bheja jaata tha jahaan inke liye kaheen adhik keematein mil sakti theen. 1970 ke dashak ke uttaraarddh aur 1980 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein ithiyopiya aur soodaan ki taanaashaahiyon ke nivaasiyon ko bhaari akaal ka saamana karna pada, lekin Zimbabwe aur botsavaana ke lokatantron mein raashtreeya khaadya utpaadan mein gambhir kami ke baavajood bhi unhonne apna bachaav kiya. somaaliya mein akaal ek vifal prashaasan ki vajah se aaya.

kai akaal badi aabaadi vaale deshon ki tulana mein, jinki aabaadi kshetreeya vahan kshamata se adhik ho jaati hai, khaadya utpaadan mein asantulan ke kaaran paida hote hain. aitihaasik roop se akaal ki sthiti krushi sambandhi samasyaaon jaise ki sookha, fasal ki vifalta ya mahaamaari ki vajah se aayi hai. mausam ke badalate mijaaj, sankat, yuddh aur mahaamaari janit beemaariyon jaise ki kaali maut se nibatne mein madhya yugeen sarkaaron ki aprabhaavasheelata madhya yugon ke dauraan Europe mein saikadon akaalon ko janm dene mein sahaayak siddh hui jinmein Britain mein 95 aur France mein 75 akaal shaamil hain.[17] France mein sau saalon ke yuddh, fasal ki viflataaon aur mahaamaariyon ne iski aabaadi do-tihaai tak kam kar di thi.[18]

fasal kataai ki vifalta ya paristhitiyon mein badlaav jaise ki sookha ek aisi sthiti paida kar sakta hai jiske dvaara ek badi sankhya mein log nirantar vahaan rah sakhate hain jahaan jameen ki vahan kshamata mein moolat: asthaayi roop se kami aa gayi hai. akaal ko aksar nirvaah ke laayak krushi ke saath joda jaata hai. ek aarthik roop se majaboot kshetr mein krushi ka kul abhaav akaal ka kaaran naheen banta hai; erijona aur anya samruddh kshetr apne khaadya padaarth ke bahut adhik hisse ka aayaat karte hain, kyonki is tarah ke kshetr vyaapaar ke liye paryaapt aarthik saamagriyon ka utpaadan karte hain.

akaal ki sthiti jvaalaamukheeya ghatna ke kaaran bhi utpann hui hai. 1885 mein Indonesia mein mount tanbora jvaalaamukhi mein visfot ke kaaran duniya bhar mein fasal nasht ho gaye the aur akaal ki sthitiyaan paida ho gayi theen jiske kaaran 19veen sadi ka bheeshan akaal pada tha. vaigyaanik samudaaya ki maujooda sarvasammati yeh hai ki oopari vaayumandal mein nikalne vaale eyarosol aur dhoolakan soorya ki oorja ko jameen tak pahunchane se rokakar taapamaan ko thanda kar dete hain. yahi pranaali saiddhaantik roop se atyant vishaal ulka-pindon ke kaaran bade paimaane par viluptiyon ki had tak padne vaale prabhaavon par laagoo hoti hai.

bhavishya mein akaal ke khatre

inhein bhi dekhein: Water crisis

gaarjiyn ki report hai ki 2007 mein duniya ki lagbhag 40% krushi yogya bhoomi ka star gambhir roop se gir gaya hai.[19] yooenayoo ke Ghana-sthit instityoot for nechural risorses in Africa ke anusaar, agar Africa mein mitti ke star mein giraavat ke maujooda rujhaan jaari rahe to yeh mahaadveep 2025 tak apni aabaadi ke sirf 25% hisse ko bhojan pradaan karne mein saksham hoga.[20] 2007 ke uttaraarddh tak jaiv indhan[21] mein istemaal ke liye hone waali kheti mein vruddhi ke saath-saath duniya mein tel ki keematon ke takareeban 100 dollar prati barrel[22] par pahunch jaane ke kaaran murgiyon aur dairy ke gaayon tatha anya pashuon ko khilaane vaale khaadyaannon ki keematein kaafi badh gayi theen, isi vajah se gehoon (58% adhik), soyaabeen (32% adhik) aur makke (11% adhik) ki keematon mein varsh bhar mein kaafi badhat dekhi gayi.[23][24] san 2007 mein duniya bhar ke kai deshon mein khaadya dange hote dekhe gaye.[25][26][27] stem rast ki ek mahaamaari jo gehoon ke liye vinaashakaari hoti hai aur Ug99 prajaati ke kaaran paida hoti hai, 2007 mein yeh sampoorn Africa aur Asia mein fail gayi thi.[28][29]

20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein aanshik roop se akaal se nipatne ke kram mein khaadyaann utpaadan badhaane ke liye naaitrojan urvarakon, nae keetanaashakon, registaani krushi aur anya krushi praudyogikiyon ka istemaal hona shuru ho gaya tha. 1950 aur 1984 ke beech jab harit kraanti ne krushi ko prabhaavit kiya, vishv khaadyaann utpaadan mein 250% ki vruddhi hui. is badhat ka jyaadaatar hissa gair-tikaaoo hai. in krushi praudyogikiyon ne fasal ki paidaavaar ko asthaayi roop se badha diya tha, lekin kam se kam 1995 tak is baat ke sanket mil gaye the ki ye krushi yogya bhoomi ki kami ka kaaran ban sakte the (jaise ki keetanaashakon ki drudhta jo mitti ka sandooshan badhaati hai aur kheti ke liye upalabdh kshetr ko kam kar deti hai). viksit deshon ne akaal ki samasya vaale vikaasasheel deshon ke saath in praudyogikiyon ki saajhedaari ki hai, lekin apekshaakrut kam viksit deshon mein in praudyogikiyon ko badhaava dene ke liye naitik seemaaen maujood hain. iske liye aksar akaarbanik urvarakon aur sthirta ki kami vaale keetanaashakon ke ek sanyojan ko jimmedaar thaharaaya jaata hai.

kaurnel vishvavidyaalaya mein paaristhitiki aur krushi ke profesar, David pimeintel aur national research instityoot on food end nyootreeshan (aaienaaaraeen) mein varishth shodhakarta, maariyo giyaamapiyetro apne adhyayan food, land, paupuleshan end the yooes ikonomi mein ek chirsthaayi arthavyavastha ke liye America ki adhiktam janasankhya 200 million par rakhate hain.[30] adhyayan kehta hai ki ek chirsthaayi arthavyavastha ko praapt karne aur aapada se bachane ke liye sanyukt raajya America ko apni aabaadi kam se kam ek-tihaai kam karni hogi aur duniya ki aabaadi ko do-tihaai tak kam karna hoga.[31] is adhyayan ke lekhakon ka maanana ​a​ahai ki ullikhit krushi sankat keval 2020 ke baad hamein prabhaavit karna shuroo kar dega aur 2050 tak yeh sankatapoorn naheen hoga. aagaami vaishvik tel utpaadan ke choti par pahunchane (aur iske baad utpaadan mein giraavat) ke saath-saath uttar ameriki praakrutik gas utpaadan ke sarvochch shikhar par pahunchane se is krushi sankat ko apeksha se kaheen adhik jaldi la dene ki sambhaavana kaafi badh jaaegi.

bhoovijnyaaani Dale elan feefar ka daava hai ki aane vaale dashakon mein khaadya padaarthon ki keematon mein kisi raahat ke bina uttarottar vruddhi aur vaishvik star par aisi bhaari bhukhamari dekhi ja sakti hai jiska anubhav pehle kabhi naheen kiya gaya hai.[32] paani ki kami ki samasya jo anek chhote deshon mein khaadyaannon ke bhaari aayaat ko pehle se badhaava de rahi hai, yeh jaldi hi bade deshon jaise ki cheen ya Bhaarat mein bhi yahi sthiti la sakti hai.[33] shaktishaali diesel aur bijli ke pampon ke vyaapak ati-upayog ke kaaran anek deshon (uttari cheen, America aur Bhaarat sahit) mein jal star ghatata ja raha hai. Pakistan, Iran aur Mexico anya prabhaavit deshon mein shaamil hain. yeh antat: paani ki kami aur anaaj fasal mein katauti karne ka kaaran banega. yahaaain tak ki apne jalavaahi staron ki atyadhik pamping ke saath cheen ne ek anaaj ghaata viksit kiya hai jo anaaj ki keematon par dabaav badhaane mein yogadaan karta hai. is sadi ke madhya tak duniya bhar mein paida hone vaale teen billion logon mein se adhikaansh ke aise deshon mein janm lene ki sambhaavana hai jo pehle se hi paani ki kami ka saamana kar rahi hai.

cheen aur Bhaarat ke baad paani ki bhaari kami se joohjte doosari shreni ke apekshaakrut chhote deshon mein shaamil hain -- Algeria, misr, iraan, Mexico aur Pakistan. iname se chaar desh apne liye anaaj ke ek bade hisse ka aayaat pehle se hi kiya karte hain. sirf Pakistan aanshik roop se aatmanirbhar bana hua hai. lekin har saal 4 million ki badhti aabaadi ke kaaran ise bhi jald hi anaaj ke liye vishv baajaar ka rukh karna padega.[34][35] sanyukt raashtra ki jalavaayu report ke anusaar himaalaya ke himnad jo Asia ki sabse badi nadiyon - ganga, sindhu, brahmaputr, yaangje, mekaang, salaveen aur yelo ke liye shushk-mausam ke pramukh jal srot hain, ye taapamaan mein vruddhi aur maanaveeya maang badhne ke kaaran 2035 tak gaayab ho sakte hain.[36] baad mein yeh pata chala ki sanyukt raashtra sangh ki jalavaayu report mein istemaal kiye gaye srot mein daraasal 2035 naheen balki 2350 kaha gaya hai.[37] himaalayi nadiyon ke jalanikaas maarg ke aaspaas ki bhoomi mein lagbhag 2.4 billion log rahate hain.[38] Bhaarat, cheen, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal aur myaanmaar ko aane vaale dashakon mein gambhir sookhe ke baad baadh ka saamana karna pad sakta hai.[39] sirf Bhaarat mein hi ganga nadi 500 million se adhik logon ko peyajal aur kheti ke liye paani upalabdh karaati hai.[40][41]

akaal ke lakshan

akaal up-sahaaraai afreeki deshon ko sabse adhik buri tarah se prabhaavit karta hai lekin khaadya sansaadhanon ki atyadhik khapat, bhoojal ki atyadhik nikaasi, yuddh, aantarik sangharsh aur aarthik vifalta ke saath akaal duniya bhar ke liye ek samasya bani hui hai jiska saamana saikadon lakh logon ko karna padta hai.[42] is tarah ke akaal bade paimaane par kuposhan aur daridrata ka kaaran bante hain; 1980 ke dashak mein ithiyopiya ke akaal mein marne vaalon ki sankhya atyadhik thi, haalaanki 20veen sadi ke Asiaee akaalon mein bhi vyaapak star par logon ki mautein hui theen. aadhunik afreeki akaalon ki pehchaan vyaapak star ke abhaav aur kuposhan ke saath vishesh kar chhote bachchon ki mrutyu dar mein vruddhi se hoti hai.

