soochana praudyogiki

2005 mein vishv ke vibhinn deshon mein soochana evam sanchaar praudyogiki par vyaya raashi (yooesae ki tulana mein)

soochana praudyogiki (en:information technology) aankadon ki praapti, soochana (infaarmeshan) sangrah, suraksha, parivartan, aadaan-pradaan, adhyayan, design aadi kaaryon tatha in kaaryon ke nishpaadan ke liye aavashyak computer haardaveyar evam saaftaveyar anuprayogon se sambandhit hai. soochana praudyogiki computer par aadhaarit soochana-pranaali ka aadhaar hai. soochana praudyogiki, vartamaan samay mein vaanijya aur vyaapaar ka abhinn ang ban gayi hai. sanchaar kraanti ke falasvaroop ab ilektraanik sanchaar ko bhi soochana praudyogiki ka ek pramukh ghatak maana jaane laga hai aur ise soochana evam sanchaar praudyogiki (Information and Communication Technology, ICT) bhi kaha jaata hai. ek udyog ke taur par yeh ek ubharata hua kshetr hai.

anukram

kaarak

  • ardhachaalak praudyogiki : inteegret paripthon ka laghukaran, kampyooting shakti mein vruddhi, unnat kshamata yukt ekeekrut paripthon ka vikaas
  • soochana bhandaaran : aankada bhandaaran kshamata mein atyadhik vruddhi hui hai.
  • networking : prakaasheeya tantuon (aaptikl faaibar) ka takaneeki mein atyadhik vikaas hone ke kaaran networking sasti, tej aur aasaan ho gayi hai.
  • saaftaveyar takaneeki : nit nae-nae aur upayogi saaftaveyaron ke aane se soochana praudyogiki aur adhik upayogi ban gayi hai.

soochana praudyogiki ka mahattv

  • soochana praudyogiki, seva arthatantr (Service Economy) ka aadhaar hai.
  • pichhde deshon ke saamaajik aur aarthik vikaas ke liye soochana praudyogiki ek samyak takaneeki (appropriate technology) hai.
  • gareeb janta ko soochana-sampann banaakar hi nirdhanata ka unmoolan kiya ja sakta hai.
  • soochana-sampannta se sashaktikran (empowerment) hota hai.
  • soochana takaneek ka prayog yojana banaane, neeti nirdhaaran tatha nirnaya lene mein hota hai.
  • yeh naye rojagaaron ka srujan karti hai.

soochana praudyogiki ke vibhinn ghatak

computer haardaveyar praudyogiki

iske antargat micro-computer, sarvar, bade menafrem computer ke saath-saath input, aautaput evam sangrah (storage) karne waali yuktiyaaain (devices) aateen hain.

computer saaftaveyar praudyogiki

iske antargat prachaalan pranaali (Operating System), web braaujar, detaabes prabandhan pranaali (DBMS), sarvar tatha vyaapaarik/vaanijyik saaftaveyar aate hain.

doorasanchaar va network praudyogiki

iske antargat doorasanchaar ke maadhyam, prakramak (Processor) tatha Internet se judane ke liye taar ya betaar par aadhaarit saaftaveyar, network-suraksha, soochana ka kootan (kriptograafi) aadi hain.

maanav sansaadhan

tantr prashaasak (System Administrator), network prashaasak (Network Administrator) aadi

soochana praudyogiki ka prabhaav

soochana praudyogiki ne poori dharati ko ek gaaainv bana diya hai. isne vishv ki vibhinn arthavyavasthaaon ko jodkar ek vaishvik arthavyavastha ko janm diya hai. yeh naveen arthavyavastha adhikaadhik roop se soochana ke rachanaatmak vyavastha va vitran par nirbhar hai. iske kaaran vyaapaar aur vaanijya mein soochana ka mahatva atyadhik badh gaya hai. iseeliye is arthavyavastha ko soochana arthavyavastha (Information Economy) ya gyaan arthavyavastha (Knowledge Economy) bhi kehne lage hain. vastuon ke utpaadan (manufacturing) par aadhaarit paramparaagat arthavyavastha kamjor padti ja rahi hai aur soochana par aadhaarit seva arthavyavastha (service economy) nirntar aage badhati ja rahi hai.

soochana kraanti se samaaj ke sampoorn kaaryakalaap prabhaavit hue hain - dharm, shiksha (e-learning), svaasthya (e-health), vyaapaar (e-commerce), prashaasan, sarkaar (e-govermance), udyog, anusandhaan va vikaas, sangathan, prachaar aadi sab ke sab kshetron mein kaayaapalat ho gaya hai. aaj ka samaaj soochana samaaj kahalaane laga hai.

soochana praudyogiki ka bhavishya

soochana ke mahatva ke saath soochana ki suraksha ka mahatva bhi badhega. soochana praudyogiki se jude kaaryon mein rojagaar ke avsar badheinge, vishesh roop se soochana suraksha evam sarvar ke visheshagyon ki maang badhegi.

itihaas

soochana praudyogiki vibhinn kaalakhandon mein apne samay ki soochana se sambandhit samasyaaon (input, prasanskaran, aautaput, sanchaar aadi) ko hal karne ki jimmedaari sambhaalati hai. at: iske itihaas ko chaar mool kaalakhandon mein baanta ja sakta hai-

(1) yaantrik yug ke poorv (Premechanical)
(2) yaantrik yug (Mechanical)
(3) vidyutayaantrik yug (Electromechanical), tatha
(4) elektraunik yug (Electronic)

Bhaarat mein soochana praudyogiki

baahari kadiyaaain