software

computer vigyaan me ek software saarthak kramaadeshon aur zaroori soochanaao ka ek aisa tantr hai jo computer ke yantraansh aur dusare sauftaveyaro ko aadesh dekar kramaadeshak ka manachaaha kaam karta hai. vyaavahaarik taur par agar computer ko paribhaashit kiya jaaye to ham haardaveyar ko manushya ka shareer aur sauftaver ko usaki aatma kah sakte hain. haardaveyar computer ke hisson ko kehte hain, jinhein ham apni aaainkhon se dekh sakte hain, chhoo sakte hain athva aujaaron se unapar kaarya kar sakte hain! ye vaastavik padaarth hai! iske vipreet software koi padaarth naheen hai! ye ve soochanaaen, aadesh athva tareeke hain jinke aadhaar par computer ka haardaveyar kaarya karta hai! computer haardaveyar software se parichit hote hain athva software computer ke haarveyar se parichit evam unapar aadhaarit hote hain!

anukram

software ka itihaas

dvaidh nirdesho ka samay

pehle ek kaarya ke liye ek hi computer tantr hota tha aur use yantrik sthar par kramaadesh diye jaate the jinhein badalna aarthik roop se nirthak tha. takaneek ke vikaas ke saath aise yantraansh banaana takaneeki roop se sambhav aur aarthik roop se laabhadaayak ho saka. praarambhik computer tantro ko kramaadesh dena bahut kathin tha kyonki us samay yeh siddhaant ki software bhi soochanaao ka ek samooh jo kisi yantraansh ki smruti me surakshit rahe, praarambhik avastha me tha. tab 'panch card' naamak saadhaaran se yantraansh par computer ke yantraansh ko diye jaane vaale kramaadesh ke nirdesh seedhe likhe jaate the. computer ke yantraansh ko sabhi nirdesh keval do anko- '0' aur '1' ke madad se diye jaate the. ise dvaidh nirdesh kehte hai, dvaidh roop ke hi kramaadeshon ko hi yantraansh laagoo kar sakta hai.


software ke prakaar

takaneeki drushti se software teen prakaar ke hote hain.

system software

“asystem software” yeh ek aisa program hota hai, jinka kaam system arthaat computer ko chalaana tatha use kaam karne laayak banaae rakhana hai. system software hi haardaveyar mein jaan daalata hai. operating system, kampaailar aadi system saufyaveyar ke mukhya bhaag hain.

epleekeshan software

'epleekeshan software' aise prograamon ko kaha jaata hai, jo hamaare computer par aadhaarit mukhya kaamon ko karne ke liye likhe jaate hain. aavashyakataanusaar bhinn-bhinn upayogon ke liye bhinn-bhinn software hote hain. vetan ki ganana, len-den ka hisaab, vastuon ka stock rakhana, bikri ka hisaab lagaana aadi kaamon ke liye likhe gaye program hi epleekeshan software kahe jaate hain.

software kaise surakshit hota hai

software kaanoon mein bauddhik sampada adhikaar ke andar surakshit hota hai. trips mein saat prakaar ke baudhik sampada adhikaar ke baare mein charcha ki gayi hai ismein teen prakaar ke adhikaar, yaani ki kaupeeraait (Copyright), trade seekret (Trade Secret), tatha peteint (Patent ya ekasv), computer software ko prabhaavit karte hain. software ko peteint karaane ka mudda vivaadaaspad hai tatha kuchh kathin bhi. iski charcha ham alag se peteint evam kamapyootar software ke andar ki gayi hai.

  • kaupeeraait ke prakaar: 'sors code aur obajekt code' sheershak ke andar par charcha ki thi ki aajkal sorsakod uchchastareeya computer bhaashaaon (high level languages) mein angreji bhaasha ke shabdon evam varnamaala ka prayog karte huye likha jaata hai. yeh us software ke kaarya karne ke thang ko bataata hai tatha yeh ek prakaar ka varnan hai. yadi, ise prakaashit kiya jaata hai to us software ke maalik ya jisne use likha hai usaka kaupeeraait hota hai.

obajekt code kampa‍aayootar ko chalaata hai aur yeh sada prakaashit hota hai, parantu kya yeh kisi cheej ka varnan hai athva naheen is baare mein shanka thi. trips ke samjhaute ke andar yeh kaha gaya ki computer program ko kaupeeraait ke samaan surakshit kiya jaaya. isaliye obajekt code hamaare desh mein tatha sansaar ke anya deshon mein isi prakaar se surakshit kiya gaya hai.

computer program ke obajekt code to prakaashit hotein hain par sabke sors code prakaashit naheen kiye jaate hain. jin kamapyootar program ke sors code prakaashit kiye jaate hain unamein to ve kaupeeraait se surakshit hote hain. par jin computer program ke sors code prakaashit naheen kiye jaate hain ve trade seekret ki tarah surakshit hote hain.

  • trade seekret ki tarah: maalikaana computer program mein samaanyat: sors code prakaashit naheen nahi kiya jaata hai tatha ve sors code ko trade seekret ki tarah hi surakshit karte hain. yeh bhi sochane ki baat hai ki ve sors code kyon nahi prakaashit karte hain?

sors code se obajekt code kampaail (compile) karna aasaan hai; yeh hamesha kiya jaata hai aur isi tarah program likha jaata hai. par iska ulata yaani ki obajekt code se sors code maalum karna asambhv to naheen par bahut mushkil tatha mahanga hai. is par rivers injeeniyring ka kaanoon bhi laagoo hota hai. isi liye sors code prakaashit naheen kiya jaata hai. ise gopaneeya rakh kar, ise jyaada aasaani se surakshit kiya ja sakta hai. rivers injeeniyring bhi rochak vishay hai, iske baare par fir kabhi.

  • petent ki tarah: 'baudhik sampada adhikaar (Intellectual Property Rights)' sheershak mein charcha hui thi ki software ko petent ke dvaara bhi surakshit karne ke bhi tareeke hain kai maalikaana software is tarah se bhi surakshit hain par yeh na keval vivaadaaspad hain, par kuchh kathin bhi hain. iske baare mein fir kabhi.
  • savinda kaanoon ke dvaara: savinda kaanoon (Contract Act) bhi software ki suraksha mein mahatvapoon bhoomika nibhaata hai. aap is dhokhe mein na rahein ki aap koi software khareedte hain. aap to keval usako prayog karne ke liye license lete hainl aap use kis tarah se prayog kar sakte hain yeh usaki sharton par nirbhar karta hai. license ki shartein mahatvapoon hain. yeh savinda kaanoon ke andar aata hai.

open sors sauftaver mein sors code hamesha prakaashit hota hai. iske likhne vaale is par kis tarah ka adhikaar rakhate hain yeh licenson ki sharton par nirbhar karta hai, jinke antargat ve prakaashit kiye jaate hain. open sors sauftaver mein kuchh laaisens ki shartein use kaupeeleft (Copyleft) karti hain. ise free sauftaver ya jeepeeeld sauftaver (GPLed) bhi kaha jaata hai. in softveyar ko koi bhi vyakti muft me daaunalod kar sakta hai, istemaal kar sakta hai, vitrit kar sakta hai evam isame apni jaroorat ke mutaabik badlaav bhi kar sakta hai. open sors softaveyar keval masheeni saamagri bhar na ho kar takaneek, vigyaan aur kala ka adbhut sangam hai. isne kampyutar jagat me ek kraanti ki shuruaat kar di hai. keval open sors softaveyar hi sampoorn vishv me adhikaadhik logo tak computer takaneek ko pahuchhaane ke sapane ko poora karta hai.

baahari kadiyaaain