pratirkshan sahit raahat ki praudyogikiyon ne jan svaasthya avasanrachana, saamaanya khaadya raashan aur kamjor bachchon ke liye poorak bhojan ki vyavastha mein sudhaar kiya hai, isse akaalon ke mrutyu dar sambandhi prabhaavon mein asthaayi roop se kami aayi hai, jabki unke aarthik parinaamon ko aparivrtit chhod diya gaya hai aur khaadya utpaadan kshamata ke saapeksh ek kshetreeya janasankhya ke ek bahut bade antarnihit mudde ko hal naheen kiya gaya hai. maanaveeya sankat bhi narasanhaar abhiyaanon, gruh yuddhon, sharanaarthiyon ke pravaah aur charam hinsa tatha saamraajya ke patan ke prakaranon se utpann hote hain jisse prabhaavit aabaadi ke beech akaal ki sthiti paida ho jaati hai.

bhukhamari aur akaal ka khaatma karne ke liye duniya ke netaaon dvaara baar-baar doharaae gaye kathit iraadon ke baavajood akaal Africa aur Asia ke jyaadaatar bhaagon mein ek chirkaalik khatra bana hua hai. July 2005 mein faimin arli vaarning sistams network ne Nigeria ke saath-saath chaad, ithiyopiya, dakshin soodaan, somaaliya aur Zimbabwe ko aapaat sthiti ka lebal diya tha. January 2006 mein sanyukt raashtra ke khaadya evam krushi sangathan ne chetaavani di ki gambhir sookhe aur sainya sangharsh ke sanyukt prabhaav ke kaaran somaaliya, kenya, jibooti aur ithiyopiya mein 11 million log bhukhamari ke kagaar par the. [2] 2006 mein Africa mein sabse gambhir maanaveeya sankat soodaan ke daarafur kshetr mein tha.

kuchh logon ka maanana tha ki harit kraanti 1970 aur 1980 ke dashak mein akaal ka ek upayukt javaab tha. harit kraanti ki shuruaat 20veen sadi mein adhik-upaj vaale fasalon ke sankar kismon ke saath hui thi. 1950 aur 1984 ke beech jab harit kraanti ne duniya bhar mein krushi ka naksha badal diya, vishv anaaj utpaadan mein 250% ki vruddhi hui.[43] kuchh log is prakriya ki aalochna karte hue kehte hain ki in nae uchch-upaj vaale fasalon ke liye adhik raasaayanik urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo vaataavaran ko nuksaan pahuncha sakte hain. haalaanki akaal se peedit vikaasasheel deshon ke liye yeh ek vikalp tha. ye adhik-upaj vaale fasal takaneeki roop se adhik logon ko bhojan pradaan karna sambhav banaate hain. haalaanki is baat ke sanket mile hain ki vyaapak star ki krushi ke saath judi kuchh vishesh neetion jaise ki bhoojal ke atyadhik dohan aur keetanaashakon tatha anya krushi rasaayanon ke atyadhik prayog ke kaaran duniya ke kai kshetron mein kshetreeya khaadya utpaadan choti par pahunch gaya hai.

Francis moor laipe jo baad mein instityoot for food end development paulisi (food first) ke sah-sansthaapak bane, unhonne daait for A smaul plaanet (1971) mein yeh tark diya ki shaakaahaari aahaar maansaahaari aahaaron ki tulana mein unheen sansaadhanon ke saath ek badi aabaadi ke liye bhojan pradaan kar sakte hain.

dhyaan dene yogya baat hai ki aadhunik akaalon ki sthiti ko kabhi-kabhi gumaraah aarthik neetiyon, kuchh khaas aabaadi ko nirdhan banaae ya haashiye mein rakhane ke liye banaae gaye raajaneetik design ya yuddh ke krutyon dvaara bigaad diya jaata hai, raajaneetik arthashaastriyon ne un raajaneetik paristhitiyon ki jaanch ki hai jiske tahat akaal ko roka ja sakta hai. amartya sen [note 1] kehte hain ki Bhaarat mein maujood udaaravaadi sansthaaon ke saath-saath pratispardhi chunaav aur ek mukt press ne aajaadi ke baad se desh mein akaal ko rokane mein ek pramukh bhoomika nibhaai hai. Alex di vaal ne shaasakon aur janta ke beech "raajaneetik anubandh" par dhyaan keindrit karne ke liye yeh siddhaant viksit kiya hai jo akaal ko rokana sunishchit karta hai, jismein yeh ullekh kiya gaya hai ki Africa mein aise raajaneetik anubandhon ki durlabhata aur yeh khatra ki antararaashtreeya raahat agencyan raashtreeya sarkaaron se akaalon ke liye javaabadehi ki sthiti ko hataakar un anubandhon ko kamjor kar deingi.

akaal ke prabhaav

akaal ke janasaankhyikeeya prabhaav teekshn hote hain. mrutyu dar bachchon aur bujurgon ke beech keindrit rahati hai. ek susangat janasaankhyikeeya tathya yeh hai ki darj kiye gaye sabhi akaalon mein purush mrutyu dar mahila se adhik hoti hai, yahaaain tak ki un aabaadiyon mein bhi (jaise ki uttari Bhaarat aur Pakistan) jahaan purush ko saamaanya roop se lambi umr ka laabh milta hai. iske kaaranon mein kuposhan ke dabaav mein adhik se adhik mahila lacheelaapan aur sanbhavat: mahilaaon ke shareer mein vasa ki svaabhaavik roop se uchch pratishat ko shaamil kiya ja sakta hai. akaal ke saath-saath prajanan kshamata bhi kam ho jaati hai. isliye akaal kisi aabaadi ke prajanan ke kor - vayask mahilaaon - ko aabaadi ki anya shreniyon ki tulana mein kam prabhaavit karte hain aur akaal ke baad ki avadhiyon ki pehchaan aksar badhi hui janm dar ke saath "poorvasthiti" mein aane ke roop mein hoti hai. iske baavajood ki Thomas maalthas ke siddhaant yeh bhavishyavaani karte hain ki akaal upalabdh khaadya sansaadhanon ke anuroop aabaadi ke aakaar ko kam kar dete hain, vaastav mein yahaaain tak ki sabse gambhir akaalon ne bhi kuchh saalon se adhik ke liye aabaadi ke vikaas ko shaayad hi kabhi kamjor kiya hai. 1958-61 mein cheen mein, 1943 mein Bengal mein aur 1983-1985 mein ithiyopiya mein mrutyu dar ko ek badhti hui aabaadi dvaara sirf kuchh hi varshon mein poorvasthiti mein la diya tha. adhik se adhik lambi-avadhi ka janasaankhyikeeya prabhaav hai utpravaas: 1840 ke dashak ke akaal ke baad mukhya roop se Ireland ki aabaadi utpravaas ki lahar ke kaaran kaafi kam ho gayi thi.

khaadya asuraksha ke star

aadhunik samay mein sthaaneeya aur raajaneetik sarkaar tatha gair-sarkaari sangathan jo akaal raahat pradaan karte hain unke paas seemit sansaadhan maujood hote hain jinke jariye unhein ek saath utpann hone waali khaadya asuraksha ki vibhinn sthitiyon se nibatna padta hai. is prakaar khaadya raahat saamagri ke sabse prabhaavashaali dhang se aavantan ke kram mein khaadya suraksha ke vargeekaran ko shreneebaddh karne ke vibhinn vidhiyon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. inmein se ek sabse praarambhik vidhi 1880 ke dashak mein angrejon dvaara taiyaar ki gayi bhaarateeya akaal sanhita hai. sanhitaaon mein khaadya asuraksha ke teen charanon ko soocheebaddh kiya gaya tha: lagbhag-tangi, abhaav aur akaal, iske alaava ye baad mein akaal ki chetaavani ya maapan pranaaliyon ke nirmaan mein atyant prabhaavashaali rahe the. uttari kenya mein turkaana logon ke aavaaseeya kshetron ki nigraani ke liye viksit poorv chetaavani pranaali mein bhi teen star hain, lekin pratyek charan ka sambandh sankat ko kam karne aur ise kamjor karne ki ek poorv-nirdhaarit pratikriya se juda hua hai.

1980 aur 1990 ke dashak mein duniya bhar mein akaal raahat sangathanon ke anubhav ke parinaam svaroop kam se kam do pramukh gatividhiyaan saamane aayeen: "aajeevika ka drushtikon" aur kisi sankat ki gambheerta ke nirdhaaran ke liye poshan sanketakon ka adhik se adhik istemaal. khaadya saamagri ki tanaavapoorn sthitiyon mein vyaktiyon aur samoohon dvaara khapat ki poorti seemit kar iska saamana karne ka prayaas kiya jaaega jo krushi yogya bhoomi ke bhookhandon ko bechne jaise niraashaajanak upaayon ko aajmaane se pehle poorak aay aadi ke vaikalpik maadhyam ho sakte hain. jab swayam-sahaayata ke sabhi maadhyamon ka upayog kar liya jaata hai, tab prabhaavit aabaadi bhojan ki khoj mein palaayan karne lagti hai ya poorn roop se vyaapak bhukhamari ka shikaar ban jaati hai. is prakaar akaal ko aanshik roop se ek saamaajik ghatna ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai jismein baajaar, khaadya saamagriyon ki keematein aur saamaajik sahaayata sanrachanaaen shaamil hoti hain. ek doosra taiyaar kiya gaya sabak tha akaal ki gambheerta ka ek maatraatmak maapan pradaan karne ke liye vishesh roop se bachchon mein teevr poshan aakalanon ka adhik se adhik upayog.

2004 ke baad se akaal raahat mein sanlagn kai sabse mahatvapoorn sangathan jaise ki vishv khaadya kaaryakram aur antararaashtreeya vikaas ki ameriki agency ne teevrata aur parimaan ko maapane ke liye ek panch-stareeya paimaane ko apnaaya hai. teevrata ka paimaana kisi bhi paristhiti ko khaadya surakshit, khaadya asurakshit, khaadya sankat, akaal, gambhir akaal aur charam akaal ke roop mein vargeekrut karne ke liye aajeevika ke upaayon aur mrutyu dar tatha baal kuposhan ki maap donon ka istemaal karta hai. mauton ki sankhya parimaan ke naam ka nirdhaaran karti hai jismein 1000 se kam hataahaton ki sankhya ek "maamooli akaal" ko paribhaashit karti hai aur ek "bhayaavah akaal" ka nateeja 1,000,000 se adhik logon ki mauton ke roop mein saamane aata hai.

akaal ki kaarravaai

akaal nivaaran

pashchim mein paayi jaane waali aadhunik krushi praudyogikiyon jaise ki naaitrojan urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ko Asia mein laane ke prayaason ko harit kraanti kaha gaya jiske parinaam svaroop kuposhan mein usi tarah ki kami aayi jaisa ki pehle pashchimi deshon mein dekha gaya tha. yeh maujooda buniyaadi dhaanche aur sansthaaon ki vajah se sambhav hua tha jinki aapoorti Africa mein kaafi kam hai jaise ki sadkon ya saarvajanik beej companiyon ki ek pranaali jo beejon ko upalabdh karaati hai.[45] khaadya asuraksha vaale kshetron mein muft ya anudaanik urvarakon tatha beejon ko upalabdh karaane jaise upaayon ke jariye kisaanon ki sahaayata karne se fasal kataai mein vruddhi hoti hai aur khaadya padaarthon ki keematein kam hoti hain.[5][46]

vishv bank aur kuchh dhani desh un deshon par dabaav daalte hain jo nijeekaran ke naam par riyaayati krushi saamagriyon jaise ki urvarak mein katauti karne ya ise khtm karne ke kram mein sahaayata praapt karne ke liye un par nirbhar karte hain, iske baavajood ki sanyukt raajya America aur Europe ne apne swayam ke kisaanon ko vyaapak roop se riyaayat di hai.[5][47] agar jyaadaatar naheen to kai kisaan itne gareeb hote hain ki ve baajaar ke moolyon par urvarakon ko khareedne ki sthiti mein naheen hote hain.[5] udaaharan ke liye, malaavi ke maamale mein iski 13 million aabaadi mein se lagbhag paanch million logon ko nirantar aapaatkaaleen khaadya sahaayata ki jaroorat padti hai. haalaanki sarkaar dvaara apni neeti ko badalne aur urvarak tatha beej ke liye riyaayatein dene ke baad kisaanon ne 2006 aur 2007 mein record-tod makke ki fasal ka utpaadan kiya jisse utpaadan 2005 mein 1.2 million ki tulana mein badhkar 2007 mein 3.4 million ho gaya.[5] isse khaadya saamagri ki keematein kam ho gayeen aur krushi shramikon ka paarishramik badh gaya.[5] malaavi khaadya padaarthon ka ek pramukh niryaatak ban gaya jo dakshini Africa ke kisi bhi anya desh ki tulana mein vishv khaadya kaaryakram aur sanyukt raashtra ko sarvaadhik makke ki bikri karne laga.[5] kisaanon ki madad ke prastaavakon mein arthashaastri jefri saiks bhi shaamil hain jinhonne is vichaar ka samarthan kiya hai ki dhani raashtron ko Africa ke kisaanon ke liye khaad aur beejon par nivesh karna chaahiye.[5]

akaal raahat

sookshm poshak tatvon ki kami ki vyavastha sudrudh khaadya padaarthon ke maadhyam se ki ja sakti hai.[48] sudrudh khaadya padaarthon jaise ki moongafali makkhan ke paauch (plampi 'nat ko dekhein) aur spaairooleena ne maanaveeya aapaatakaal ki sthitiyon mein aapaatkaaleen bhojan ki vyavastha mein kraantikaari parivartan la diya hai kyonki inhein paiketon se seedhe khaaya ja sakta hai, inke liye packet prasheetan ya durlabh svachh paani ke saath sammishran ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai, inhein varshon tak bhandaarit kiya ja sakta hai aur sabse mahatvapoorn yeh hai ki inhein atyant gambhir roop se beemaar bachchon ko bhi diya ja sakta hai.[1] sanyukt raashtra ke 1974 ke vishv khaadya sammelan mein spaairooleena ko 'bhavishya ke liye sabse achha bhojan' ghoshit kiya gaya tha aur iski pratyek 24 ghante mein taiyaar hone waali fasal ise kuposhan ko mitaane ke liye ek shaktishaali saadhan banaati hai. iske alaava bachchon mein dast ke ilaaj ke liye poorak cheejon jaise ki vitaamin A ke kaipsool ya jink ki goliyon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.[2]

sahaayata samoohon ke beech ek badhti samajh yeh hai ki bhookhon ko sahaayata pradaan karne ke liye khaadya saamagri ki bajaay nagadi ya nagadi vaauchar dena ek kifaayati, tej aur adhik prabhaavi tareeka hai, vishesh roop se un kshetron mein jahaan khaadya saamagri upalabdh hoti hai lekin ise khareed paana sambhav naheen hota hai.[3] 'sanyukt raashtra ka vishv khaadya kaaryakram jo khaadya saamagri ka sabse bada gair-sarkaari vitrak hai, isne ghoshana ki thi ki yeh kuchh kshetron mein khaadya saamagri ki bajaay nagadi aur vaaucharon ka vitran karna shuroo karega jise dablyooefapi ke kaaryakaari nideshak joset sheeran ne khaadya sahaayata ke kshetr mein ek "kraanti" bataaya.[3][49] sahaayata agency kansarn varldavaaid ek mobile phone oparetar, safaareekaum ke maadhyam se ek vidhi ka praayogik adhyayan kar rahi hai, safaareekaum ek dhanaraashi hastaantaran kaaryakram ka sanchaalan karti hai jiske jariye desh ke ek bhaag se doosare bhaag tak nagadi bhejane ki suvidha pradaan ki jaati hai.[3]

haalaanki ek sookhe ki sthiti mein kaafi door rahane vaale aur baajaaron tak seemit pahunch rakhane vaale logon ke liye khaadya saamagri pradaan karna sahaayata pahunchaane ka ek sabse upayukt tareeka ho sakta hai.[3] fred kyooni ne kaha tha ki kisi raahat operation ki shuruaat mein jindagiyaan bachaane ke mauke us sthiti mein kaafi kam ho jaate hain jab khaadya saamagri ka aayaat kiya jaata hai. jab tak yeh desh mein aata hai aur logon tak pahunchata hai, kai log maut ke shikaar ho chuke hote hain."[50] ameriki kaanoon jiske liye aavashyakta yeh hai ki khaadya saamagri bhookhon ke rahane ke sthaan ki bajaay apne desh se khareedi jaae, yeh aprabhaavashaali hai kyonki jo raashi kharch ki jaati hai usaka lagbhag aadha hissa parivhan mein chala jaata hai.[51] fred kyooni ne aage dhyaan dilaaya ki "haal ke pratyek akaal ke adhyayan se pata chala hai ki khaadya saamagri desh mein hi upalabdh thi - haalaanki yeh hamesha khaadya saamagri ki kami vaale niktavarti kshetr mein naheen hota hai" aur "iske baavajood ki sthaaneeya maanakon ke anusaar keematein itni adhik hoti hain ki gareeb log ise khareed naheen sakte, aam taur par kisi daata ke liye sanchit khaadya saamagri ko videsh se aayaat karne ki bajaay badhi hui daron mein khareedna kaheen adhik kifaayati hoga."[52]

ithiyopiya ek aise kaaryakram ko badhaava de raha hai jo ab khaadya sankat ka saamana karne ke liye vishv bank ke nirdhaarit nuskhe ka ek hissa ban gaya hai aur sahaayata sangathanon dvaara ise bhookhe raashtron ki sabse achhi tarah se sahaayata karne ke ek model ke roop mein dekha jaane laga tha. desh ke mukhya khaadya sahaayata kaaryakram, prodaktiv sefti net program ke maadhyam se ithiyopiya un graameen nivaasiyon ko bhojan ya nagadi ke liye kaam karne ka ek mauka pradaan karta hai jo lambe samay se bhojan ki kami ki samasya se joojh rahe hain. videshi sahaayata sangathan jaise ki world food program us samay khaadya padaarthon ki kami vaale kshetron mein vitran ke liye aavashyakta se adhik khaadyaann vaale kshetron se sthaaneeya roop se khaadya padaarth khareedne mein saksham the.[53]

aitihaasik akaal, kshetr ke anusaar

20veen sadi ke dauraan ek anumaan ke mutaabit 70 million log duniya bhar mein akaal ki vajah se maare gaye the jinmein se anumaan ke mutaabik 30 million logon ki maut cheen mein 1958-61 ke akaal ke dauraan ho gayi thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sadi ke anya sabse ullekhaneeya akaalon mein Bengal mein 1942-1945 ki aapada, 1928 aur 1942 mein cheen ke akaal, soviyt sangh mein akaalon ki ek shrrunkhala ke saath-saath 1932-1933 ka soviyt ka akaal, 1932-33 mein yooesaesaaar par lagaaya gaya staalin ka akaal shaamil hai. 20veen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein hue kuchh bheeshan akaal the: 1960 ke dashak mein baaifraan ka akaal, 1970 ke dashak mein kanbodiya ka akaal, ithiyopiya ka 1984-85 ka akaal aur uttar Korea ka 1990 ke dashak ka akaal.

Africa mein akaal

2005 ke akaal ke dauraan naaijar mein kuposhit bachche.

22veen sadi E.poo. ke madhya mein ek achaanak aur alpakaalik jalavaayu parivartan hua jo kam varsha ka kaaran bana jiske parinaam svaroop oopari misr mein kai dashakon tak sookha pada raha. maana jaata hai ki parinaami akaal aur naagrik sangharsh puraane saamraajyon ke patan ka ek pramukh kaaran raha hai. first intarameediyet peeriyd ka ek vivran kehta hai, "sampoorn oopari misr mein bhookh ki vajah se mautein ho rahi theen aur log apne bachchon ko kha rahe the." 1680 ke dashak mein akaal ka vistaar sampoorn sahel mein ho gaya tha aur 1738 mein timbakatoo ki aadhi aabaadi akaal mrutyu ka shikaar ho gayi thi.[54] misr ko 1687 aur 1731 ke beech chh: akaalon ka saamana karna karna pada tha.[55] vah akaal jisne 1784 mein misr ko vipda mein daala usamein iski lagbhag chhathe hisse ki aabaadi ko apni jaan ganvaani padi.[56] 18veen sadi ke ant mein[57] aur isse bhi adhik unneesaveen ki shuruaat mein magreb ko pleg aur akaal ke sanyukt roop se ghaatak khatre ka saamana karna pada.[58] tripoli aur tyoonis ne kramash: 1784 aur 1785 mein akaal ka saamana kiya.[59]

John ilife ke anusaar, "16veen sadi ke angola ke purtagaali abhilekh darshaate hain ki ek ausatan har sattar saal ke baad ek bheeshan akaal pada hai; jiske saath-saath mahaamaari ke rog ki vajah se iski ek tihaai ya aadhi aabaadi kaal ke gaal mein sama gayi hogi jisse ek peedhi ka janasaankhyikeeya vikaas nasht ho gaya aur upaniveshavaadiyon ko vaapas nadi ghaatiyon ki aur rukh karne ke liye majaboor hona pada."[60]

afreeki akaal ke itihaasakaaron ne ithiyopiya mein baar-baar hue akaal ko pralekhit kiya hai. sanbhavat: sabse buri sthitiyaan 1888 aur uske baad ke varshon mein utpann hui theen kyonki Eritrea mein sankramit pashuon dvaara failaaya gaya epijootik rindarapest dakshin disha ki or failaane laga aur antat: door dakshin Africa tak pahunch gaya. ithiyopiya mein yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya tha ki desh ke pashuon ke jhund mein adhik se adhik 90 pratishat ki maut ho gayi thi jisse samruddh kisaan aur charavaahe raatonraat besahaara ho gaye the. iske alaava sookhe ke saath-saath al neeno dolan, chechak ki maanaveeya mahaamaari aur kai deshon mein jabaradast yuddh ki ghatnaaen ek saath ghatit huin. ithiyopiya ka bheeshan akaal jisne 1888 se 1,892 tak ithiyopiya ko sataaya tha ismein mote taur par ise apni ek-tihaai aabaadi ki jaan ganvaani padi thi.[61] soodaan mein in pahaluon aur mahadist shaasan dvaara lagaaye gaye apakarshanon ke maamale mein varsh 1888 ko itihaas ke sabse bheeshan akaal ke roop mein yaad kiya jaata hai. aupaniveshik "shaanti sthaapan" ke prayaas aksar gambhir akaal ka kaaran bante hain, udaaharan ke liye jaisa ki 1906 mein tanganyika mein maaji maaji vidroh ke daman ke saath hua tha. kapaas jaisi nakadi fasalon ki shuruaat aur in fasalon ko ugaane ke liye kisaanon par dabaav daalne ke jabaran prayaason ne bhi uttari Nigeria jaise kai kshetron mein kisaanon ko gareeb bana diya jiske kaaran 1913 mein gambhir sookhe ka saamana hone par akaal ki sthiti utpann hone ki sambhaavana adhik se adhik ho gayi thi. haalaanki 20veen sadi ke madhya bhaag ke liye krushakon, arthashaastriyon aur bhoogolavidon ne Africa ko akaal ke prati samvedansheel naheen maana tha (ve Asia ko lekar kaheen adhik chintit the).[krupaya uddharan jodein] iske kai ullekhaneeya javaabi-udaaharan the jaise ki dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan ravaanda ka akaal aur 1949 ka malaavi ka akaal, lekin jyaadaatar akaal sthaaneeyakrut aur alpakaalik khaadya padaarthon ki kami ki samasya se grast the. akaal ki kaali chhaaya sirf 1970 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein fir se padi jab ithiyopiya aur pashchim afreeki sahel ko sookhe aur akaal ka saamana karna pada. us samay ka ithiyopiya ka akaal is desh mein saamantavaad ke sankat ke saath baareeki se juda hua tha aur usi dauraan yeh samraat haile selaassi ke patan ka kaaran banane mein sahaayak siddh hua. saheliyaai akaal Africa mein chaaraagaahon ke dheere-dheere badh rahe sankat ke saath juda hua tha jismein pichhli do peedhiyon mein jeevan yaapan ke ek vyaavahaarik maarg ke roop mein pashupaalan mein kami dekhi gayi thi.

tab se afreeki akaal kaheen adhik nirantar, adhik vyaapak aur adhik gambhir ho gaye hain. kai afreeki desh khaadya utpaadan ke maamale mein aatmanirbhar naheen hain jo khaadya saamagri ke aayaat ke liye nakadi fasalon par nirbhar karte hain. Africa mein krushi jalavaayu ke utaar-chadhaavon ke prati atisanvedanasheel hai, vishesh roop se sookhe jo sthaaneeya star par khaadya saamagri ke utpaadan ki maatra ko kam kar sakte hain. anya krushi samasyaaon mein mitti ka banjarapan, bhoomi ksharan aur kataav, registaani tiddiyon ke jhund, jo poori fasal ko nasht kar sakte hain aur pashuon ki beemaariyaan shaamil hain. bataaya jaata hai ki sahaara marusthal ka vistaar prati varsh 30 meal tak ki dar se ho raha hai.[62] sabse gambhir akaal sookhe, gumaraah aarthik neetiyon aur sangharsh ke sanyukt kaaranon se hue hain. udaaharan ke liye, ithiyopiya mein 1983-85 ka akaal in sabhi teen kaarakon ka parinaam tha jise saamyavaadi sarkaar dvaara ubharate sankat ki censorship ne aur bhi badatar bana diya tha. usi dauraan sookhe aur aarthik sankat ke saath-saath raashtrapati gaafar nimeri ki tatkaaleen sarkaar dvaara kisi tarah ki khaadya saamagri ki kami se inkaar ne ek aise sankat ko janm diya jismein sanbhavat: 250,000 log maare gaye the -- aur yeh ek mashahoor vidroh ko janm dene mein sahaayak bana jisne nimeri ki satta ko ukhaad feinka.

kai aise kaarak hain jo Africa mein khaadya suraksha ki sthiti ko kamjor banaate hain jinmein shaamil hain raajaneetik asthirta, sainya sangharsh aur gruh yuddh, bhrashtaachaar aur khaadya saamagri ki aapoortiyon ke sanchaalan mein kuprabandhan aur vyaapaar neetiyaan jo afreeki krushi ko nuksaan pahunchaate hain. maanav adhikaaron ke hanan ke kaaran utpann hue akaal ka ek udaaharan 1998 ka soodaan ka akaal hai. eds bhi upalabdh kaaryabal ko kam par krushi par deergh-kaalik aarthik prabhaav daal raha hai aur gareeb parivaaron par atyadhik bhaar daalkar akaal ke prati nae sambhaavit khataron ko janm de raha hai. doosari or kuchh avsaron par Africa ke aadhunik itihaas mein akaalon ne teevr raajaneetik asthirta ke ek pramukh srot ke roop mein kaam kiya hai.[63] Africa mein agar janasankhya vruddhi aur mitti ke nimneekaran ka maujooda rujhaan jaari raha to yeh mahaadveep 2025 tak apni aabaadi ke sirf 25% ko hi bhojan dene mein saksham hoga, yeh anumaan yooenayoo ke Ghana sthit instityoot for nechural risorses in Africa ke mutaabik hai.[20]

haal ke udaaharanon mein 1970 ke dashak ka sahel ka sookha, 1973 aur 1980 ke dashak ke madhya meinithiyopiya ka akaal, 1970 ke dashak ke uttaraarddh mein aur 1990 tatha 1998 mein soodaan ka akaal shaamil hai. yugaanda ke karaamoja mein 1980 ka akaal mrutyu dar ke maamale mein itihaas ke sabse bheeshan akaalon mein se ek tha. ismein 21% aabaadi ki maut ho gayi thi jismein 60% navajaat shishu shaamil the. [3]

October 1984 mein duniya bhar ke television riporton mein bhookh se mar rahe ithiyopiyaai logon ke footage dikhaae gaye the jinki sthiti korem shahar ke nikat sthit ek khaadya vitran kendra ke aaspaas keindrit thi. BBC ke nyoojreedar Michael buark ne 23 October 1984 ko is traasadi ki ek dil ko chhoo lene waali kameintri prastut ki thi jiska varnan unhonne ek "baaibalikl akaal" ke roop mein kiya tha. isne ek band aid ekal ko prerit kiya jiska aayojan Bob geldof dvaara kiya gaya aur ismein 20 se adhik anya paup sitaaron ko dikhaaya gaya. London aur filaadelfiya mein live aid sangeet kaaryakramon dvaara is aashay ke liye aur adhik rakam jutaayi gayi. ek anumaan ke mutaabik akaal ki vajah se ek saal ke andar 900,000 logon ki maut ho gayi thi lekin maana jaata hai ki band aid aur live aid dvaara jutaayi gayi dasiyon lakh pound ki rakam ne mrutyu ke kagaar par pahunche takareeban 6,000,000 anya ithiyopiyaai logon ki jindagiyaan bachaain thi. moolat: agar band aid aur live aid ki sahaayata kabhi naheen pahuainchi hoti to ithiyopiyaai akaal se marne vaalon ki taadaad adhik se adhik 7,000,000 tak ya us samay ki aabaadi ki takareeban ek chauthaai tak ho sakti thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

san 2000 ke baad ke maamale

maardi naaijar, 2005 ke akaal ke dauraan emaesaef sahayogi kendra par teen varsheeya beti ko god mein liye hue laure sooile aur ek navajaat beta

2005-06 ka naaijar khaadya sankat naaijar ke uttari maraadi, taahauaa, tillaaberi aur jindar ke kshetron mein vyaapt ek gambhir lekin sthaaneeya khaadya suraksha sankat tha. yeh sthiti varsh 2004 ki baarish ke jaldi khtm ho jaane, kuchh chaaraagaah bhoomi par registaan tiddi dvaara pahunchaae gaye nukasaanon, uchch khaadya keematon aur chirkaalik gareebi ke kaaran utpann hui thi. prabhaavit kshetr mein 3.6 million logon mein se 2.4 million log khaadya asuraksha ke prati atyadhik samvedansheel maane jaate hain. ek antararaashtreeya aakalan mein kaha gaya hai ki inmein se 800,000 se adhik log charam khaadya asuraksha ka saamana kar rahe hain aur anya 800,000 log maamooli asurakshit khaadya paristhitiyon mein hain jinhein sahaayata ki jaroorat hai.

yooropiyn commission ke sahaayata samooh ne tharsade ko bataaya ki 2010 ke sahel ke akaal ne naaijar mein laakhon logon ko prabhaavit kiya aur sahaara marusthal ke dakshin mein sahel kshetr ke deshon mein anishchit baarish se kheti ko nuksaan pahunchaae jaane ke baad sampoorn pashchim Africa ko khaadya saamagriyon ki kami ka saamana karna pada. unhonne naaijar, chaad, uttari burkina faaso aur uttari Nigeria jaise deshon ke baare mein bataaya ki 2009/2010 mein kheti ke mausam mein aniyamit baarish ke parinaam svaroop in deshon mein khaadyaann utpaadan mein bhaari kami aa gayi hai. unhonne kaha ki sahaayata jutaane ke liye sanyukt raashtra aur shesh antararaashtreeya samudaaya ki or se majaboot netrutv ki aavashyakta hogi. "agar ham kaafi teji se, kaafi pehle se kaam karte hain to akaal ki sthiti utpann naheen hogi. agar ham aisa naheen karte hain to ek gambhir khatra bana rahega. "

6 July ko methodist rileef end development fund (emadeeaaraef) ke sahaayata visheshagyon ne kaha ki poore naaijar, maali, moreetaaniya aur morakko mein ek maheene tak chali teevr garm havaaon ki vajah se 1,500,000 se adhik naaijeeriyaai logon par akaal ka khatra mandaraane laga tha. naaijar, maali, burkina faaso aur moreetaaniya ke sankat-grast deshon ko lagbhag 20,000 pound ke ek kosh ka vitran kiya gaya tha.[64]

khaadya suraksha badhaane ki pahal

raashtra ya baajaar ke maadhyam se paramparaagat hastakshepon ki ek prushthabhoomi ke khilaaf khaadya suraksha ki samasya se nibatne ke liye vaikalpik pahal karne ka beeda uthaaya gaya hai. iska ek udaaharan krushi vikaas ke liye "samudaaya kshetr ke aadhaar par vikaas ka drushtikon" ("seeebeedeee") hai jo Africa mein khaadya suraksha badhaane ke liye ek vaikalpik drushtikon pradaan karne ke uddeshya se chalaaya gaya ek NGO kaaryakram hai. seeebeedeee hastakshep ke vishisht kshetron jaise ki sookha-pratirodhi fasalon ki shuruaat aur khaadyaann utpaadan ki nayi vidhiyon jaise ki krushi vaaniki ke maadhyam se apna kaam karti hai. 1990 ke dashak mein ithiyopiya mein praayogik roop se sanchaalit is vidhi ka prasaar malaavi, yugaanda, Eritrea aur kenya tak ho gaya hai. is kaaryakram ke overseas development instityoot ke ek vishleshan mein seeebeedeee dvaara vyaktigat aur saamudaayik kshamata-vikaas par dhyaan keindrit kiye jaane ko rekhaankit kiya gaya hai. yeh samudaaya dvaara sanchaalit sansthaanon ke maadhyam se kisaanon ko apne swayam ke vikaas ko prabhaavit karne aur tej karne mein saksham banaata hai jo unke gharon aur kshetr ke liye khaadya suraksha ki sthiti lekar aata hai.[65]

Asia mein akaal

kanbodiya

rajdhani naam penh mein 1975 mein khemar rooj ne pravesh kar kambodiya ka niyantran apne paas le liya. pol paat ke netrutv mein nai sarkaar ne kamyunijm ke buniyaadi aadarshon ko ko laagoo karte hue sabhi shahari aavaasiyon ko dehaati kshetron mein saamudaayik kheton aur naagrik kaaryon ki pariyojanaaon ke liye kaam karne hetu bhej diya. bina baahari sahaayata ke aur yuddh ke pichhle chaar varshon mein 75 % upayogi jaanvaron ki maut ke kaaran aur aadarshavaadiyon ke dvaara likhit krushi maargadarshanon va utsaahi kedar ke nireekshan mein hue kaaryon ke kaaran, desh sheegra hi akaal ki gart mein sama gaya. koi bhi antarraashtreeya raahat tab tak naheen I, jab tak ki 1979 mein viytanaami sena ne aakraman kar desh ko mukt naheen kar diya. jab pol paat satta mein the tab kul aath million aabaadi mein se ek se teen million log mar gaye. kai ko maar daala gaya va adhikaansh kuposhan va atyadhik thakaan ke kaaran mar gaye aur tab anupayukt va laaparavaah sarkaari adhikaariyon ke kaaran akaal ki sthiti utpann ho gayi.[66][67][68].

cheen

inhein bhi dekhein: Great Chinese Famine
chitr:Engraving-FamineRelief-China.gif
cheeni akaal raahat mein lage adhikaari, 19 veen si. khuda hua chitr

cheeni vidvaanon ne isa poorv 108 se 1911 tak kisi na kisi praant mein hui 1828 akaal ki ghatnaaon ki ganana ki hai - jo ausatan lagbhag ek akaal prati varsh hai.[69] 1933 se 1937 ke beech hue ek bhayankar akaal mein 6 million cheeni mar gaye the. chaar akaal jo 1810, 1811, 1846 aur 1849 mein aaye the, unke liye kaha jaata hai ki uname kam se kam 45 million vyakti maare gaye the.[70] taaiping bagaavat ke kaaran 1850 se 1873 ki avadhi mein, sookhe va akaal ki vajah se cheen ki aabaadi mein 60 million se adhik ki kami I.[71] cheen ke kving vansh ki naukarashaahi ne akaal kam karne par vistrut roop se dhyaan diya use L neeno - dakshin se sambandhit sookhe va baadh ke kaaran hone waali akaal ghatnaaon ko taalane ka shreya mila. in ghatnaaon ki tulana kuchh kam maatra mein cheen ke 19 veen sadi ke vistrut akaalon ki paaristhitik ghatnaaon se ki ja sakti hai. (piyre -etin vil, byorokresi end femin) kving cheen ne raahat ke prayaas kiye, jismein shaamil the vishaal pramaan mein khaadyaann bhejana aur vah ek jarurat thi jisse ameeron ne gareebon va moolya niyman ke liye apne bhandaaragruh khol diye aur yeh shaasan ki or se kisaanon ko di jaane waali nirvaah ki guaranty ke bhaag ke roop mein tha (ming -sheing ke roop mein jaana gaya).

unneesaveen sadi ke madhya mein jab ek tanaavagrast saamraajya raajya prabandhan se hat gaya aur anaaj ko seedhe hi aarthik daanasheelata ke liye bheja jaane laga, tab vah pranaali samaapt ho gayi. is prakaar tongaaji punarsthaapana ke antargat 1867-68 ke akaal se safalataapoorvak nijaat pa liya gaya, lekin 1877-78 mein vishaal uttari cheen mein jo akaal aaya vah uttari cheen mein aaye sookhe ke kaaran aaya mahaavinaash tha. shaanksi praant mein aabaadi ullekhaneeya roop se kam hone lagi, kyonki anaaj khtm ho gaya tha aur bhookhe logon ne hataasha mein jangalon, kheton va apne gharon ko bhi anaaj ke liye ujaad diya tha. anumaanit mrutyu sankhya 9.5 se 13 million vyaktiyon ki hai.[72] (Mike Davis, let viktoriyn holokaasts).

great leep forward (badi chhalaang)

sabse bada akaal 20 veen sadi ka, balki sabhi samay ke daur ka, cheen ka 1958-61 ka great leep forward akaal raha hai. is akaal ka taatkaalik kaaran tha maao jedong dvaara cheen ko krushi raashtra se ek audyagik raashtra ke roop mein maatr ek badi chhalaang ke dvaara durbhaagya poorn dhang se roopaantarit kar dene ka prayaas. poore cheen mein communist party ke kedar aagrah karte the ki kisaanon ko apne kheton ko saamoohik kheti ke liye tyaag dena chaahiye aur chhote kaarkhaanon mein steel ka utpaadan aarambh kar dena chaahiye, is prakriya mein kai baar unke kheti ke aujaar bhi pighl jaate the. saamoohikeekaran ne krushi mein shram va stroton ko nirutsaahit kiya, vikendrit dhaatu utpaadan ki avaastavik yojanaaon ne aavashyak shram ko kshati pahunchaai, mausam ki pratikool sthitiyon va saamudaayik bhojan kakshon ne upalabdh khaadyaann ki fijool khapat ko protsaahit kiya. (dekhein chaang ji va ven ji (1997) "kamyunal daayaning end the chaayaneej femin 1958-1961"). soochana par kendrit niyantran va party kedar par atyadhik dabaav ki sthiti aisi thi ki keval sahi khabar ki report hi di jaati thi - jaise ki utpaadan lakshya ko poora kar liya gaya ya utpaadan usase bhi adhik raha- badhte vinaash ki soochanaaon ko prabhaavi dhang se daba diya jaata tha. akaal ki sthiti ki jaankaari jab netrutv ko hui tab pratisaad ke roop mein usane thoda kaam kiya aur is mahaavinaash par kisi bhi prakaar ki charcha karne par apna pratibndh jaari rakha. samaachaaron ko dabaane ki yeh vyaapak kriya itni prabhaavi thi ki akaal ki gambheerta se kuchh cheeni hi vaakif the aur 20 veen sadi ke shaantikaal mein hue us janasankhya mahaavinaash ki jaankaari bees varsh baad sabko tab hi maaloom hui, jab censorship ka parda uthana praarambh ho gaya.

anumaan lage jaata hai ki 1958-61 ke akaal se mrutyu sankhya 36 se badh kar kareeb 45 million ki rahi,[73][74] saath mein 30 million ki sankhya un janmon ki thi jinhein radd kar diya gaya ya lambit kar diya gaya.[75] akaal jab vikraal roop mein apne parinaam laaya, tab maao ne krushi saamoohik yojanaaon ko balapoorvak palata aur 1978 mein prabhaavi dhang se unhein samaapt kar diya gaya. cheen ne 1961 ke baad badi agrim chhalaang ki tulana mein aur kisi akaal ko anubhav naheen kiya.[76]

Bhaarat

monsoon varsha par lagbhag poori tarah se nirbhar rahane se fasal ki asafalata ke kaaran Bhaarat bhi kaafi asurakshit raha aur isse akaal ki sthiti gambhir hoti rahi.[77] Bhaarat mein 11 veen se 17 veen sadi ke beech kul 14 akaal hue (Bhatia 1985). udahaaran ke roop mein 1022-1033 ke beech bade akaalon ke kaaran Bhaarat ke sabhi praant lagbhag janasankhya viheen ho gaye the. Deccan ke akaal mein 1702-1704 mein kam se kam 2 million vyakti mar gaye. bi. M. Bhatia ka maanana hai ki pehle ke akaalon ko sthaaneekrut kiya gaya tha aur 1860 ke pashchaat hi british shaasan mein desh mein khaadyaann ki saamaanya kami akaal se sambaddh rahi. lagbhag bade 25 akaal aaye jo 19 veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein dakshin mein Tamil Nadu va poorv mein Bihar va Bengal jaise raajyon mein faile the.

1972, Bhaarat mein atyadhik bhukhamari se peedit ek bachcha.

ramesh chandar datt 1900 mein va vartamaan kaal ke vidvaan jaise ki amartya sen sahamat hain ki itihaas mein darj kuchh akaal to asamaan varsha va un british aarthik va prashaasanik yojanaayon ka sanyukt pratifl the, jismein 1857 se sthaaneeya krushi bhoomi ka kabja kar videshi svaamitv ke vrukshaaropan ke liye use roopaantarit karna, aantarik vyaapaar par pratibndh, Afghanistan ke abhiyaan ke liye Britain ko sahaara dene ke liye bhaarateeya naagrikon par bhaari kar (dekhein sekand englo -Afghan vaar), mudraasfeeti kaarya jisse ki khaadyaann ki keematon mein vruddhi aur Bhaarat se Britain mein pramukh aahaar ka ullekhaneeya maatra mein niryaat sammilit the. (datt,1900 evam 1902, shreevaastav 1968, sen 1982, Bhatia 1985). kuchh british naagrikon jaise ki William digbi ne yojana sudhaaron va akaal raahat kaaryon ke liye aandolan kiya lekin Bhaarat ke tatkaaleen vaayasaraaya laard laayatan ne in parivrtanon ka virodh kiya kyonki unka anumaan tha ki isse bhaarateeya karmiyon mein kaamachori ko protsaahan milega. Bengal ka pratham akaal jo 1770 mein hua usamein anumaanat: lagbhag 10 million logon ki mrutyu hui thi, jo us samay ke Bengal ki aabaadi ka ek tihaai tha. anya ullekhaneeya akaalon mein sammilit hain 1876-78 ka bada akaal jismein 6.1 million se 10.3 million logon ki maut hui[78] va bhaarateeya akaal 1899-1900 ka jisse 1.25 se 10 million vyaktiyon ki maut hui.[78] Bengal ke 1943-44 ke akaal sahit akaal aajaadi varsh 1947 tak jaari rahe, yadyapi koi fasal praapt karne ki asafalata naheen thi, lekin dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan 1.5 million se 3 million bangaali maare gaye.

akaal aayog ne 1880 mein avalokanon ke dvaara is tathya ko pusht kiya ki akaalon ke liye khaadyaann kami utani javaabadeh naheen hai jitna ki khaadyaann vitran ka prabandhan hai. unhonne paaya ki british Bhaarat ke pratyek praant mein jismein barma bhi shaamil tha, vahaan khaadyaann ka aadhikya tha aur vaarshik aadhikya 5.6 million tan tha (Bhatia 1970). us dauraan chaaval va anya anaajon ka Bhaarat se vaarshik niryaat lagbhag ek million tan tha.

varsh 1966 mein Bihar bhi akaal ki kagaar par tha, jab akaal se nibatne ke liye United states ne 900,000 tan anaaj aavantit kiya tha. Bhaarat mein teen varshon ke sookhe ke parinaam svaroop lagbhag 1.5 million mautein bhookh va rogon ke kaaran hui.[79]

Japan

ek shaasi nikaaya ke anusaar 1603 se 1868 ke beech ido avadhi mein kam se kam 130 akaal hue the jinmein se 21 ullekhaneeya the.[80]

madhya poorv

udahaaran ke roop mein Iraq ne 1801, 1827 va 1831 mein akaalon ka saamana kiya. anaatoliya mein 1873-74 mein ek bada akaal aaya jismein saikadon- hajaaron vyaktiyon ki maut hui.[81]

aisa vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki 1870-1871 mein hue bade parshiyn akaal mein parshiya (aaj ka iraan) mein 1.5 milyan vyaktiyon ki maut hui jo parshiya ki kul anumaanit aabaadi 6-7 million ke 20-25 pratishat ka pratinidhitv karti hai.[82]

Lebanon videsh se khaadyaann aayaaton par atyadhik nirbhar raha, isliye pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan vah desh, anaaj ke maamale mein adhik naajuk sthiti mein tha. yuddh ke samaapt hone par akaal mein Lebanon ki 4,50,000 aabaadi mein se 100,000 vyaktiyon ki mrutyu hui.[83]

uttar Korea

uttar Korea mein 1990 ke dashak ke madhya mein abhootapoorv baadhon ke kaaran akaal aaye. aatmanirbhar arthatantr vaale is shahari audyogik samaaj ne iske poorv ke dashakon mein bade paimaane par krushi se audyogikeekaran ke dvaara khaadyaann mein aatmanirbharata praapt ki thi. fir bhi arthatantr pranaali soviyt sangh va cheen ganatantr se praapt badi riyaayati jeevaashm indhan ki sahaayata par nirbhar rahi. lekin jab soviyt sangh vightit ho gaya aur cheen ka baajaar tantr poorn keemat ke aadhaar par kathor mudra ki aur unmukh ho gaya, tab uttar Korea ki arthavyavastha ladkhada gayi. naajuk krushi kshetr mein 1995-96 mein badi asafalata ka anubhav hua aur usase 1996-99 mein vistrut akaal aaya. anumaan hai ki bhookh se 600,000 vyakti mare (anya ke anumaan ke anusaar yeh sankhya 200,000 se lekar 3.5 million ki hai).[84] ab tak uttar Korea mein khaadya aatm nirbharata naheen I hai aur vah cheen, Japan, dakshin Korea va United states se praapt baahya khaadyaann sahaayata par aashrit rahata hai. jabki voo kamings ne akaal ke efaedi ki or dhyaan kendrit kiya hai, lekin moon ka tark hai ki efaedi ne protsaahan ke dhaanche ko adhikaaravaadi shaasan ki or kar liya hai, jisse mataadhikaar se vanchit kai million vyakti bhookh se marne ko majaboor ho gaye hain (moon, 2009).[85]

viytanaam

viytanaam mein kai akaal aaye hain. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan Japan ke kabje ke kaaran viytanaam mein 1945 mein akaal aaya jisse 2 million mautein hui jo vahaan ki tatkaaleen aabaadi ka 10% tha. [86] viytanaam yuddh ke pashchaat desh ke ekeekaran ke samay viytanaam mein 1980 ke dashak mein khaadyaannon ki kami mahasoos ki gayi jisne kai vyaktiyon ko desh chhodne ke liye prerit kiya.

Europe mein akaal

pashchimi Europe

san 1315 se 1317 (ya 1322 tak) ka bheeshan akaal pehla bada khaadya sankat tha jisne Europe ko 14veen shataabdi mein ghere rakha. uttari Europe mein kai varshon tak laakhon log maare gaye, akaal ne 11veen aur 12veen shataabdi ki samruddhi ko nasht kar diya.[87] akaal 1315 ki basant ritu mein kharaab mausam ke saath shuroo hua aur fasalon ka vyaapak nuksaan 1317 ki garmiyon tak jaari raha, jisse Europe 1322 tak Uber naheen paaya. is avadhi ko bade paimaane par aaparaadhik gatividhiyon, beemaariyon aur janasanhaaron, shishuhatyaaon aur nishthurata ke kaal ke roop mein yaad rakha gaya. yeh akaal chaudahaveen shataabdi mein church, raajya, yooropiyn samaaj aur bhavishya ki aapadaaon par apne prabhaav chhod gaya. us dauraan madhyakaaleen Britain 95 akaalon,[88] aur fraans 75 ya usase adhik akaalon se prabhaavit huaa.[89] 1315-6 ke akaal mein England ki kam se kam 10% aabaadi ya kam se kam 500,000 log maare gaye.[90]

goya ke traasadi yuddh ki ek nakkaashi, bhookh se mar rahi mahilaaon ko dikhaata hua, 1811-1812 mein Madrid se prerit ek utkeernan.

17veen shataabdi ka samay Europe mein khaadya utpaadakon ke liye parivartan ka kaal tha. shataabdiyon tak ve saamantavaadi vyavastha mein krushi par gujaara karne vaale kisaanon ke roop mein rahe the. ve apne maalikon ke rini the, jinke paas apne kisaanon dvaara joti gayi jameen ke visheshaadhikaar the. jaageer ka maalik varsh bhar mein utpaadit fasal aur pashudhan ka ek bhaag leta tha. kisaan saamaanyataya krushi khaadya utpaadan mein kiye gaye kaam ko nyunatam karne ki koshish karte the. unke maalik un par khaadya utpaa‍aadan badhaane ke liye bahut hi kam jor daalte the, jab aabaadi badhne lagi keval tab kisaanon ne khud hi utpaadan badhaana shuroo kar diya. jutaai ke liye adhik se adhik jameen ka upayog kiya gaya jabatak koi jameen bachi hi naheen aur kisaan adhik shram aadhaarit paddhatiyaan apnaane ko majaboor hue. jab tak ki unke paas apne parivaar ko khilaane ke liye paryaapt bhojan tha tab tak ve apna samay doosare kaamon jaise shikaar karne, machhali pakadne ya aaraam karne mein bitaana pasand karte the. jitna khaana ve kha sake ya khud ke liye sangraheet kar sake usase jyaada utpaadan karna aavashyak naheen tha.

17veen shataabdi ke dauraan pichhli shataabdiyon ke prachalan ko jaari rakhate hue baajaar-chaalit krushi mein badhotri hui. khaastaur par pashchimi Europe mein kisaan, ve log jinhonne bhoomi ke utpaadon se laabh kamaane ke liye bhoomi udhaar di thi aur majadoori paane vaale majadoor teji se aam baat ho gaye. utpaad ko maang vaale kshetr mein jyaada se jyaada bechne ke liye jitna sambhav ho sake utana adhik ut‍aapaadan karna unke hit mein tha. unhonne har saal fasal mein badhotri ki jab bhi ve kar paae. kisaanon ne apne majadooron ka bhugataan paison se kiya isne graameen samaaj mein vyavasaayeekaran ko badhaava diya. is vyavasaayeekaran ne kisaanon ke vyaavahaar par gahra prabhaav daala. kisaan apni bhoomi par shramik input ko badhaane mein ruchi rakhane lage the, na ki krushi par gujaara karne vaale kisaanon ki tarah input ghataane mein.

krushi par gujaara karne vaale kisaan bhi badhte hue karon ke kaaran apni gatividhiyon ko vyavasaayeekrut karne ke liye baadhya ho gaye. karon ka bhugataan kendra sarkaar ko paison mein karna hota tha jisne kisaanon ko unki fasal ko bechne hetu baadhya kiya. kai baar unhonne audyogik fasalon ka utpaadan kiya, lekin unki khaadya aavashyakataaon aur kar baadhyataaon ko poora karne ke liye utpaadan badhaane hetu unhonne kai raaste dhoondhe. kisaanon ne is nae dhan ko upayog nirmit vastueon ko khareedne ke liye bhi kiya. krushi aur saamaajik vikaas ne khaadya utpaadan ko badhaava diya jo poori 16veen shataabdi mein apna sthaan leta raha lekin satrahaveen shataabdi mein jab Europe ne satrahaveen shataabdi ke praarambh mein khud ko khaadya utpaa‍aadan ke liye vipreet paristhiaatiyon mein paaya tab yeh pratyaksh roop se aur badh gaya – sohalaveen shataabdi ke ant mein pruthvi ke taapamaan mein giraavat ka daur tha.

1590 ke dashak mein kuchh nishchit kshetron vishesh taur par Netherland ko chhodkar poore Europe mein kai shataabdiyon ka sabse bheeshan akaal dekhne ko mila. tulanaatmak roop se 16veen shataabdi ke dauraan akaal durlabh ho gaye the. jaisa ki apekshaakrut shaanti ki lambi avadhi ke dauraan adhiktar dekha jaata hai, arthavyavastha evam aabaadi mein satat vikaas darj kiya gaya. choonki kisaan kaam ko jyaada se jyaada logon tak baantane ka prayaas karte hain, isliye krushi par gujaara karne vaale kisaanon ki janasainkhya bhi lagbhag hamesha hi badhti hai. haanlaaki saghan jan aabaadi vaale kshetron jaise uttari Italy mein kisaanon ne praumiskyuas kalchar jaisi takaneekon se apni bhoomi ki paidaavaar ko badhaana seekh liya tha, lekin ve abhi bhi akaalon se asurakshit the, isne unhein apni bhoomi par aur adhik saghanata se kaarya karne hetu baadhya kiya.

akaal behad asthir karne waali aur vinaashakaari ghatnaaen hoti hai. bhukhamari ki sambhaavana ne logon ko jokhim bhare kadam uthaane hetu baadhya kiya. jab khaadya padaarthon ka abhaav najar aane laga to ve alpakaaleen uttar jeevita ke liye deerghakaaleen samruddhi se samjhauta karne lage. baad ke varshon mein ghatate utpaadan ke kaaran ve apne bojha uthaane vaale pashuon ko maarane lage. ve agale varsh ki fasal se samjhauta karte hue is ummeed ke saath ki unhein aur beej mil jaaenge ve apne beej ke daane bhi khaane lage. ek baar jab ye saadhan bhi samaapt hone lage unhonne khaane ki khoj mein nai raah pakad li. ve un shaharon mein chale gaye jahaan anya‍ kshetron se khaadya padaarth bechne ke liye vyaapaariyon ke aane ki sambhaavana thi kyonki shaharon mein kraya shakti graameen kshetron se adhik thi. shaharon mein vyavastha ko banaae rakhane ke liye raahat kaaryakram chalaae gaye the aur vahaan ki janta ke liye anaaj laaya gaya tha. pravaasiyon ki niraasha aur asamanjas waali sthiti ke kaaran aksat aparaadh bhi badh jaaya karte the. kai kisaan paryaapta khaana paane ke liye daaka bhi daalne lage.

ek akaal aksar baad ke varshon mein beej ki kami ya dincharya mein vyavadhaan ya shram ki kami ke kaaran apne saath kai kathinaaiya bhi lekar aata tha. akaalon ko aksar daivi kop ke roop mein samjha jaata tha. akaalon ko ishvar dvaara pruthvi ke logon ko diye gaye upahaaron ko vaapas le lene ke roop mein dekha jaata tha. akaal ke roop mein ishvar ke krodh se bachane ke liye vistrut juloos aur dhaarmik krutya kiye jaane lage.

1590 ke bheeshan akaal se akaalon ke samay ki shuruaat hui aur 17veen shataabdi mein inmein kami I. janasankhya ki tarah poore Europe mein anaaj ke daam bhi badh gaye the. 1590 mein vibhinn kshetron mein hui kharaab sinchaai ke kaaran vibhinn prakaar ke log asurakshit ho gaye the. graameen kshetron mein badhti hui shramik sankhya bhi asurakshit thi kyonki unke paas khud ka bhojan naheen tha aur ek kharaab fasal ke varsh mein unke paas khareedne ke liye bhi paryaapt dhan naheen tha. kasbon ke shramik bhi khatre mein the kyonki unka vetan bhi anaaj ki keemat ko poora karne ke liye aparyaapt tha, ve kharaab fasal ke varsh mein aksar kam majadoori praapt karte the kyonki dhani log apni upalabdh aay ko anaaj khareedne ke liye vyaaya karte the. aksar berojgaari ka parinaam anaaj ke daamon mein vruddhi ke roop mein hota tha jis kaaran shahari gareeb logon ki sankhya mein lagaataar badhottri hoti rahati thi.

Europe ke sabhi kshetr khaastaur par graameen kshetr is dauraan akaal se buri tarah prabhaavit hue. Netherland joki akaal ke sabse bure prabhaavon se bachane mein safal raha tha lekin 1590 ka varsh vahaan par bhi kathin tha. emsatardam anaaj vyaapaar (baaltik ke saath) jiske liye vaastakavik akaal naheen ghata tha, ne is baat ki guaranty di ki Netherland mein hamesha kuchh na kuchh khaane ko hoga yadyapi bhukhamari prabal thi.

is samay Netherland ke paas poore Europe mein sabse jyaada vyasaayeekrut krushi thi, kai audyogik fasalein jaise flaiks, haimp aur hopes ugaai ja rahi thi. krushi adhik se adhik vishisht aur kushal ho gayi thi. parinaamasvaroop utpaadakata aur dhan badha jisne Netherland ko niyamit khaadya aapoorti banaae rakhane mein madad ki. 1620 tak arthavyavastha aur bhi viksit ho chuki thi isliye Netherland akaal ke samay ki pareshaaniyon aur yahaan tak ki ghor peeda se bhi bache rahane mein safal raha tha.

san 1620 ke aaspaas poore Europe mein akaal failane ka doosra daur dikhaai pada. haalaanki pachchees baras pehle ke akaalon ke mukaabale aamtaur par inki gambheerta kaafi kam thi, lekin fir bhi kai ilaakon mein inhone kaafi gambhir roop dhaaran kar liya tha. 1696 ka Finland ka bheeshan akaal, jo san 1600 ke baad ka sanbhavat: sabse vinaashakaari akaal tha, ne us desh ki ek-tihaai aabaadi ko maut ke munh mein dhakel diya tha. [4]peedeeऍf (589 KiB)

1693 aur 1710 ke beech France mein do bade akaalon ka prakop aaya aur isne 20 lakh se adhik logon ko khatm kar diya. donon maamalon mein fasal kharaab hone se paida haalaat ko ladaai ke dauraan khaadya aapoorti ki maang ne aur jyaada kharaab kar diya.[91]

yahaan tak ki Scotland ko 1690 ke dashak ke ant mein bhi akaal jhelana pada jiske kaaran Scotland ke kuchh hisson ki aabaadi mein 15% ki ghatottari dekhi gayi.[92]

1695-96 ke akaal ne Norway ki lagbhag 10% janasankhya ko khatm kar diya.[93] skaindineviyaai (sanyukt roop se Denmark, Norway, sveedan, Finland va aaisalaind) deshon mein 1740 aur 1800 ke beech kam se kam nau baar bheeshan roop se fasal kharaab hona darj kiya gaya, jismein se har ek ke parinaam svaroop mrutyu dar mein achhi-khaasi badhottri dekhi gayi.[94]

1740-43 ke daur mein behad thandi sardiyaan aur garmiyon mein bhayaanak sookha dekha gaya jiski vajah se poore Europe mein akaal faila aur mrutyu dar mein achaanak tej badhottri ho gayi. (Davis dvaara likhit, let viktoriyn holokaast, prushth 281 mein ullekhit) yeh sambhaavana hai ki 1740-41 ki behad thandi sardi, jiski vajah se uttari Europe mein bade paimaane par akaal faila, usaka mool kaaran ek jvaalaamukhi visfot raha ho.[95]

maha akaal, jo 1770 se 1771 tak chala, ne check ganaraajya ki aabaadi ke lagbhag dasvein hisse, ya 250,000 nivaasiyon ko khatm kar diya aur graameen ilaakon mein badlaav ki alakh jagaai jisne kisaan vidrohon ko janm diya.[96]

Europe ke anya ilaakon mein to akaal kaafi haal tak bhi aate rahe hain. France ne unneesaveen shataabdi mein akaal ka saamana kiya. poorvi Europe mein 20veen shataabdi ke dauraan bhi akaal aate rahe hain.

akaal ki aavrutti jalavaayu parivartan ke saath badal sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye, 15veen sadi se 18veen sadi ke laghu him yug ke dauraan, Europeeya akaalon ki aavrutti mein pichhli sadi ki tulana mein lagaataar vruddhi hui.

kai samaajon mein aksar akaal padne ke kaaran ye kaafi lambe samay se sarkaaron aur anya praadhikranon ke liye chinta ka ek pramukh vishay raha hai. poorv-audyogik Europe mein, akaal ko rokana aur samay par bhojan ki aapoorti sunishchit karna kai sarkaaron ki pramukh chintaaon mein se ek tha, jiski vajah se ve akaal ke prakop ko kam karne ke liye moolya niyantran, anya kshetron se bhojan ke bhandaar khareedna, vitran niyantran aur utpaadan niyantran jaise vibhinn upaayon ko laagoo karti rahi hain. adhikaansh sarkaarein akaal se chintit rahati theen kyonki yeh vidroh aur saamaajik vightan ke anya roopon ko janm de sakta tha.

doosare vishv yuddh ke dauraan Netherland mein akaal fir laut aaya jise hongaravintar ke roop mein jaana gaya. yeh Europe ka antim akaal tha jismein lagbhag 30,000 log bhukhamari ka shikaar hue. Europe ke kuchh anya kshetron mein bhi usi samay mein akaal ka anubhav kiya gaya.

Italy

fasal vifalta uttari itaalavi arthavyavastha ke liye kaafi vinaashakaari saabit hui. kshetr ki arthavyavastha pichhle akaalon se achhi tarah ubarane mein saksham rahi thi, lekin 1618 se 1621 ke akaal yuddh ki avadhi ke dauraan hi aaye. arthavyavastha sadiyon tak poori tarah se Uber naheen pai. poore uttari Italy mein 1640 ke dashak ke antim varshon mein gambhir aur 1670 ke dashak mein kam gambhir akaal aaye.

uttari Italy mein, 1767 ki ek report mein kaha gaya ki vahaaain pichhle 316 varshon (arthaat 1451-1767 ki avadhi) mein se 111 varshon mein akaal aaya tha aur sirf solah varshon mein achhi paidaavaar hui thi.[97]

Stefan L. daaisan aur Robert J. rolaind ke anusaar, "keliyri ki jesuits [saardiniya mein] ne 1500veen sadi ke ant ke kuchh aise varshon ka varnan kiya hai "jinke dauraan itni bheeshan bhukhamari tatha banjarata dekhi gayi ki jyaadaatar logon ko apni jaan bachaane ke liye jangali ped-paudhon ka sahaara lena pada" ... kaha jaata hai ki 1680 ke bhayaanak akaal ke dauraan, 250,000 ki kul janasankhya mein se lagbhag 80000 log maare gaye aur poore gaanv ke gaanv tabaah ho gaye the ..."[98]

England

1536 se England mein gareebon se sambandhit kaanoon banaane shuroo kiye gaye jinmein ilaake ke dhani logon par vahaan ke gareebon ke nirvahan ki kaanooni jimmedaari daalne ki baat kahi gayi. angreji krushi udyog Netherland se pichhda hua tha, lekin 1650 tak usane apne krushi udyog ka vyaapak paimaane par vyavasaayeekaran kar liya. England mein shaanti ke samay ka aakhiri akaal 1623-24 aaya.[90] vahaaain Netherland ke samaan hi abhi bhi kabhi-kabhaar bhukhamari dekhi jaati thi, lekin vahaaain ab pehle ke tarah ke aur akaal naheen aaye. gareebon ke bhojan mein aaloo ki badhti mahatta ke baavajood badhti aabaadi ne khaadya suraksha par nirantar dabaav banaae rakha. kul milaakar, England mein aaloo se khaadya suraksha mein vruddhi hui jahaan gareebon ke pradhaan bhojan ke roop mein ve roti ke jagah kabhi naheen le paae. is baat ki sanbhaavan atyant kam thi ki jalavaayu sthitiyaan ek saath gehoon aur aaloo, donon ki fasalon ke liye ghaatak hon.

aaisalaind

braaisan (1974) ke anusaar, 1500 aur 1804 ke beech aaisalaind mein saintees varshon mein akaal pade the.[99]

1783 mein dakshin madhya aaisalaind mein jvaalaamukhi laaki bhadak utha. laava se pratyaksh kshati to adhik naheen hui, lekin lagbhag poore desh mein raakh aur salfar daaioksaaid fail jaane ke kaaran vahaan ka lagbhag teen-chauthaai pashu-dhan nasht ho gaya. uske baad aane vaale akaal mein lagbhag das hajaar log maare gaye, jo aaisalaind ki tatkaaleen janasankhya ka paanchavaan hissa tha. [asimov, 1984, 152-153]

Ireland mein maha-bheeshan akaal ke shikaar logon ka chitran, 1845-1849

aaisalaind 1862 se 1864 ke beech ek aaloo akaal se bhi grasit hua tha. haalaanki aayarish aaloo akaal ki tulana mein iske baare mein kam hi logon ko pata hai, aaisalaind ka aaloo akaal bhi usi beemaari ke kaaran utpann hua tha jisne 1840 ke dashak ke dauraan adhikaansh Europe mein tabaahi machaai thi. aaisalaind ki janasankhya ka lagbhag 5 pratishat akaal ke dauraan maut ke munh mein sama gaya.

Finland

desh ne gambhir akaal jhele hain aur 1696-1697 ke akaal mein ek tihaai janasankhya ki maut hui.[100] 1866-1868 ke Finland ke akaal ke kaaran 15% janasankhya maut ke munh mein sama gayi thi.

Ireland
inhein bhi dekhein: Great Irish famine

1845-1849 ke Ireland ke bhayankar akaal ke liye Lord rasail ke netrutv waali United kingadam ki vhig sarkaar ki neetiyaan bhi kaafi had tak jimmedaar theen.[101][102] Ireland mein jyaadaatar bhoomi angreji mool ke ainjaleekan logon ke svaamitv mein thi, jo saanskrutik ya jaateeya roop se aayarish aabaadi ke saath jude naheen the. jameendaar englo - aayarish ke roop mein jaane jaate the aur unhonne apne kiraayedaaron ko sahaayata pradaan karne ke liye apne raajaneetik prabhaav ka istemaal karne mein koi malaal naheen mahasoos kiya aur vaastav mein unhonne ise atyadhik laabh waali pashu charaai ke liye aur adhik bhoomi par daava karne ki sambhaavana ke roop mein dekha kyonki aayarish log ya to mar gaye the ya palaayan kar gaye the. Ireland mein khaadya sankat ki samasya ke javaab mein british sarkaar ne ise poori tarah baajaar ki taakaton dvaara tay karne ke liye chhod diya tha. vaastav mein, choonki angrejon ne sadiyon se deshaj aayarish logon se balapoorvak jameen hadp li thi, aairish logon ke paas aaloo ki kheti ke liye rakhi gayi thodi si jameen ke alaava jeevanayaapan ke bahut kam saadhan the. aaloo aayarish logon dvaara paida kiya jaata tha kyonki yeh prati ekad ek bahut hi uchch kailori waali upaj hoti hai. yahaan tak ki agar aayarish log anya fasalon ko praapt karne mein saksham bhi hote to bhi ve unhein aavantit thodi si jameen dvaara poori aabaadi ki bharpaai karne mein saksham naheen hote, keval aaloo ki fasal hi aisa kar sakti thi. Ireland akaal ke dauraan khaadyaann ka ek shuddh khaadya niryaatak tha, jabki british sena bandaragaahon aur bhojan dipo ko bhookhi janta se bachaane ka kaam karti thi.

iska taatkaalik prabhaav 1,000,000 mautein aur 2,000,000 sharanaarthiyon ka Britain, Australia aur sanyukt raajya America mein palaayan tha.[103] akaal ke beet jaane ke baad akaal dvaara utpann banjarata, jameendaaron dvaara sanchaalit arthavyavastha dvaara prerit beemaariyon evam utpravaas ko poori tarah se kam aankana aabaadi ke 100 varsh pichhadne ka kaaran bana. Ireland ki aabaadi, jo us samay akaal ke poorv ki kul aabaadi ki maatr aadhi rah gayi thi, mein 1970 (aayalaind ke jyaadaatar bhaag ke svatantr hone ki aadhi shataabdi baad) ke baad hi dobaara se badhottri dekhi gayi. akaal ke baad aayarish janasankhya mein giraavat ka yeh vah kaal tha jab Europe ki aabaadi dugani aur angrejon ki aabaadi chaar guna badhi thi. iske kaaran desh mein aabaadi atyadhik kam ho gayi. akaal dvaara desh ke sarvaadhik prabhaavit ilaakon (pashchimi tat) mein aabaadi mein giraavat ka daur 1990 ke dashak - arthaat akaal tatha british sarkaar ki ahastakshep ki aarthik neeti ke 150 varsh baad - tak bhi jaari raha. akaal ke poorv Ireland ki aabaadi England ki aabaadi ke aadhe se thoda adhik thi. aaj yeh 10 % se bhi kam hai. aayalaind ki aabaadi 5 million hai lekin Ireland se baahar aayarish mool ke logon ki sankhya 80 million se adhik hai. jo ki Ireland ki aabaadi ka solah guna hai.

akaal ke dauraan bhookhe roosi bachchelagabhag 1922 ke aas paas.

roos aur soviyt sangh

Scott evam dankan (2002) ke anusaar, "1500 E. se 1700 E. ke madhya poorvi Europe ne 150 se adhik darj huye akaal jhele hain, jabki roos mein 971 E. se 1974 E. tak bhukhamari ke 100 varsh aur akaal ke 121 varsh rahe hain."[104]

roosi saamraajya pratyek 10 se 13 varsh mein sookhe aur akaal ke liye jaana jaata hai jismein se sookhe ka ausat pratyek 5 se 7 varsh hai. 1845 se 1922 ke madhya roos mein gyaarah bade akaal pade jinmein se 1891-92 ka akaal sarvaadhik bhayankar tha.[105] soviyt kaal mein bhi akaal jaari rahe jismein se 1932-33 ki sardiyon mein desh ke vibhinn bhaagon, visheshakar volga, Ukraine, evam uttari Kazhakstan mein pade akaalon mein holodomor sarvaadhik kukhyaat tha. aaj yeh maana jaata hai ki 1932-1933 ke soviyt akaal mein anumaanat: 6 million logon ki maut hui thi.[106] soviyt sangh mein aakhiri bada akaal varsh 1977 mein pada tha jo ki bhayankar sookhe aur soviyt sarkaar dvaara anaaj bhandaar ke kuprabandhan ke kaaran pada tha.[107]

872 dinon ki leningraad ki gheraabandi (1941-1944) ke kaaran saamaanya prayog ki vastuon, paani, oorja aur khaadya ki aapoorti mein huye vyavadhaan ke kaaran leningraad kshetr mein adviteeya akaal pada. jiske parinaam svaroop ek million logon ki maut hui.[108]

laitin America mein akaal

kolanbas ke poorv ke ameriki logon ne aksar gambhir khaadya alpata evam akaalon ko jhela hai.[109] 850 E. ke aaspaas nirantar sookha evam maaya sabhyata ka patan ek saath ghatit huye evam van raibit ka akaal maiksiko ki ek badi mahaaviptti thi.[110]

1877 -78 mein Brazil ka grenade seka (bhayankar sookha) joki ab tak darj kiya gaya Brazil ka sabse bhayankar sookha hai,[111] mein lagbhag paanch lakh logon ki jaan gayi thi.[112] 1915 ka sookha bhi vinaashakaari tha.[113]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • krushi aur aabaadi ki seema
  • akaal se joojhane ke liye etmit (daliya) ka upayog
  • jalavaayu parivartan aur krushi
  • sookha
  • Bhaarat mein akaal
  • akaal arli vaarning system network
  • khaadya moolya sankat
  • khaadya raksha
  • epokelips ke chaar ghudsavaar
  • vaishvik bhookh soochakaank (global hangar index)
  • maalthusiyn ki tabaahi
  • adhik janasankhya
  • peek food
  • sabhyata, maanav aur pruthvi grah ke liye khatra
  • bhukhamari
  • nirvaah sankat
  • vishv krushi aapoorti aur maang ka aakalan (maasik report)
  • world vijn akaal ki ghatanaayein

prakaran adhyayan:

  • akaalon ki soochi
  • 1943 ka Bengal ka akaal
  • 1944 mein dach akaal
  • great leep forward
  • holodomor (yookreni akaal)
  • ithiyopiya mein akaal
  • 2010 sahel akaal
  • madhyayugeen janasaankhyiki
  • greeshmakaaleen bina varsh

paadalekh

  1. Sen is known for his assertion that famines do not occur in democracies in much the same way that Adam Smith is associated with the "invisible hand" and Joseph Schumpeter with "creative destruction".[44]

sandarbh

  1. a aa "firms taarget nyootreeshan for di pooar", BBC news sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BBC" defined multiple times with different content
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  3. a aa i E u "yooen Ed dibets: giv cash not food?", krishchiyn science maunitr sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "csmonitor" defined multiple times with different content
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  25. riots end hangar fiyrd ej demand for gren seinds food kausts soaring
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